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Mr. Mann on the Case of Cowper. [Feb. that chapter excludes positively the sense followy, in the third verse, this admirable of days of twenty-four hours; after which command of the Almighty: “Let there

shall come to his other objections. be light, and there was light.” I MITS.

4. I shall observe first, that our days Pilgrim were well informed of the proof twenty-four hours are measured by gress made in natural philosophy, or had the revolutions of the earth on its axis, only read my letters to Professor Blue in presence of the sun as a luminous menbach, published some years ago in lindy; huc in che account of the creation, the British Critic, instead of offering his the sun is only inentioned in the fourth present vague remarks, he would have of these days. it is therefore evident, felt it necessary to bri that the three preceding days cannot be ments in reply to what I have there our days of twenty-four hours; since state of geological phenomena, leading these imply light and darkness succeed to our subject, which I shall here briefly ing each other on every part of the earth repeat. during that space of time.

But a most 6. The conclusions of the first of these, positive proof that this is not the sense of letiers, founder on facts which have beeix the text, is the definition of these days before detail di, are these. $ 35.--"-1. The in that chapter, which is thus from the whole known mass of our continents is first: "and the evening and the morning composed of serata of dulerent substana were the first day!" a definition quoted ces, the principal kinds of which have By Mr. Pilgrim himself, as will lie scen every where nearly the same order of bocreatier, which continden for the follow. superposition..?. After the first kinds ing days in the same chapter. Is that of strata, vistisly the most ancient, and, the deiinition of days of twenty-four containing to organic bodies, we find Bours? Certainly noi; for the latter are oiber strata, slierein such bodies are, counter, either from niemning to morumg, continent, and these change their species or'from erening in crering. From this in the strata vt diderent kinds which are evident rean, belure geology was in placed one above another.-3. We find view, many interpreters had decided, remains of terrestrial animals and vegethat the days of whai chapter could not tables anong theso organic bodies; but le understood as cur days, but that in the great inajority of these strata, and they expressed period, of indetermined even in the louse strata at the surface of lengths, of winicb the morning was the our soil, these intonumments of the history, beginning, and the erening was the end of organized beings consist chielly of This Nir. Pilgriin might have known; but marine bodies.-4. Although it is thus let us see how he thinks he can oblige certain that our strata sere formed in mne to adopt his erro!cous sense, in order the sea, (which necessarily implies that dat it may be opposed by natural phice they must have been accumulated in a

successive manner, and in a situation, 5. “Let us attentively peruse (hie nearly horizontal,), they are actually says) the first chapter of Genesis, in ora broken, overtured, and sunk, in great. der to see how far ltr. De Luc is right massas; so that the whole surface of our in his conjectures. In the first verse, continents presents the appearance of (unfortunately for that gentleman's the ruins. 5. The violent causes which have ory) we read: And God called the light thus disordered our strata, were previous day, and the darkness he called night: to some great revolution, by which our and the evening and the morning were continents were made dry land, and thus the first day.” Thus Mr. Pilgriin bim- submitted to the operations of such causes self quotes the very words which, as it as are at present know!). --6. This great has been already secn, exclude his inter event was not many ages prior to the pretation. But further, if he had atte:) umes traced hack by the monuments of tirely perased that chapter, he would men."

J. A. DE Luc. not have made a mistake which bas led Windsor, Oct. 1815. him into error.

The words he quotes, that " God called the light day, and the arkness lie called glit," are not the

To the Edilor of the Monthly Magazine, tirst, but only the fitih rerse, and the fola

SID, lowing is the first: "In the beginning "TIE influence of prejudice in resista

sublime preamble, which cvidently em. and truth, is seldom more strongly appabrąces the whole of the creation. Then rent than when insanity is described as

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PEDESTRIAN
YORKSHIRE,

the effect of religion, or of a belief in any For the Monthly Magazine. of its peculiar doctrines. Such particua SPECIMEN of a

TOUR 11% larly is the case in reference to Cowper, the poet, have been laid to the charge portes Calvinistie FROM Sheffield, my greatly esteemed

native town), so justly noted for its methodism. And such also is a case superiority in cutlery and a variety of mentioned in your Medical Report for other useful articles: around the town Septeinber, where the disease is account is mostly a strong clay and other inferior ed for by stating the patient to be " a soils; yet from the excellent manures steady follower of a popular and bigoted from the manufactories, and the common sect; destitute of education, suffering all manure of a populous town, the farmers the attributes of mercy and benevolence get amazing crops, frequently from 40 to pass the sieve of his understanding, and to 60 Winchester bushels of wheat

per retaining only those horrible inages acre, and other grain in proportiou. which some individuals expatiate opon Crushed or ground bones, of which there the more vehemently, as their audience is are great quantities are use of, self vulgar and uninforined.”

