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testators.

belonging to the poor, of the whole exception of a very small proportion fo county of Norfolk, in order that others the repairs of the church, let for 251. 10s might be stimulated to see that the poor per year, on leases of 999 years, beginn of their respective parishes might not be ning in 1723 and 1724, evidently condefrauded,* This collection forms an trary to the meaning and intention of the Octavo volume; from it I take the follow

A.C. R. ing, among many instances of defalcation. Dec. 9, 1813.

“In 1715 William Burney, curate of Bramerton, in the hundred of Henstead, For the Monthly Magazine, left 1001. 'to purchase land for the sup- CONTRIBUTIONS TO ENGLISII SYNONYMY. port of a charity school, in that parish, for the benefit

To regard--To concernu-To touch.

THESE words rise above each other found, then the interest or produce was to go to the poor.” The Norwich Ter the proper, often in the metaphoric sense. riers inform us, that the interest of this

He regards me, who looks at me from a 100l. was paid for a few years, but that

distance (regarder to look al); he con. it was afterwards discontinued.

cerns mne, at whom I also look (con and "In the parish of Coltishall, in South

cernere); he touches me, who is piaced. Erpingham hundred, forty pounds were

much nearer than a looker-on. left by will of John Wells; the interest

The conduct of a sovereign seldom reof which to be expended in purchasing gards the people so much as it concerns bread for the poor." But the recurns to them. Relations should cultivate a rethe House of Commons, state this charity gard for each other; because the conduct to have been discontinued for twenty of each touches the family. Concern seven years.

becomes a duty, when what regards us is " In 1675 Nathaniel Knivett, esq. be likely to touch us. queathed the sum of 201. to remain as a

Though we have the least part innagi. stock for the use of the poor of the

pable in a thing, it may be said to regard

pa. rish of Denven, for ever; which legacy us; to concern us we must have a greatwas paid to the churchwardens and over

er; but when we are sensibly affected by may

he said to touch us. seers, and a few years afterwards was,

Trusler. by their successors, employed for the

Some people make themselves uneasy repairing and ornamenting the parish about that which does not regard them; church, contrary to the ineaning and meddle with what ought not to concerz intent of the testator. This misappli- them; and at the same time are culpahiy cation being ascertained upon an inqui

indifferent to things which touch their sition held at Downham in 1695, com

nearly. Trusler. missioners directed the churchwardens

Vivucity-Promptness. to repay the said 201. to the overseers: with the two adjectives, alive and ready.

These two substantives correspond to be secured upon land, or placed out at interest

, and the proceeds thereof to Vivacity is a vative tendency, prompibe applied according to the will of the

ness ani acquired habit. Vivacity is a said Nathaniel Knivett, which order is form of sensation, promptness of action. not yet complied with. The original le- Stimulated expression characterizes vivagacy, with the interest for nearly 130 city; instantaneous expression characteyears, is therefore due from the church rizes promptness. Vivacity is the basis estate to the parish officers, for the be of promptness; and promptness is an in

dication of vivacity. Vivacity is opposed It appears also by the returns from

to indolence, and promptness to sloth. the parish of Oxburgh, in South Green.

Mercenary-Venal. hoe hundred, that there are in that parish Mercenary is that which is to let; ve. 113 acres of land, with buildings, be- nal that which is to sell. At Rome the queathed for the use of the poor, with the prætorian guards were venal, and the

Barbarian soldiers mercenary. My pen These accounts of charities are inostly is venal, said Brissot, that it may not be taken from the returns of all charities be. longing to the poor, commanded to be made mercenary: meaning thereby, I sell my to the House of Commons in 1784, upon writings in order not to have to sell my the passing of Mr. Gilbert's Act for that opinions. Le caractere de la venalité purpose; and from the Terriers, or Records est de transmettre su proprieté; celui du of Land, in the office of the bishop of mercenaire n'est que de lu louer à temps, Norwich.

