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finger along the middle angle, I inter. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. cepted the blue rays; and by pasting a SIR, strip of paper on this plane of my prisin, (ANY reasons prove the vast disa 1 made two spectra. 'But to place the tance of the fired stars. fact beyond the possibility of doubt, I endeavouring to ascertain what that dislooked by means of another prism at the tance is, these circumstances ought not light passing through, and perceived those to be onnitted, fringes, as if hạnging from the angles. The Sun at 30 min. contains 1800 seconds. Indeed, it is surprising, that these circumstances, so easily proved, so evident

32 to the eye, and so highly important in

33"

1980 their consequences, should have escaped

33' 20"

2000 !. observation of such able and accurate

At the Herschelian planet the angle is experimenters as those already mentio therefore about 1' 40","the distance being oned. I shall conclude this paper with

pear 20 of ours; at 100 times it would the following deductions.

be 20", and at 2000 times 1".-2000" That incident light has never yet

120,000" been decomposed; and that Sir, Isaac

Were the Sun therefore removed to Newton and others only decomposed 120,000 times his present distance from light reflected from opaque substances, or

us in winter, * he would still subtend an fringes of blue, red, and yellow.

angle of 1'". At twice that distance of That there are but three primary 300, half a third. colours; blue, red, and yellow, by the

At 3 times this distance, or 360,000 mixture of which, in different states of times his present distance, he would sub condensation, all the others are formed.

tend an angle of only 20"". 3. That Herschel, Leslie, Davy, En

There is no doubt that an object shining glefield, and other philosophers,'' drew. like our Sun, by inherent light, might be vitheir conclusions, relative to the heating sible as a vivid point at this vast distance. power of the prismatic colours, from erro.

Most therefore of the fixed stars which neous data, viz, from experiments on re

are visible to the naked eye may be, and flected light, whose heat must in a great

most probably are, thus distant. And measure depend on the reflecting media, by a telescope stars may be discernible and also on the thickness or thinness of 100, 1000, even 10,000 times this dis. the parts of the prism, through which the tance, though by loss of light, they will fringes pass; thus the red and yellow passa

not be seen so distinctly as if we were ing through the very thin angle, must be brought as much nearer to such stars as accompanied by more radiant caloric the power encreases the angle. than the blue rays which pass through the

But 100,000,000 X 560,000 X 10,000 thickest. But as I am at present engaged 3608,000,000,000,000,000=3616= 360 in a series of experiments to prove that billions of miles. the prismatic coloured rays have si

It seems possible therefore that with milar heating powers, I shall not here our present means of observation we may anticipate. The following diagram will see, and that Dr. Herschel and some few demonstrate my opinions.

other astronomers have seen thus far of the Universal System :

that it is probas blé telescope stars are seen, the light of which has been 750 years in reaching ust. And if a diameter of any of the fixed stars of the 1st or 2d magnitude, for beyond it cannot be expected, could be measured

with accuracy, we might judge what their Rec

distance must be by this scale; and at Yation H

least discover what either thator their mag. Blue

nitude must be to subtend such an angle. Let s represent the Sun, d, g, f, rays

And it may be doubted whether such of undecomposed light striking on the stars as Sirius, Capella, and Spica, and angles A B of the prison, carry forward Regulus, Antares and Arcturus, Aquila the fringes, which being refracted to

and Lyra, are more than 240 or 250,000 wards the perpendicular fall on the spec- times farther from us than our Sun, trum H. The red and yellow rays pass

But then on the other hand, it will be ing through the angle at A must be more

* Accurately, his present diam, is then heated, when falling on the spectrum H, (Jan. 1,) 32" 34" 16: as it is (June 1) 310 than the blue rays passing through the 31" 12." thickness B C.

☆ It seems that Dr. Herschel has observed Gork, Jun, 24. JOSEPH READE, M.D. objects vastly of more remote origin.