from two to three shillings per bushel, at I notice these circumstances, not for which price, and with 10 or 19 miles the purpose of defending the doctrine of carriage, they are found to answer for reprolation, or to countenance the too grass, for grain, and for turnips, and their prevalent custom of fanatical declania- good effects seen for several succeeding tion, but would ask, whether it is not illi- crops: the usual quantity set per acre is beral and absurd to make such attacks 50 to 70 bushels; the smaller they are upon religion, when there is no proof that ground or crushed, the more valuable; it has any such connection with madness, excellent as they are, it is only a very as that of cause and effect?

small part of the kingdom where they In the instance of our amiable aud ini. are made use of, or their value as mas mitable poet, the charge has been fully nure known. refuted. In the above ciied one froin Within a few nuiles west of the town the Magazine, with great deference is a mountainous iract of woor land, to your medical correspondent, it is lately inclosed, which gives the greate-c far from being substantiated, since the encouragement to the practice, from the indeterminate character of the coinplaint crops produced on some parts high and creates a doubt on his mind to what unpromising, in its late rudle state, as specific class of disorder it should be as most in England: there are excellent vigned,

glass, grain, and turnips, one of vie But to the implied consequences of an latter of which was weighed to 141b. 70%. attachinent to the aforenamed religious and nieasured 3 feet 5 iaches in circuma tenet, matter of fact furnishes a reply in ference, a few days since, which can be a case I ain acquainted with, where a per- fully ascertained by respectable persons. son of good education, ample property,

Near the town they have a practice of freinplary conduct, and of sentiments di- paring and burning the stubble, soon rectly opposed to the Calvinistic creed, as possible after harvest, which is found has lately become afflicted with a hypo- so beneficial, that it is every year more chondriacal affection, exłubiting the syınp- practised; it is done well by a cheap isitoms that are usual in inaladies of this strument added to the axle-tree and nature, despair of both temporal support wheels, &c. of a coirmon cart; the body and eternal salvation: thus affording evi. being taken off occasionally for the pura dence that these impressions are by no pose, a roller is fised of near 2 fect in imeans the result of a system of faith, but length, and 7 or 8 inches diancter, to the wuly indicationis of disease.

middle part of the cart axle tree, by two Allow me to add, that upon any occa. strong bolts with screws and nuts to rei sions of recovery from this kind of insa- move at pleasure ; at the cuds of the uiry, it would be desirable to ascertain bolts there are bales for the gudgeons of what religious feelings existed previous to the roller to work in, and in the center the indisposition. The inquiry may tend part of the roller a inortise hole to adto silence calumny, and clicit some fur- mit a strong iron, so as to be raised or ther information respecting a calamity, lowered as best suits, the irun to be of a which, from the varied aspects it assumes, length in proportion to the height of carc is perhaps of all others the least under wheels, and the lower part in the coulter #and, and the most difficult to define. form, and at the bottom a strong hoe of Ezeshan

LUUN MAN.

18 of 20 inches broad, in the form of a 302522 BOUND: NNV 1999

GONmon

Mr. Luke on the Cultivation of early Potatoes.' [Feb. 1, eommon floating spade; to the coulter, there is every reason to expect, it might a little above the boe, are fixed two chains, be made public by your valuable Magaone end of each chain fastened to each zine, and be a national blessing, and deof the cart shafts, so as to be longer or serve the thanks of the public at large. shorter, as best to keep the hoe to its From Doncaster to Wheatbridge, ten work. With two horses and one man, miles; the first two miles a sandy textures and the above simple instrument, 3 or 3 then a limestone takes place for the reHeres per day of stubble are pared or mainder, and for a great extent of length, floatell, equal to what is done by hand as may hereafter be mentioned. Thistles labour, at considerable expence; the are a very great nuisance in this part of roller permits the hoe being kept pro- the country, as the present laws for deperly to its wors, or for its being raised, stroying them are so inadequate; if a pre to make the instrument portable as a inium of one stilling per pound weight common carriage.

