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barn-yard“ interiors ” and the beasts of the theory I have advanced. It should never be field. Dr. Johnson's well-known foibles forgotten of Lord Macaulay that his Liberalwith regard to the Cock Lane Ghost and the ism was largely of a purely literary character. superstitions of the Hebrides and kindred It seems as if his mental attitude towards subjects, have been made to cover a host of Liberalism was like what many people impuerilities in these more“ enlightened ” days. agine Dr. Newman's mental attitude to be In fact, it may be said of the acknowledged towards Roman Catholicism. His Liberalfounder of any sort of school, that if he could ism was in truth Whiggism of the Queen return to earth for a season, he would be Anne period. Montague and Somers, not shocked beyond measure at the develop. Lord Russell and Earl Grey, were the gods ments of his teaching, and would, institute of his idolatry; and his admiration for the such a sweeping reformation as would leave revolution was a warmer feeling than his seven-eighths of his followers screaming in regard for the Reform Bill. Nor should it chorus against the destruction of their rock be forgotten that he started as a Tory.' And and the condemnation of their theories. In to the last and from the first his personal atthe higher Politics, this would be particularly titude towards the people as a people was true.

Even Voltaire would refuse to be re- one more 'characteristic of an Edinburgh sponsible for the excesses of the revolution Tory than of a Clapham or London Liberal. ary period. Charles Fox would repudiate He had not one of the "points" of a Liberal the Dilkes, Chamberlains, and Jenkinses leader. He was not fond of appealing to the with fiery scorn. I doubt extremely if masses; he was not fond of public speaking, even Mr. Cobden would permit his Free he was not genial, he was not popular; he Trade theories to cover a changed condition neglected his correspondents; he snubbed of commerce under which British goods are delegations. He thought he was doing the met everywhere by hostile tariffs, while for people of Edinburgh an honour in representeign goods of the same kind are admitted ing them, and that in re-electing him they free to English markets, destroying the in- did but make an act of “reparation ” which dustry of the British workman, whose tea, was due from them to him. This was not tobacco, liquors, and medicines are taxed the conventional Liberal note of personal conalmost beyond endurance.

duct. But it is of his party relations that I It appears to the present writer that no wish more particularly to speak. Almost at man has suffered more from the unwarranted the outset of his career he learned to have a assumptions of bis followers than Lord hearty hatred for Lord Brougham, the great Macaulay. And the references made to him Liberal Champion, and this hatred never by Mr. Laurier, in his famous lecture of ceased. It was probably mutual, as a refersome months ago, and by Sir Francis Hincks ence to Brougham's autobiography might at a very recent period, induce me to pen a reveal, but for that there is no occasion. few observations which occurred to me on a Just here it may be interesting to notice Lord second perusal of Mr. Trevelyan's noble Brougham's views on Lord Durham's report, “Life." Stated broadly, the conclusion I have about which Sir Francis Hincks has had so come to is this, that from the date of much to say. “It was,” Brougham said, “a Macaulay's re-entry into public life, after second-rate article for the Edinburgh Rehis return from India, there was a continued view. The matter came from a swindler, and ever-increasing divergence of opinion the style from a coxcomb, and the Dictator between him and the bulk of the Liberal furnished only six letters-D-U-R-H-A.M.” Party. And from this point of view it seems (See Macaulay's Life, vol. 11. p. 49.) Manot only impossible, but a little ridiculous to caulay's peculiar views concerning parties try to make the Whig historian the foster- began, as has been said, almost immediately father of a Colonial Liberalism which contains after his return from India. The Whigs were few, if any, of the prime postulates of Lord not in good odour, and indeed were on the Macaulay's political beliefs. If any curious down grade to the break-up of 1841. Macaureader of his “Life” will take it up and pe lay saw at once their unwisdom and their ruse the second volume carefully, I think evi- weakness. In 1838 he wrote : dences of the divergence I have referred to suspicion is that the Tories in the House can be found, if not as thick as blackberries, of Lords will lose reputation, though I do at least in numbers sufficient to support the not imagine that the Government will gain

“My own any. As to Brougham, he has reached that but an internal dissension is the single calamity happy point at which it is equally impossible from which the Whigs are at present exempt. for him to gain character or lose it.”

I will not add it to all their other plagues. Indeed it was not very possible for Macau.

