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of 30l. at sixty; 401. at seventy; and 501. hers survive, in return for improvements at eighty years of age.

and preservation ; it is therefore the duty And the same result would boid, in of the latter to subsist the torner with regard to any number of children; for one part of the usufruct, as an obligation of hundred, or one hundred thousand; for a right, and not as a concession of beneparish, a county, or a nation. The in volence. crease would also be in proportion to the It is however more eligible that the number of pounds paid ; that is, 5l. at subsistence of the surviving members of birth, would produce 1501. at sixty; 2001. each preceding generation should arise at seventy; and 250l, at eighty.

from funds provided by their parents, parOught there then to be poor old men ticularly as this is practicable by means of or women after a lapse of sixty years, PERPETUAL TONTINES; but it is the duty "When the operation of the plan proposed of each active generation to take caro will begin to be effective? If there should that such fund is adequate to its purposes, be, what must they feel in regard to and whenever it fails to replenish it by their parents, or the legislature of the suitable contributions; and as no sacri. time being, who knowing that the pay- fice is required by one generation in fainent of a SINGLE POUND at their birth, vour of the surviving members of another, would have rescued them from indigence, which that generation will not itself pare yet omitted to establish societies and take in its turn, so this reciprocity of be. pay such pound? Let me hope then that nefits reconciles strict justice between such societies will forthwith be established generation and generation, with arrangeevery where, and that Acts of Parlia. ments that are indiSPENSIBLY NECESSART ment,* general and particular, will be passed to protect and fuster them.

By these simple arrangements, combio Nor is it ever too late to take advan- ning the powers of compound interest, tage of the plan, because 21. within the with the benefit of survivorship, and a lifirst year; 31. under five years; or 51. mitation to poverty, society would lose under twenty years, would operate in an half its deformity and misery. It would equal proportion to 11. at birth.

thus present its three great classes fully Such funds might be made still more provided for~-the YOUNG by their pa. productive if they were employed in rents--the MATURE by their labour and planting trees, and the produce ac the AGED by means arising out of their cumulated. A system of planting personal rights, consequently untainted would also be of great collateral benefit by the ignominy which attends parochial to the country, and enable the fund to relief, or the servility which is created by begin to pay the annuitants at 50 years ; a bitter dependance on public or private and at 60, 70, and 80 years, to increase charity, however unostentatious or bem them respectively to 40, 50, and 601.; nevolent.

COMMON SENSE. but as the details of planting might be liable to mismanagement, the accumula To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, tion from interest would perhaps be more

SIR, simple

ma conclusion it may be observed, that I cold indicated by any thermometer, as it is the legitimate object and end of which hangs at the north side of my all social arrangements to render justice house, twenty-five miles north-east of to the members of the social compact; St. Paul's; observing, that for years past, and as each preceding active generation my therniometer has in winter fallen yields possession of the world to each several degrees below that from which succeeding active generation, the supere you report; is in the greatest heat of annuated survivors of the former have a

summer fully equal to, or beyond it; natural right to indemnity and subsistence and was last Christmas day the same, from the latter, as long as any of its mem viz, 48°,

W. BARNARDA An Act of Parliament is requisite to

Harlow, Feb. 14, 1814. guard against the purchase, sale, or alienation of the annuity or its reversion; to au

1814, Jan. 7, 13° at 8 P.M.

9, 8 thorize checks against impositions; and to

at 10 P. M. render trustees and others responsible ;

13, 12 at 10 P. M. and when obtained, societies on any scale

8 P.M. might be established, either public or pri

Feb. 4, 14 7 vate, for districts or sects, or friendly as P.S. My glass was once beside below sociation on any scale.

10', but I did not register it; the cold in the


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198 Original Letters between Dr.Young & Mr. Richardson. [March 1, morning at 7 A. M. was sometimes as great is a means of doing it, because I have as in the evening, but never exceeded the purchased them in October, but at an ahove instances. Query: was your ther. extravagant price. I tried various me. mometer ever observed six hours after thods to preserve them last year, but sun-set?

without success, as they uniformly went To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

to decay in a short time.

Can you, or any of your readers in-

form me, where a kind of pocket alarm,
SHOULD be extremely obliged to

to fix to a watch, is manufactured or some of your intelligent correspon. sold wholesale ? dents to joform me of the best method

A. C. R.

Feb. 7, 1814. of keeping oranges. I know that there



EDWARD YOUNG, Author of Night Thoughts, and MR. SAMUEL
RICHARDSON, Author of Clarissa, Grandison, &c.

(Continued from Page 423 of the last Volume.)