was allowed for their buds, or heads, or From Sheifield to Rotherham, six miles, other more proper reward, it might be the country around which is so fertile means of exterminating them, in the and well cultivated, that a circle of ten same manner as wolves were by allowing aules around the town, may vie proba, a premium for their heads, in a former bly with a circle of the same extent, as period of lime. coru land, in any part of his Majesty's For near fisty miles north and east, dominions: the soil various, but good in they have a most absurd custom of inaking general; that near the villages of Wath the roofs or tops of their stacks of a and Wombuell moted as excellent. The hollow form, higher considerably at each. course of crops, turnips, barley, clover, end than the middle, something like the wheat; or summer fallow, wheat, beans form of the decks of Duich ships or clover, and wheat or vais.

probably a Dutchman introduced the From Rotherham to Doncaster, twelve custom, but that Englishmen for such an miles; the first four or five iniles a bazle extcnt of country should niake it a gene. earth in general, then near the same ral practice, is a most amazing proof of distance limestone, the remainder a custom prevailing over good sense; as it sandy texture: the culture same as be- is self-evident that water endeavours to fore mentioned, and on some lands for find its lowest level, and a hollow part the last two years, a trial of dibbling wheat must be niore liable to damage ; and that has been made, which is found to an. a convex would be a better form than a swer well, and produce on light land 5 concave; but probably the best form for or 6 bushels more than broadcast or the the roof of a building, is the best form common method of sowing. The quan- for the roof of a stack. In some countity of potatoes that usually grows east of tries the natives have an idea, that to Doncaster for inany miles, is amazingly wear a ring through the nose, is a useful great for the London and other markets; ornament to the face and addition to as they are one of the most valuable of their beauty; if hollow.roofed stacka ruots as food for the poor, and vegetables makers would, in future, please to wear for the table, to increase their quantity the same ornament, it would make their Imust be most desirable; and as all bula taste more conspicuous. bous roots are greatly injured and of less

JOSHUA WIGFULL, Senior. size if permitted to ripen iheir seeds, Ponds, Sheffield, Oct. 16, 1811. I conceive that it must have the same effect on potatoes, and that by taking off To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine the buds or blossoms (which might be SIR, donc for small expence by childreu), or NDER the idea that it will be of planting sorts not liable in blossom,

service to the majority of your much greater crops inight be obtained, readers, I am induced to transcribe the I wrote to Sir Joseph Banks on the sube following extract from the last “ Repors ject, who seemed to have the same ideas, of the Committee of the Board of Agriand inforined me that Andrew Wright, culture," and request its insertion in your Esq. had given the last mentioned ine

invaluable repository. thod a trial, of planting sorts not liable "Cut the sets [of potatoes) and put them to blossoin, and found the additional on a room floor, where a strong current of produce considerable. If a number of air can be introduced at pleasure; lay them sensible cultivators would, the ensuing chin about two or three laysin depth; cover season, gire a fair, though small trial of them with oat shells or saw-dust, to the the above, it would fully ascertain the thickness of about two or three inches; benefits to be obtained; and if such as this, at the same time that it screens

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SIR,

them from the frost, affords them a mo- bling will plant as many in one day as. derate degree of warmth, which causes two in the ordinary way. them to vegetate; but at the same time

SAMUEL LUKE. admits air enough to harden the shoots: the doors and windows are to be open as To the Editor of the Monthly Magazines often as the weather is mild enough to aumit of its being done with safety.

HAVE observed many interesting The sets must be frequently examined,

I
communications, in

your valuable and when the shoots have sprung an inch Magazine, relative to fruit trees, and their and a balf, or two inches, the covering failure; I conceive therefore that it may is to be carefully removed either with a be of importance to your readers, who wooden rake or with the fingers. In enjoy the luxury of a garden, to become this manner they must reniain until the acquainted with the means by which the planting season, taking care to give them people of a more northern latitude secure all the air possible, by the doors and abundant and certain crops of fruit. windows, when it can be be done with I allude to Denmark, and it is the pracsafety. By this method, the shoots will tice in that country to keep back the become green, put out leaves, and be blossoms till die fine weather is seitled, moderately bardy, in this way four crops by covering the trees in the day.time, and have been raised on ihe same ground in exposing them during the night. The one year, taking care always to have experiment is easily made on a few trees, sets from the repository ready to put ili, and the practice may afterwards be guidas soon as the oilier; are taken up. A ed by the experienred results. crop of winter lettuce is sometimes raised Hoddesdon, Duc. 1, 1813. J. TODD. afterwards from the same land. We are enabled to say from experience, that To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. £wo crops may be obtained from the same SIR, ground yearly with great ease, and after HAVE taken the liberty of sending wards a crop of coleworts.