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108

Mosaic Pavement lately discovered. [March 1, probable that almost all telescope stars a violent shock from a large stone. On are much more than 4 or even 500,000 examination it was found to be connecttimes more remote.

And indeed that ed with others, so as to form the remains stars of the 6th magnitude cannot be less of a wall, and on pursuing their te than 360,000 times our distance. And searches, a fine pavement was discoverstars of the 7, just discernible to the ed of various hues, and on which are naked eye, not less than 600,000 times: depicted, first a majestic eagle with Gae so that the telescope stars nearest to us nymede, most exquisitely defined, with are probably 860,000 times as distant as an eye that challenges superiority' on the Sun from us; or 862,000,000,000,000 canvas; also, a fine portrait of a female, =3613, or 86 billions of miles. This will not appear enormous if it be con. sidered that at 400,000 times our dis. tance stars even of the first inagnitude have been generally considered to be; which would make them 39 bil. bions of miles distant: or nearly half the distance bere conjectured for the nearest of the telescopic.

Mr. Pond's late observations as astronomer royal, by shewing that the parallactic angle, even of Aquila, it any, is nearly insenible, give an additional proof of the amazing distance of the fixed stars.

If Parker's burning lens has ever been applied to bring the rays of Sirius, when near the meridian, to a focus, and no sensible heat has been produced, ibis, I think, would prove chat Sirius cannot be nearer than 300,000 times our distance. The squareof 300000 being 90000000000. Now, a mirror, or a lens, which should apparently intended for Juno, from her have a power of concentration as 30,000 being attended by two birds nearest rewould reduce this to goodooo of the Sun's sembling peacocks, under which portrait force here; which I apprehend might be

are a number of small gladiators in the sensible to a very delicate thermometer . various attitudes of fighting. with a Nonius.

The department from which the anIf a parallax in the fired stars be ascer. nexed portrait is taken had every, aptainable, perhaps it will be found in Sin pearance of having been an aisle, being rius, Aldabaran, or Spica; if a sensible forty-three feet in length, and about diameter, perhaps in Arcturus, or Fona. three in breadth, and contains a nunaber haut. If a parallax of 6" had existed in of Grecian borders, sinall devices, and Sirius, which would reduce his diameter an insignificant dolphin, over which are to about t of a second, and its distance the letters T. W. This is the first part to 10 Todoo of the O, surely so considerable which the visitor is introduced. The a parallus would ere now have been second contains, besides the Ganymede, ascertained, and a disc so sensible could a Roman bath. hardly have been altogether overlooked. There are a number of other devices,

Caper. Loffr. and, it is thought, another figure, which To the Editor of the Monthly Maguzine. is omitted to be described here, owing IGNOR, a hamlet near the village to the writer's having lost part of his

remarks; but those which are described nowned as having produced some of the are the principal ones. The beauty of finest relics of art extant in this coun the situation, and its proximity to the try, in a tessellated or Mosaic pavement. old Roman road, being but five hnndred The circumstances attending its disco. yards distant, and which it exactly faces, very are as follow: Mr. Tupper, the induces a belief that it was a villa of one proprietor, a farmer, was, as usual, of the Ronian generals. The road runs ploughing his fields after the harvest from Chichester, which was the headof 1811, when, in this field, which he quarters of Vespasian, towards Linden, s himself has ploughed for the last thirty and Bury is about three miles from: or forty years, the ploughshare received Arundel towards Petworth... S. LUKE.

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To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. respective shares, and the purchaser pro

ducing a certificate, and obtaining the Hale Gagazines ante invitation for AVING observed in one of your approbation, &c. (as before) to be admitted

a member.