Roubuud. MUNTHLY MAG, No. 252.

R

Advice

it, it

nefit of the poor."

118 Parliamentary Document on the State of Society [March 1, Advice-Counsel.

derness, where the command was ige. Advice is the information of individual sued, the nuisance experienced from ser @tiention, and counsel the result of con- pents was intolerable. The Ægyptians, certed deliberation, Advice is a solitary, in like manner, commanded the people, And counsel a social, present. One phy. not to destroy, or eat, the ibis, and sician advises; two physicians consult, other animals, which passed for the ene A barrister is supposed to confer with mies of their enemies. This might be the client's attorney, and hence his advice wise policy, while more of the earth be. is called counsel. Advice, being given longed to animals, than to man : but in a tête à tête, is not always so guarded as civilized and populous country, the way sounsel.

to secure the multiplication of any given The translators of the Bible use the race of animals, is to consider its flesh as word counsellor impurely, instead of ad a dainty. If in our times, Moses had viser.

wanted to promote the breed and mula His mother was his counsellor to do tiplication of swine, he would have ore Hickedly-2 Chron. xxii. 3.

dered hams to be placed on the tables of Lovelij-Aniable.

his clergy, at the passover, and the feast Lovely is Saxon, and amiable is Latin, of tabernacles. Hence, in order to ace for the same idea ; but as our Latin words up to the spirit of the original command, are of later importation, they mostly be, it is plain, that swine’s flesh ought to be long to the writien or oratoric style, and eaten, in all countries infested by sere are applied only in metaphor. Physical pents. But, as in Ireland there are good we can call lovely; moral qualities none, or at least no venomous serpents, we call amiable. You may hear a hun- an Irish Jew is not released froin cho gry farmer at the ordinary term a roasted conscientious obligation to this rite. fillet of veal lovely; you will not hear him

Y. term it amiable. Fat beauty also is emphatically called lovely by those who For the Monthly Magasine. have acquired a Turkish taste in female

OBSERVATIONS on the state of SOCIETI form. Something of vulgarity attaches to among the ASIATIC SUBJECTS of GREAT the epithet occasionally.

BRITAIN, particularly with respect A lovely figure. An amiable disposi to MORALS, LAWS, and RELIGION. tion. The loveliest of her sex. The

Causes which have produced the present most amiable of brothers,

Situation and Character of the Hindoos. lovely ,

the And told her while she kept it allowed to be less favourable to the hu. Twould make her amiable, subdue iny

fa

man constitution than the more tempethier

rate regions of Europe, The bodily Entirely to her love.

Shakespeare.

frame is less strong and hardy, the faculFriendly--- Amical-Amicable.

ties have less energy, their exercise in Friendly is Saxon, and anical is Latin, less expanded and delightful, ardour is for the same idea. Native sincerity em. checked, the oppressed spirits yield more ploys the word friendly, oratoric parade easily to indolence and indulgence, and employs the word amical. Ile has done the fertility of the soil easily supplying me many friendly services. Nations, the few natural wants of the natives, aids grown amical as the flocks and herds, its propensity. Nevertheless, in devea shall depute their elected kings to meet loping ihe causes of the Hindoo chạrace 'at a festival of the world for compiemo ter, too much seems sometimes to have rating the jubilee of a fisty years peace. been imputed to the climate; effects

Amicable, though not uncommon, ap. greater, and of more necessary result, pears to have been originally either an than fair examination will confirm. impure word for amical, or a misprint for The inhabitants of foreign descent,whe amiable.

continue the use of animal food, especie

ally the Armenians, a sober people, ara To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. more robust than the Hindoos; and, to SIR,

speak of the Hindoos themselves, their WINE, says a zoologist, are the ap- military tribe bas discovered, under

propriate enemies of serpents. Does foreign discipline, a considerable share not this fact account for the command of active vigour. The Banians, and all given hy Moses to the Jews, not to dee the trading part of the comm

munity, are troy, and eat, their swined in the wide capable of long sedentary application,