On his cravels a very old man dines
Wellwyn, Sunday, May 1746. with me this day, the Rev. Mr. Watly,
Dear Sir,

whose character may be briefly given by I

HAVE lately received a very melan- comparing him to a frosty night. There choly account of our friend Mrs.

are many thoughts in him that glitter Grace Cole; you would rejoice me greatly through the dominion of darkness. Tho' if you could send me better pevs of so it is night, it is a star-light night, and if valuable a person.

you (as you have promised) should sucMiss Lee is now in town, ill of the ceed him in our little hemisphere, I small-pox by inoculation, but, I hear, in should welcome a Richardson as returning a very fair way of recovery:

day. In a word, I love you, and delight Dr. Webster was here this week, who in your conversation, which perunits me told me you was in perfect health, of to think of something more ihan what I which I give you joy. I bope all your see; a favour which the conversation of fireside is in ihe same happy way, to very few others will indulge to, whoin my best wishes and services. I

Dear Sir, take for granted, Clarissa is putting on Your affectionate and obliged her last attire, and that we shall soon

humble servant, see her in public. That snccess may se.

E. YOUNG. cond all your undertakings is the sincere Pray my love and best wishes to your wisb of, Dear Sir,

amiable fireside. Your very affectionate and obliged, E. YOUNG.


Wellwyn, Aug. 17, 1746.

Dear Sir,
Wellwyn, July 17, 1746. I was a little struck at my first reading
My dear Sir,

your list of evils in your last letter. Evils After long absence, long I mean to ihey are, but sormountable ones, and my feeling, I yesterday returned home, as not only so, but actually by you surto a pillow, which gives me that joy mounted, not more to the admiration in rest of which you will not be able to than the comfort of all that know you. entertain any idea ihese twenty years, But granting them worse than they are,

I received the True Estimate, and there is great difference between middle shall, at my leisure, look it over, and re and old age. Hope is quartered on the turn it.

middle of life, and fear on the latter end You gave me great pleasure in what of it; and hope is ever inspiring pleasant you read to me at N. End, I mean that dreams, and fear hidevus ones. And if part that was new to me; and I wish you any good arises beyond our hope, wé wouldlessen your apprehensions of length. bave such a diffidence of its stay, that If all fixes, and satisfies attention, the apprehension of losing destroys the plealonger the better,

sure of possessing it. It adds to our



fears rather than encreases our joys. we pity. She is dead to us; she is in What shall we do in this case? Iloip me

another state of existence; we are in the to an expedient; there is but one that I world «f reason ; she is in the kmgdom of know of: which is that since the things imagination; nor can we more judge of of this life, from their mixture, repetition, her happiness or misery, than we can defectiveness, and, in age, short duration, judge of the joy or sorrow of a person are unable to satisfy, we must aid their that is asleep. The persons thai sleep natural by a morul pleasure, we must are (for the time) m the kingdom of imaseason them with a spice of religion to gination too; and she, as they, suffers, make them more palateable; we must or enjoys, according to the nature of the consider that 'tis God's will that we dreams that prevail. should be content and pleased with thein: I heartily rejoice, that at length you and thus the thinness of the natural piea. find benefit from your tar. water: tar" by sure, by our sense of joining an obedience winter, and steel by sommer, are the two to heaven to it, will become much more champions sent forth by Providence to substantiul and satisfactory. We shall encounter and subdue the spleen). find great account in considering content, Misy Lee jows me in the kindest renot only as a prudence, but as a duty garu and bumble service to Mrs. Ri

chardson and her amiable fireside. She Religion is all, and (happy for us!) it gratefully acknowledges the receipt of is all-sufficient too in our last extremities: your many tavours, and bopes you'll put a full proof of which I will steal from it in her power to shew ber sensibility of yourself. So all-sufficient is religion, then by her care of you at Wellwyn. that

you could not draw in Clarissa thé Avd, she says, you'll stil oblige her more strongest object of pity without giving us if you bring a female Richardson along in it (thanks to ber religion) an object of with you. envy too.

I bless God I am well; and I am comPray my love and service to all, and to posing, but it is in wood and stone, for I Mr. Grover among the rest, who has am building a sleeple to my church; and lately much obliged, Dear Sir,

as a wise man is every thing, I expect Your truly affectionate

from you, as an architect, a critic upon humble servant, and

it. Clarissa's admirer, Wben you see Mr. Speaker, I beg ny E. YOUNG. best respects and gratelul acknowledge

ments for his enquiring after me. LETTER XXII.