5. A meinber to be elected to act as members of library and book societies 10 transmit to you an account of the institui president and treasurer: tions to which they respectively belong,

6. Every member to pay annually one I have taken the liberty' of sending the pound to the fimd of the society. following account of the Lewes Library propose a work for the library, either in

At every meeting any member may Society, in the hope that if it should find person or by writing; and those wbich the a place in the pages of your widely-dif- inajority of the members present approve, fused miscellany, the particulars herein to be purchased. given may be useful to other similar so 9. No work of greater prire than three cieties now in existence, or hereafter to guineas to be balloted for, unless proposed be established.

at a previous meeting. The Society' which I am now speaking

12. The books and other articles bei of, owes its origin to the private exertions longing to the society, to be the joint and of a few individuals, who, about the year equal property of all the members. 1785, agreed to contribute the small som

13. Members residing in the neighbours of 13 per month, each, towards the pur, the library, and those at a distance, two

hood may take one volume at a time from chase of books for their mutual use and volumes, which they may spectively keep convenience. This plan meeting with thirty days, but no volunie to be takest approbation, and several other persons away until the same shall liave been one being desirous of joining the original month in the library. A Magazine, or Reparty, át a meeting lield Jan. 1, 1786, a view, may be taken with any other volune series of articles were drawn up, and or volumes, having been seven days in the

signed by the persons present, for the library, but which no'member is to keep
establishnient of an association, to be more than threc days.
called the Lewes Library Society," the 14, 15, 16, 17. Penalties for takiog a
object of which was to collect, as far book before, or keeping it after the time
as their finances would allow,' the best allowed; injuring or losing the same; pro.
works - extant in the various departments lecting to enter in the library book any

curing more than the limited number; negof literature, and thereby, to increase the volume taken; wilfu'ly making a false enopportunities of knowledge to each mera

try ; lending a book out of the society, or ber, and the public in general.

neglecting to pay subscription. From this small beginning, now 28 Upon the foregoing abstract I shall years since, the society has gradually ine only remark, that though the price of creased to its present condition, being admission has been advariced from time composed of 82 members, and possessing to time, according to circumstances, yet a library of about 2450 vols. viz. folios

even at present it is less to each mernber 30, quartos 220, octavos 1280 (besides than one-third of the original cost of the 350 of the principal magazines, reviews, books, and it has been kept so low, in &c.), and duodecimos 570, of which a order to induce persons to join the soa catalogue is printed for the use of the ciety till the number of members should mepbers. It is regulated by the series amount to one hundred; and also, that of articles before-mentioned, occasion

the article allowing the sale of shares, ally. altered as was found necessary for upon deaih, removal, or otherwise, althe convenience and welfare of the so

ways keeps up the number of members, ciety. That the reader may understand which is inaterial to the success of the . the leading principles upon which the plan for establishing a permanent library, society is constituted, I shall give an ab Dec. 20, 18 i3.

LEWESIENSIS. straet of the chief of these articles as they now stand:

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, 1.2. A meeting to be held quarterly,

SIR, in which live members shall be competent PLyour excellent publicatioil, to reto act.

3. Any person obtaining by ballot the quest for myself, avs the rest of your approbation of two-thirds of the members astronomical readers, some information present at a meeting,' and paying five gni- respecting the following modern astropeas, to be admitted a member, and entitled nomical catalogues, to a share in the library.

1. The celebrated Lalande, with his 4. The members may, dispose of their pephevy and niece, within the space of MONTILY MAG. No, 252,

about

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110

Metrical Illustration of the [March 1, about ten or eleven years, ascertained To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. the positions of between 40,000 and

SIR, 50,000 stars, from 00 to about 1160 of N. Pol. dist. the catalogue of which was published in separate portions in the well as adopted principles: on the Connoisance des Temps, for the year 7, laying down; as well as the taking up doc, (1799), and subsequent volumes, nearly trines, relative to life-equivalents and up to the present time.

lise-annuities, lately inserted in some of 2. Cit. Vidal, at Mirepoix, ascertained the numbers of your truly valuable sea with great care and accuracy, the posi. pertory of science; they have not only, tions of 888 austral siars, for January 31, deeply instructed me; but also, highly 1798. (I suppose this catalogue is in- entertained me. tended as a supplement to that of La. Oh! that an apple, falling from a tree : Jande.)