you the following extract, hoping you To raise two good crops in one year.- will give it a place in your valuable and The method that has from experience entertaining miscellany, as I am partici. been found most successful, is to plant larly desirous of seeing the reflection on the ground in the spring with the best water, (as far as regards perpendicular early potatoe (managed in the method objects, the picture, and the vauisting already quoted); these will be ready in point, fully elucidated by some of your the beginning of summer; the soil should mathenatical correspondents; for Linust be ploughed" once, and planted either confess my faith is not sufficient wo sul with the large white kidney or Killimanca, scribe to the opinions of this artist, whilst the sets of which should be cut at least they are at varianve with science, come six weeks before they are planted; they mon sense, and every day's observation, should be kept in a place where both air

" It lia; liil!erto been the receiveil maxand light inay have free access to them, im, and communen practic", in the doctrine by which means their shoots will be string of 'reflections on water, to refret all perand vigorous, and as they will then have pendicular ubjects perpadlienariy, where 110 frosts to encounter, they will grow

ver they are situated in the picture, without iinpiediately they are put into the earth. any regard to :!cy. I was first struck The operations of planting should be with the fillacy of us hypophesis in 1777; performed with the greatest care, in whou walking vil tlie western border of the order to preserve the shoots from being Severni, opposite to the city of Worcester, broken, as in that case the crop will be iny attention was very forcibly struck with Tenderéd considerably later. Perhaps the reflections of the towers of the catilethere is no way of doing this so complete. dial, Saint Andrer's and All Saints" ly as with a stick; in this way the plant Churches; which all appeared to stand to

wards
my eye.

Tic tile olie, St. is not only placed at a proper dep:hi, but

Andreu's spire, being directly bef!e my the shoot is preserved and set opright in such a way, that the top is equal with others, ca either sme, obliqurly towards

eye, was releete: perpendicaiarly; the the surface. It will cestainly be objected my eye. This circu'nstance struck me so to this mode of planting, that it requires forcibly as a new discovery, that berg enmore 'labour than the ordinary method gagert at tMat time in cupruvins some views of dropping the sets into the furrow; of Hereford, I absciutely w.vdared my but whed properly considered, this obo new system in one of illum; reflecting the jection will vapish, as three persops dibe calledral tower obliquely across the Wye,

16 Nr. Squire on the Reflection of perpendicular Objects. [Feb. 1, as it appeared from the point of view. I to have been totally ignorant of it, as all have closely attended to the observation of his roles for reflections are for the perperievery object on the farther shore of a river dicular, however situated in the pictare; or piece of water, that has fallen in my way; which is certainly wrong and out of nature and constantly find that they all tend to the for more than one ohjeet: for I maintain, eye, how many soever in mumber, and not that only that can be perpendicular whiche according to the established system of pér- is perpendicular to, or directly before, tlie pendicular retection; the one only that is eye; the others must incline. And this may exactly perpendicular to the eye, being be fully exemplified in a moment to a scienza perpendicular; the others inclining to the tisic eye, by an observation from Somerset five on either hand, as I liave observed: Tcrrace, the Adelphi, or any terrace on the from which appearance I am fully sensible shore of the Thames; where the observer that reflections have a runishing point, and will impiediately see that all the reflections that point is most assuredly and certainly of the buildings on the farther shore win

tend to the eye; and that only will be pero " This might be elucidated at home, on pendicular which is directly before it. an horizontal mirror or polished table, by placing tliee or more bright upright'objects

Should you be so obliging as to give sipon them; when it will soon be seen that this a place, you will most probably hear the reflections will follow the eye wherever from me again on this suliject, if any it moves; a certain proof that the eye is correspondent thinks it worth while offesa their vanishing point. I do not know that ing your readers his remarks on the alsove, any writer on perspective vision has Epping, THOMAS SQUIRE. noticed this circunstance. Malton seems Muy 13th, 1812.

The ele.

For the Monthly Magazine.

METEOROLOGICAL AESTRACT for the lust TWELVE MONTHS at CARLISLE.

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January was mild, and very pleasant sive quantity of rain; no snow fell, and for the season, till the 15th, when about the thermometer was only once as low 3 inches depth of snow fell, and frost

as 34 commenced, which continued till the end March, excepting the 11th, 12th, and of the month; during this latter period 131h, a bich were frosty, with light show. we had some very licavy fogs. The wind ers of snow, was inild and exceedingly was particularly moderate, and on 19 pleasant, days we experienced a dead calm.

April commenced with heavy falls of February. The unseasonable mildness bail, snow, and sleei. On the 2nd the of the weather during this month was at Snow which fell amounted to about 4 tended with violent winds, and an exces: inches in depth; at this time all the

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