I had almost forgot to tell you, that Wellwyn, Nov. 11, 1740. an Irishman has run away with one of Dear Sir,

my neighbours, and that with such cire I thank you for enabling me, at my cumstances of intrigic and distress, that time of day, to think with great pleasure its truth alone hinders it from being an of living another year. A summer bear. excellent romance: just as fictina alone ing such fruit as you kindly give me binders your's from being an excellent cause to expect, may excuse me for wishe history, ing to see longer days than we at present If you see good Miss Parsovs, tell her enjoy. I consider Clarissa as my last she has the best wishes of my heart. amour; I am as tender of her welfare as I lumbiy thank you for the kind offer I am sensible of her charms. This of something you have printed. I hope amour differs from all other in one re. soon to be in town, and to prevent your spect-I should rejoice to have all the designed trouble. I an, with true regard, world my rivals in it.

and sincere affection, dear Sir, The waters here are not new things,

Your most bumbie servant, they were in great vogue fifty years ayı;

£. YOUNG. but an eminent physician of this place Pray my service to Mr. Llatot. I dying, by degrees they were forgot. We thought of making some additions to that have a physician now near us wlio drinks piece; but, on second woules, I let it them himself all this winter. Anda lady alone; so that it may go to the press as comes seven miles every morning for the it is. same purpose. They are the same as Pray my humble service to Nr. Tunbridge, and I myself have found from Grover; and tell him the poverty i mena them just the same effect.

tioned in one of my letters to him, is now As to the melancholy part of your let- fallen on nie, ter, our Chelsea friend, poor soul! But You say, my dcar friend, that I can't God is good. And we know not what bu: think true; but to live as one ought


140 Original Letters between Dr.Yeung & Mr. Richardson. [Marchi, d'equires constant, if not intense, think as mortality can admit. That you may ing. The shortness and uncertainty of be so is the prayer of, dear sir, Life is so evident, that all take it for Your affectionate and obliged granted; it wants no proof. And what

humble servant, follows? Why this, because we can't deny

E. Young. it, therefore we forget it ; because it

LETTER XXV. wants no proof, therefore we give it no

Rév. Sir,

Dec. 24, 1746. attention. That is, we think not of it at I am in great and unusual arrear with all, for a very odd reason, viz. because you; but I beg of you to believe, that it is we should think of nothing else. This is not owing to the want of a true and sintoo strictly expressed, but very near the cere respect for you, and of a due regard truth. Ask Cibber if he's of my opinion, for your favours. But you gave me hope

of seeing you in town, when I thought LETTER XXIII.

to thank you, and to desire you to thank Ti'ellwyn, Nov. 16, 1746. good Miss Lee, for both your kind inviDear Sir,

tations: I am sorry your stay in town On your telling me you drank tar-water, was so short, as not to permit you to I borrowed Mr. Prior's Narrative, where I give me this hoped for pleasure. find such an account of it, that I design You tell me, Sir, in one of your fa. to drink it myself, and to give it to any yours, that you are composing; but that neighbour that will pledge me. But that it is in wood and stone. A worthy author cautions us about frauds in tar, work! But, Sir, I expect, the world will which will defeat our expectations from still expect more durable works from Dr. it. He says it must be Noruny tar, of a Young than wood and stone can furnish. deep brown, and pretty thin, (page 170.) Then, having given your orders, the Since you drink it, 'tis your interest to workmen acquit you of


further cares know is here the best is to be had, and if than those that arequire your purse and you do know, and are at leisure to pro- your weekly inspection. But they cancure me six, gallons of it, 'will much not employ your nightly meditations; oblige, Dear Sir,

your writing studies; a whole creation Your truly affectionate and ever opened and opening before you, with obliged humble servant, new and improving beauties. And can

E. YOUNG, Dr. Young say, that he has sung the God There's a Wellwyn carrier at the Windo of that creation enough, while he affords mill in St. John street, Smithfield, who him faculties undecayed, and a judgment comes out of town, Mondays and Thurs- still improving? days, every week.

The important, the solemn subject you 'I have now but an inch of life left, and mention, may be best, (I humbly sup: am for setting it up on a save all of your pose) cultivated by meditations intended providing. Miss L. joins me in hearty for the public eye. Can you better pregood wishes and service to your fireside. pare to meet the last solemn hour, than Pray how fares Clarissa?

by preparing others to meet it too? The

good man is in a daily course; wbich, LETTER XXIV.