Shou'd unfold the whole law of gravity! 3. M. Piozzi, astronomer at Palermo, That apple's fall, might be impell’d by chanco: in Sicily, published about 1800, or 1801,

Consider'd a fortuitous event. a general Catalogue of Stars; but whether Nearer to Earth : the quicker in advance : a compilation, or an original work, I

May lead to some future experiment; know not.

Proving that Life's dependant premiums;

Solv'd by chance; are but chance deliriums. Quære the contents, arrangement, and peculiarities of these three Catalogues,

Life though ; an accelerative motion : of which the above short account is all I The older: the swifter, in proportion

Yet; being subject to fortuity : jjave been able to find.

As death retards its continuity. If any

of your correspondents should This principle seems, a contradiction, be in possession of, or have access to Novertheless; it is not a fiction. all, or any of the above Catalogues, an Two chords in music, both in size; not length: account of them, inserted in some future

One, just half the other, tension's fournumber of your Magazine, will be in fold, teresting.

Chimes in unison, to the other's strength : Perhaps some of your correspondents

Alike in concord: as the spheres of old. may likewise be able to point out in what This dupli-quadruple law of gamuts :

Reigns in harmony among the planets. modern Catalogue the following stars of Bayer's are to be found. They form Planetary impulse is co-equal, only a part of the characters omitted by when distance is to distance, duplical :

And gravity quadruple, next the Sun, Flamsteed, in his great work, which is

Fair Science ! that a falling apple wen. far from containing ail the stars observed Great Newton's planetary monument, by preceding astronomers.

This steel-yard principle does represent. Andromedæ (52 7)—, Q, a And. (the Orbs velocities, ellipsing the sun, Jalier of these is not in Fl. and I suspect Ray-indexing amphiparabolas, the other two are not the same as in Or, two half orbits uniting in one : Bayer,) Auriga--a Cassiopeia-w or In equal times : Space equal areas. b Cassi : (one of these two is not in Fl.) - Those planes are equal in astronomy: e Cygni (26?)Eridani, (see Phil. Progressive too, in life-economy. Trans. lxxvi, 204, 205.)- Geminorum Planes, whether equable or augmented (62 ?)-%; } Gem. (6, 15, Cancri?)— Both, are interpreters of life-term laws : a Herculis,--b Persei, (see Miss Her- Typicals of facts, thus represented;

But not affianc'd to those mental flaws: schel's Cai. No. 3 and 4.)-1,b, Sa

Dissecting cach person into fractions, gittarii,my, &, 0, 0, 4, Scorpii

, (20, 51, And adding reversions, by subtractions. 50, 39, 48 Litræ?)-- Serpentis, (see Some lemmatarian receptacles, Miss Herschel's Cat. Nos. 100,-, 76, Premis'd for the mind, first to occupy: Ophiuchi,-. Oph. (66 Herculis ?)

Prove often; but hoodwinking. spectacles, The following is a sketch of the number And such as strict truth cannot justify. of stars observed by Flamsteed; his Bri. Thus purblinding-learned authority : tannic Cataloglie contains 2,935, of Keeps often plain-sense in minority. which 2,736 are completely observed; The life-computing mathematicians, 64 imperfectly; 111* not observed at Among their Lemmata, have this one te all; and 24 inserted twice. Besides

know : which, his observations contain 371 of Being such excellent chance-tacticians, the first class, and 132 of the second.

"Shoot at a pigeon; and strike dead, a

crow." Total, 3,107 compleiely, and 196 im- All questions with them; but count number perfectly observed. ΑΣΤΡΟΦΙΛΟΣ, ,

So yield a result i as true, as their gun, * Of these, the greater part de 110$ exist,

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The laying down doctrine of De Moivre, by equating

Makes the value of an annuity Once

Depend on the interest; moreover, Term'd unity, proxy for certainty.

On Life's long or short continuity. Life's fraction'd thus: so timelessly spun,

His taking-up doctrine does manifest: Thread

Life's span quite depends on the interest.