Porters

Porters, boatmen, runners, and others of principle in the very frame of society. the labouring class, can endure severe The law, not contenting itself with en. fatigue. Multitudes of devotees mani. joining passive obedience to the magie fest a resolution and perseverance in strate or sovereign, and with having a painful sufferings altogether astonishing. due regard to the inequalities in cindiAnd with regard to the faculties of the tion, and subordinations in rank, which mind, the Brahmins, who have cultivated arise from the constitution of the world, learning, have certainly evinced theme and are plainly agreeable to the will of selves an acute, subtle, and penetrating the greai Creator, rests entirely on the order of men,

These circumstances following fundamental position :-hat show, that the people in general are certain classes or races of the society are equal at least to decent application in in their elementary principles, in the different lines, susceptible even of a matter from which they were formed, ab. strong impulse, though not perhaps of solutely of a bigher nature, of a superior great continued energy. And it is rea order in the scale of beiny, to certain sonable to believe, that were those evils other classes. It is, in the opinion of corrected which do not arise from the the lindoos, an awial and momentous climate, they would in time hold a much truth, a truth maintaineil in full vigour higher place among the human species, to this day, a truth placed in the front of than they are now capable of main- tlieir coile, that the Brahmins were taining.

formed fri m the mouih of Brimha, the The despotic mode of government Kheterees from his arin, the Vvse (p which generally is prevalent in :he East, Bice) from his thighs, and the Soders and appears at all times to have subo from his foot.

Hence it is a necessary sisted among the Hindoos, has undoubte consequence, that this primeval and es. edly had a very considerable influence in sential distinction is no more mutable or the formacion of their character. When defeasible, than it is possible for one a man finds himself dependent on the of the brute creation to advance itself to will and caprice of another, he thinks and the rank of man. And such is the din acts as a degraded being; his regard for vision of the Hindoos into four great all that is valuable in life is reduced to tribes or castes--the priests, the soldiers, the degree of personal interest which he the husbandmen or traders, and the ser. has in it; his care for whatever extends vile claus, whose sole assigner duty is to to the rest of his race, and to future time, serve the other three. is sunk in the precariousness of the pre

Now the evil that flow from such an sent hour. Fear necessarily becomes arrangement are infinite. Olber modes his grand principle of action; thence of despotism lead in their very excess and springs distrust; and, as arbitrary power abuse to a remedy, but here ihe chain of does not excite in a hose over whom it ty- servitude is indissoluble and eternal. rannizes the expectation of finding truth Though the highest orders be guilty of and justice its associates, it is not pro.

the most flagitious wickedness, pervers ductive of integrity and veracity. The the use of power, become weak, arrogant, arts of deception, suppleness, and ser and oppressive, the frame of society can vility, are resorted to; and thus a systein suffer no change; that order inusi still of falsehood and narrow selfishness is continue in the enjoyment and exercise generated. Violence in the ruler quick of all its vast privileges and prerogatives, ens the process. The first idea raised is The lowest rank, on the contrary, is that of self-defence agaiost him; then doomed to perpetuial abasement and unfollow plans of concealed and avowed limited subjection. It has no relief against hostility against his deparies and agenta,

the most oppressive and in-ulting iyfrom whom injury is app.ehended." The ranny, no bope of ever escaping from its despotic principle actuates all the subo sufferings. Though perniited indeed to ordinate offices, and posts of authoriiv, employ its industry, the greatest success and its effects become general; every

can never in the slightest degree rescue man is a slave in those above him, and it from inherent dishonour; and if the a despot to those below him; the mere genius of a Newton should arise in that he is oppressed, the more he oppresses; class, it could have no room to expand, and thus is diffused a temper of universal

nor if it had, could all its excellence de enmity, acting secretly or openly accord. liver its possessor from the obligation of ing to opportunities.