Ever yours,

T. B. MACAULAY. lay, with his high sense of the nature of Whig principles, to view with pleasure the Whig In 1845, after having poured on Peel all policy and practices of the period, when, as the vials of his indignant rhetoric, we find Praed wrote, a Whig minister

Macaulay writing thus to his sister Hannah :

"If, which is not absolutely impossible, “Has seen distrust in every look ;

though improbable, Peel should still try to Has heard in every voice rebuke ;

patch up a Conservative administration, and Exulting yet, as home he goes From sneering friends and pitying foes,

should, as the head of that administration, That, shun him, hate him if they will,

propose the repeal of the Corn Laws, my He keeps the seals and salary still."

course is clear. I must support him with all

the energy I have till the question is carried. His very first effort in Parliament was an Then I am free to oppose him.” And in effort to justify the privilege claimed by the the same letter he writes, “ If Lord John Goveroment, of permitting some of the min- should undertake to form a Whig ministry, isters to vote against ministerial measures ; and should ask my assistance, I cannot in and it is curious to notice that the defence honour refuse it. But I shall distinctly tell was made altogether from the literary point him, and tell my colleagues and constituents, of view, and without ever once discussing the that I will not again go through what I went principle of the thing. His next was to de- through in Lord Melbourne'sadministration." fend Lord Cardigan for practices for which In 1845 again, December 20th, we find in these days his lordship would not be per- Macaulay indicting his party leaders to his mitted to remain in the British service, at sister Hannah. He writes as follows :—"I least in high command, for twenty-four hours; have no disposition to complain of the loss and Mr. Trevelyan admits that this heavy of office. On the contrary, my escape from duty was "quite sufficient occupation for one the slavery of a placeman is my only consominister.” In 1843, Macaulay's distaste for lation. But I feel that we are in an ignoWhig policy was so marked, that a letter of minious position as a party.” It was after that period will be quite justifiable even in a Lord Grey's disagreement had prevented short article :

Lord John from forming a cabinet, and the ALBANY, Feb'y, 1843- public interests were temporarily sacrificed DEAR ELLIS :- I never thought that I should to personal considerations. I pass over the live to sympathise with Brougham's abuse of quarrel with his constituency and his defeat the Whigs ; but I must own that we deserve it at Edinburgh in 1847. In that case his lanand disgraceful course which our leaders have guage and conduct were such as to mark resolved to take. I really cannot speak or write

with the greatest emphasis his departure of it with patience. They are going to vote from Whig principles and his own eloquent thanks to Ellenborough in direct opposition to professions, even in his history, of the revertheir opinion, and with an unanswerable case ence which popular judgment should always against him on their hands, only that they may receive at the hands of the people's repre. save Auckland from recrimination. They will sentatives. At page 178 of the “ Life,” after not save him, however. Cowardice is a mighty his enforced retirement from political life, we poor defence against malice, and to sacrifice read :-"Sometimes he would recast his the whole weight and respectability of our party to the feelings of one man is—but the thing is thoughts and give them over again in the too bad to talk about. I cannot avert the dis- shape of an epigram.

You call me grace of our party ; but I do not choose to share Liberal,' he said, “but I don't know that in it. I shall therefore go to Clapham quietly, these days I deserve the name. and leave those who have cooked this dirt-pie posed to the abolition of standing armies. I for us, to eat it. I did not think that any poli

am opposed to the abrogation of capital tical matter would have excited me so much as this has done. I fought a very hard battle, but punishment. I am opposed to the destruchad nobody except Lord Minto and Lord Clan- tion of the National Church.

In short, I ricarde to stand by me. I could easily get up am in favour of war, hanging, and church a mutiny among our rank and file if I chose, establishments.'

a

I am op

During the period that elapsed between ‘Macaulay's indifference to the vicissitudes of his defeat at Edinburgh and his re-election in party politics had by this time grown into a con1852, his mind had been losing its purely firmed habit of mind. His correspondence dupartisan bent, and the occasion of his first ring the Spring of 1857, contains but few and brief

allusions to even catastrophes as striking as the speech to the electors of his constituency we

ministerial defeat upon the China war, and the read that he reviewed the events of the past overwhelming reverse of fortune which ensued five years “in a strain of lofty impartiality” — when the question was referred to the polling although he did, in the course of it, "change booths. Was there ever anything,' he writes, his tone,” but only for a little while, to give since the fall of the rebel angels like the smash them a taste of his old “rattling party quality.” of the Anti-corn-law league? How art thou There was an absence of asperity in the fallen from Heaven, O Lucifer !' Macaulay's speech, which, considering the relations of opinion, was in favour of the Government, and

opinion on the matter, so far as he had any parties was rather striking in a man who was against the Coalition. 'I am glad,' he wrote, looked upon, and with justice, as a great party on the eve of the debate, “that I have done with champion. In the same year we read in his politics. I should not have been able to avoid diary a tribute to the “practical ability” of a pretty sharp encounter with Lord John.'” Mr. Disraeli. And again we read, during the progress of the formation of Lord John's