Survivors above: the living below, far short of eternity :

a line ... meal'd

With

make not life's tether.
count
muoh

between A.'s death must

? his life : how what

Errors on errors, hap-hazard must grow, less more

Grafted on such a will-o-wisp measure. Or, life death ? if spun to four-score? As Halley taught so ; his pupils think so ;

This is to fancy; instead of to know. That an event shall both happen and fail, To multiply, lives single durations According to chance-doctrinality:

Together, that tlieir products may become * Counting but one”: is a truth, I assail,

Joint lives co-tenures : are such equations! As not recognis'd by vita'ity.

That Chancers of Life shou'd learn to un.
L'fe's true doctrine : as different by far;
As Fellowships with : and without time ; are.

Joint-lives thus chanc'd algebraically;
Halley, though ; as profoundly stable, Teach us to err mathematically.
A mathematician: as man cou'd be :

If in analogies, we must persist,
Yet; Halley, as vitallist; was unable,

And not unlink associations : To read his own scale of vitality.

First prove wherein :'their likenesses consiat Where Halley chanc'd " So”: must we there Then safely trust to assimilations. chance so?

Squares and cubes link compound-casualty ; Chancing as he did ? where he hap-chanc'd But squares and cubes unlink mortality. « no"?

Surviving multiply'd by surviving: That an event shall not happen to fail :

According to joint-chance analogy, Is as its chances for coming to pass :

And also the living, by the living, To those that it shall, and shall not prevail. Is only joint-fraction tautology.

In what time will lite ? belong to this class? Why shou'd life-joiners, so much endeavour Time ! beat to life? such Lemma, but glimpse To make youth and age : transmute together ?

on, Wou'd at once : what ! un-teach? a Price ? or,

The rate of mortality thus destroy'd, a Simpson

By squares and by cubes; tho’ not by lines.

If understandings were rightly employ'd : One year: can we die and then live the next? They'd trace things-signify'd ; instead of Our chance take for this ? altho' dead be.

signs; fore?

And algebraics not spread, to conceal Next year: die again? kill'd off by chance- Adopted ignorance; but truth reveal,

text? And so live and die ? till after four-score ?

Planetary periods round the Sun : Computers of life, imagine we can

All square to the cubes of orbs distances :

With Moons as well, this principle is one : Die; and yet live, by their chance-medley

In all their several co-instances : plan.

These are likenesses, where computations : Can any one state the hour of the day? Justly coincide with observations.

From one of twelve sides of a polygon? Twirl'd up by a spinning tetotum's play?

The seven bright colours in the rainbow :

Denote music's seven natural chords:
Curious! that such duodecagon
Shou'd life hour; got time hour youth and old

Light's rays refracted : just varying so:

Are similarities, that truth affords. age: As chance-life magicians wisely presage.

O Light! () Sun! yoạr laws do justify

The true Newtonian philosophy. Hopeful! mathematical vagaries !

To seek by cubes, for three lives many depths, Redeeming annuitants from their tombs, Just as the rate of interest varies :

Is playing at toss-ball, with three at once. To revisit as oft their mothers wombs,

To seek by squares, "for two lives many And be new born: thus live, die, rise, and

breadths,

Is like: I know not what; I'm such a dance :

dunce. To that strange Harmonist, blind-fiddler chance,

To seek by chance, for one life's many deaths,

Is taking instalments, of that life's breaths, A silly nurse, may tell a timid child: of ghosts alive, and walking in the dark;

The life-chance tenets of Doctor Halley : But must the manly mind be so beguild?

Made Simpson and De Moivre both think That what it aims at; quite mistake the That chance and life, without time do tally:

mark? Do not ghosts walk by day; as well as night?

Is not a truth; tho' Price believ'd it strong. Why seen in darkness: and not knowa in

Copiers copyists cannot think well,
light?

Dill prototype-erross they first expel.
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