administering to the most ignorant and Despotism is not only the principle of vicious of the Brahmins. the government of Hindostan, but an As some persons appear disposed to original , fundamental, and irreversible think the institution of castes, and their

separation

R2

120

Chances of drawing a black Ball. [March l; separation by impassable barriers, the wrangling, animosity, litigation, loss of effect of profound political wisdom, it time, of property, and of peace, among may be well for them to consider whether the people, and of influence and emoluit be possible to reconcile with the idea ment to the Brahmins, who are the arof true wisdom, that which derives both biters in all these matters. its origin and support froin fraud and When these consequences are consi. imposture; whether fraud and imposture dered, together with that which must incan finally produce the fruits of truth evitably have been expected from the and justice; and how far the supposed beginning, namely, the irregular comohject of such policy, namely the good of merce of the tribes, the political sagacity society, is in fact fairly and solidly ob. of the legisla!ors of the Hindoos seems tained by it. The subjection of one part not entitled to great praise, since to to another is indeed secured; but is it every public benefit which they could good for the part so subjected (infinitely propose from their system, the preserthe larger part of the wirole,) and its nu vation of its simplicity appears to have merous posterity, through all the succes been essential. And although a celesions of time, to be placed in bondage to brated name regards the institution of the other? It seems difficult to maintain

castes as a mark of considerably advanced such an assertion by arguments, which society, there seems more probability in will not also recommend, both in a per- referring it to one of the earlier stages, sonal and social view, the ancient system in which there would indeed be priests, of slavery. That such a mechanical soldiers, and husbandmen, labouring and construction of society is not favourable domestic servants, but the community to the external interesis of a body politic, would be small; and in such a commumay be easily discerned: for what pub- nity, an ordinance, apparently simple, lic principle can exist in a state, where fixing the several members and their fathe greatest part of the people are to milies in the professions which they altally and for ever excluded, under the ready exercised, might more easily be highest penalties, from taking any con adopted and enforced. llad an ordi. cem 10 public affairs ? Some, who have vance of that nature been promulgated considered this subject philosophically, after the society was become numerous, seem to rest the defence of such an ar- and intermarriages (not before prohibited) bitrary arrangement, upon a sentiment between persons of different professions, sus sed to pervade the different classes, and between their descendants, had taken of the inviolability of each other's rights. place; and when occupations had been Had a sentiment of that nature influenced multiplied, and various gradations althein, the rights reinained very unequal; ready established, the difficulty of carbut the truth is, that the same couse- rying it permanently into execution quences follow which inust ever be ex would apparently have been insuperable. pected from unlimited powercopride and tyranny on one side, ahject servility and To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. suffering on the other. And were it certain, as the translator of the code has

I intimated, that long usage

OBSERVE that a correspondent exhas

per presses a wish to know what are the shaded the people of the equity of their chances for drawing a black ball from a distinctions," this would be an additional receptacle containing 12 black, and 36 proof of their minds and judgments being white balls; and how many drawings dehased. Nothing is better known, than should be allowed to make the chance that the Brahminical tribe are pre-emi- equal. nent in those atrocities which disturb the As the chances in this case are, mapeace of society: and this is but one nisestly, the same as if there were only branch of the mischiefs generated by one black ball, and three wbite ones, I such a system.

shall, for brevity's sake, assume those The subdivisions of the four original numbers. castes, arising from difference of profes The chances, therefore, for the first sions, and a variety of separating dis. drawing, in favour of the black ball, are tinctions, are now si inany, the ways of as one to three, that is, 4 to, or excontamination (and therefore of purifi. pressed decimally, .25. The chance of cation) so multiplied; stains or expul. drawing a black ball the second time is, sions, on the one side, so terrible, and to of course, the same; but, as no second those, on the other, who thereby succeed drawing would take place unless the first to property, so advantageous, that the should fail, the fraction must be mula subject of caste is a prodigious source of tiplied by the fraction representing the a

probability

SIR,

1

It may

probability of failing the first time, or o'clock in the morning; ons at noon; and
The fraction , multiplied by $, will pro ten at night.
duce to, or expressed decimally .1875, On the 4th), 10°, 21°, 11o.