Hear we may finish. It seems pretty clear Government in 1852, of “ the sympathy, not

that during the most eminent portion of his unmingled with amusement, with which he career, even while the Whigs and Liberals

were looking to him with pride and conficolleagues;” sympathy and amusement being dence, he was looking away from them, and queer feelings for an old political colleague gradually growing in beliefs on public questo entertain for the men at whose side he had tions that in their due logical consequences fought his way to fame, and from whose ad would in time have compelled him towards, miring support he had received his first ad- if not into, the Conservative camp. In our vances and his greatest fortune. In Novem- day, short as is the time that has elapsed ber, 1852, he writes : “ Joe Hume talked would be found supporting the Government

since his death, is it not more likely that he to me earnestly about the necessity for a

and union with the Liberals. He said much

party that have reformed the representabout the ballot and the franchise.

I told ation, improved the sanitary condition of the him that I could easily come to some com- people, protected the national honour, expromise with some of his friends on these tended the territory of the empire by bloodmatters, but that there were other ques

less conquests, consolidated the colonies tions about which I feared there was

under a British form of government, and irreconcilable difference, particularly the

preserved the peace of Europe in the face of vital question of national defence. He

insane Liberal agitations, rather than followseemed quite confounded, and had abso- ing in the train of those who carry their lutely nothing to say. I am fully determined burning” questions and “ blazing” princito make them eat their words on that point ples-the entire secularization of schools in or to have no political connection with a country with a national Church, and the them.” At the outbreak of the Crimean destruction of that Church in a country in war we find Macaulay sneering at the popular which, as Newman said, “it is the great attacks on Prince Albert ; and a little later

bulwark against infidelity”— at the head of we find him partially withdrawing his admir- an army of agitators and radicals, with whom ation from even Lord Brougham, in whom he the great Whig historian would have nothing always reposed an admiring confidence. He in common? And by parity of reasoning, was a strong supporter of the anti-Russian what hope is there to find in Lord Macaulay policy, and afterwards wrote the inscription a sponsor for a misty programme of Liberalfor a national monument to the soldiers and ism, in which he could not find one prin

“ died in the defence sailors who in this war

ciple, not common to all parties, of

which he could approve ? of the liberties of Europe." And let me conclude these references and citations by one last quotation from the “ Life,” of the date

MARTIN. J. GRIFFIN. 1857:

an

BUDDHA AND BUDDHISM.