like a taper once lighted, pursues its way Wellwyn, December 2, 1746. to a bright extinction, illuminating, till Dear Sir,

thiàt awful period, all around it. Every I thank you for my tar; I will be out of hour makes the next happier and easier, your debt for that as soon as I get to till the fear of death is subdued; and town, but never out of your debe for ma. then cheaiful thoughts muse intervene, ny more material favours. I shall brew and the soul will be at leisure to expand it soon, and then I'll drink your health in itself. Think not then, good Sir, to let it to give myself a better title to my own. the solemn so very much engross you, as You said in your last that you was some to excuse you from the serone and the what better for tar-water. In long chro, chearful; but let us see, that what you nical cases perseverance is the point. lave conquered, hunanly speaking, con. And so it is in the greatest point of all. quered, the less considerate must not No man is so profligate but he is good for still think terrible. ut I know, Sir, moments; per:everance only is wanting you must, you camot help thinking in to make him a saint. As you persevere such a way, as will instruct the world to in the great point, persesere in this; to think; and will here rest the point, in a good heart add a good constitution, and the hope at least, that it cannot be then you are only not an angel, as happy otherwise,

I hope,

I hope, sir, you find benefit by your sistency, so much we take from their tar-water. I exceeded your quantity, very being. Despair not, my dear for the sake of filling the cask, for the friend, but proceed and prosper; and let better carriage. I promised myself some

us, when we meet in the summer, jointly benefit from it; but am afraid my praise and adore that indulgent Provi. nerves are too much unbraced ever to be dence which has sent so very poble a greatly bettered by human medicines. I remedy in our days; and, I am sorry to have, however, been much worse, and so say, in our necessities, must sit down, and pray for patience and

You make an apology for not writing : resignation; thanking God it is no worse, I write, because I'm at leisure; you fora

A happy season to you, and many bear, because you are not; and both happy seasons; with my wife's and little these are equally right: so that your apos giri's likewise, to you, and to Miss Lee, Ingy wants an apology, If I'm appreare the wishes of, Rev. Sir,

bensive that I lay a tax on your time Your most obliged and (which I know is so precious with you) faithful servant,

hy my writing, I shall be forced to fora S. RICHARDSON. bear, Clarissa is my rival, and such a

rival I can bear: she'll pay me what you LETTER XXVI.

ove me, tho' you shou'd owe the corre. Wellwyn, Jan, 11, 1746-7. spondence of an age. To the children, Dear Sir,

not of your pen, ard to Mirs. Richardson, I always suspected the world to be a Caroline joins in the best wishes and res little foolish, but on further thought I spects. I an, dear Sir, find it not only foolish, but folly itself,

Your affectionate and folly in the extreme.

obliged luinble servant,

E. YOUNG Non vitiosus homo es, Zoile, sed vitium.

They who have experienced the wona A full and strong conviction of the vanity derful effects of tar-water, (of which I of the present, and of the iinportance of

am one) reveal its excellencies to others; the future, is, I think, the most complete I say reveal, because they are beyond notion of human wisdom. Now the very what any can conceive by reason, er naa reverse of this seems to be the almost tural light. But others disbelieve them, universal maxim of mankind. But it is the the revelation is altested past at something, you'll say, to be wise for the scruple, because to them such strange present. But in that too they as noto.

excellencies are incomprehensible. Now riously fail. For what is being vise for give me leave to say, that this infidelity the present, but taking care of one's self?" And what is one's self but body dies, as other infidelity to morbid souls,

may possibly be as fatal to morbid boa and soul? But they neglect the first as

this in honest zeal for


welfare. much as the last; or rather they neglect I am contident, if you persist, you'll be the first by neglecting the last ; for a vise greatly benefited by it. In old obstiProvidence has so ordered it, (1o make

nate, chronical coniplaints, it probably our happiness, though divided by dife will not show its virtue under three ferent states and periods, yet still, as it months; tho' secretly, it is doing good all were, of a-piece) that virtue is the best the time. I will pay my tar bill in physician. . And what is virtue, but obe

Hilary term. Adieu. dience to reason ? And reason, I think, strict reason, as virtue's apothecary, pro.

LETTER XXVII. vides for us, at this time, tar water. I

Wellwyn, April 9th, 1747. have found from it surprising good effects; Dear Sir, and I am verily persuaded, that if you The delightful weather we have had can but be obstinate in your persever. brings forward our season for the steela ance, you will do the same. Despair water, and consequently of my enjoying often imposes itself upon us under the you at this place, for your health, and specious, but false character, of modesty my great pleasure. I do assure you, and resignation. But those soft and from the authority of the best physicians, amiable virtues must be quite consistent and from experience, which is a better with the full prerogatives of courage and physician than the college can aiford, resolution, or they are cheats; they are that this spring has every virtue of Tunnot what they pretend to be. It is with bridge in it. the human virtues, as with the divine I have corrected the Eighth Night, attributes, they are allies, not rivals. you will let me know when you have ocAs much as we take from their con. casion for it. I forgot to tell MONTILY MAG, No. 252,



you that

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