Eighth,
which added to or 25, will give + 10°, 18°, 9o. Thirteenth, 15°, 21°, 5o.
or .4375, for the chances in favour of Fourteenth, 80, 210, 21°. Seventeenth,
drawing a black ball in two times. The 20 below zero, 14°, 3°. Twentieth,
chance for the black ball the third time 15°, 25°, 10°. The snow which fell
of drawing, will of course be the same, here at intervals, during this frost,
or ; but as also no third drawing would drifted so much, it was difficult to ascer-
take place, unless both the first and se tain its average depth, but it did not
cond drawings should have failed, the amount to more than six inches. On
fraction must be multiplied by the pro- the 25th, the thermometer was 33°, when
hability of that failure, which is x1, in the night we had some drizzling fall;
(equal to 16;) by this we shall obtain 64 the weather afterwards was gloomy and
for the chance of succeeding the third humid at mid-day, but the nights were
time, after failing the two first times, or generally frosty. The snow, when li-
expressed decimally .140625. Hence quidated, amounted to .44 parts of an
the sum of the chances for the first, se inch in depth. The general average of
cond, and third drawings, namely: the temperature of the whole month is,
5 or .25 for the first drawing; morning 21°,87 ; noon 28°,6; night
1 or .1875 for the second, after fail-) 220,93; average of the whole, 24°,47.
ing the first time;

On the morning of the 17th, when the or .140625 for the third, after fail. thermometer was 2 degrees below zero,

ing the first and second it continued stationary at that tempera-
times ;

ture upwards of half an hour.

be proper to observe, that the thermaa .578125

meter was always in its usual place of re

gistering during this period, where it is will show that the equal chance is between sheltered from the falling vapour; if it the second and third drawings.

had been placed on the snow during the Hence, also, it follows, that if two pere greatest extremes of cold, when a quansons, A and B, were to make up a purse tity of icy vapour was falling, it very of ten pounds, A should contribute probably would have fallen 6 or 8 déo 51. 158.71d. and B 4l. 4s, 4 d. on

The thermometer used, condition that A should take the whole was made by Jones, of Holborn, and if he were to draw a black ball in three properly graduated for the purpose of times. PHILO-MATHEMATICUS,

registering: its accuracy has been veriWalworth,

fied by other instruments made by difJun. 24, 1814.

ferent superior artists.

W. PITT.

Carlisle, Feb. 5, 1814.
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.
SIR,

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.
HE following observations on the

PERFECTLY agree with the “ 18th of the weather of last onth, may not apboristic proposition" of your senperhaps be uninteresting to those of sible correspondent Mr. Capel Lofft, your readers who have made, or are ac as it relates to astronomiy, inserted in quainted with correspondent observations your miscellany for December, page 292; in other parts of the United Kingdom. that “ an universal law of vature can On the morning of the new year, the

be referred to no intermediate cause,

but thermometer was 20e; in the afternoon must be derived immediately from the it

rose to 34°, and continued nearly sta infinite and eternal energy of the Divine tionary at that temperature the day fol- Mind.” And, I must beg leave to add, lowing, when we had a heavy drizzling that if this axiom be true, with regard fog. Early in the morning of the 38, to the motion of the heavenly bodies, about two inches depth of snow fell, and it is no less so with respect to vitality the most intense frost commenced that of every description, whether animal or probably ever occured in this climate: vegetable; and is more particularly obit will only be necessary to give the tem servable in the natural instinct of all the perature of the most remarkable days, various classes of animals. and a general average of the whole To what other cause can we possibly month; the times of registering, eight ascribe the process of a bird, (hatched

but

grees lower.

SIR,

Tintense frost

, and other phenomena i

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