I. THE MAN.

if ,

F"nothing human is foreign” to any | ness," - must be charged, even in an age of ler, that the history of religion is the history intenser interest than the unconscious growth of the “divine education of the human race, of Bathybius or Amoeba in ocean depths, then that system of belief which has stood or the development of Mollusc or Ascidian for a religion during thousands of years, to in some remote geological period. a third of that race, must be one of no little Within the last half century, during which, interest to all who care to trace the higher contemporaneously with a growing materialdevelopment of humanity. And he who, as ism, there has grown up also, on the other its founder, has so mightily influenced the hand, a growing appreciation of the spiritual lives and destinies of countless millions, de history of the human race, Buddha and Budserves a larger share of attention than many dhism have been exciting more and more who now usurp a much larger portion of attention, and have attracted to themselves it. Place beside his influence on mankind the careful study of many of the best minds that of any military hero of ancient or mod- of Europe. Formerly, indeed, all distinct ern history, and the latter sinks into insig- knowledge of either seemed hopelessly ennificance ; and yet, for hundreds who are shrouded in myth and mist, and the ideas familiar with the deeds of a Cæsar or a Na- current even among learned men, were vague poleon, there are, perhaps, a few here and in the extreme; as may be seen in the fact there, who have any but the vaguest ideas that the Manichæans believed Buddha, Christ, to associate with the name of Gautama and Mani, to be one and the same person, Buddha. Mr. Morley most reasonably ob- and that, even in the eighteenth and ninejects to Dr. Draper's "fundamental axiom of teenth centuries, books were written to prove history that human progress depends upon Buddha identical with the Egyptian Thoth, increase of our knowledge of the conditions or with Mercury, or Wodan, or Zoroaster, of material phenomena,” as if, says Mr. Mor- or Pythagoras ; while even so recent and so ley, “moral advance, the progressive ele- profound an Orientalist as Sir William Jones vation of types of character and ethical ideals, identified him, first with Odin, and afterwards were not, at least, an equally important with Shishak, “who, either in person or b ya cause of improvement in civilization.” To colony from Egypt, imported into India the those who think thus, and their number must mild heresy of the ancient Buddhas.” The include all who appreciate the higher issues discovery, however, in 1824, by Mr. Hodgof man's complex life, the life of the founder son, English Resident at Nepaul, of the oriof Buddhism must be one of the most im- ginal Buddhist Canon in Sanskrit, preserved portant landmarks in the history of man- in the monasteries there, followed immekind, second only in its character and effects diately by the discoveries of the Hungarian to that of the infinitely greater light, the traveller Csoma de Körös in Thibet, and the founder of Christianity Himself. For, to researches of Mr. Turnour among the Pali those who feel to how great an extent the originals of Buddhist sacred literature in Cey. spiritual history of the present is the out- lon, gave a new impetus to the study of come of the spiritual history of the past, the Buddhism. Among the vigorous and culpassionate yearnings and aspirations of the tivated minds that have given time and larace towards the mystery of the Infinite, bour to the work of disentangling from ancient its partial success in groping after a know- myths and piles of oriental MSS. some defiledge that ever eludes the human faculties, nite solution of a problem so interesting, we its ineffectual · attempts to solve the old, find not only French savants and academiold problem of human life and the unknown cians--notably Eugéne Burnouf and M. Barfuture, and the relation of man to a dimly thélemy St. Hilaire — and patient German conceived "Power that makes for righteous philologists, but also British travellers and officials, and Christian missionaries, includ- freely partaken of, splendours of gold and ing at least two Roman Catholic Bishops ; silver, and of an unearthly glory, brighter and by their combined labours it has come to than sun or moon, were among the portents pass that the vague heroic form which had that glorified the palace and heralded the loomed through the mists of ages and the birth of the Buddha. How to disentangle enshrouding folds of myth and fable, as less the real history of the man from the accretion human than divine, has grown, in the clearer of myth and marvel has been a work of no light of the nineteenth century, into something small difficulty and delicacy. As Max Mülbetter than a legendary demi-god, a true, ler remarks, it is by no means a safe process living, self-devoted man, full of the “enthu- to " distil history out of legend by simply siam of humanity," and, despite his strange straining the legendary through the sieve of missing of the knowledge of God, one of the physical possibility,” since many things which greatest and purest of uninspired teachers are physically possible, may be invention, and reformers.

while others, which seemed impossible, “have The various names by which Gautama been reclaimed as historical, after removing Buddha has been called have been rather from them the thin film of mythological puzzling to ordinary readers, who have been phraseology.” The very existence of such a hardly able to make out whether there was man as Gautama Sakya Muni has been sup not more than one historical Buddha. The posed to be mythical, and the significance name Buddha is a generic one, meaning En- of the names of himself, his family, and his lightened, from the root budh, to know, an- birth-place, been brought forward in proof swering somewhat to the Hebrew “ Prophet." of this hypothesis. Probably, we shall best According to the Buddhist belief, one world approximate the truth as to the personal hishas succeeded another from all eternity, tory of the recluse of Kapilavastu, by followfollowing the earliest system of Evolution, ing mainly Max Müller in the brief and raand in each of these countless worlds and tional sketch he has given of the life of this cycles of time, there have been Buddhas wonderful man, as handed down by tradition, “ enlightened” to teach mankind. In the and committed to writing before the close of present mundane system they believe that the First Century.* there have been seven great Buddhas, the last The time which Max Müller holds to be and greatest being the Buddha of history, the most probable date of the death of the Sakya muni, Gautama Buddha. The first Buddha is 477 B. C., which would place liis name, meaning monk or hermit of the Sakyas, birth about 556 B. C. It was a time when a was probably given to him in later life, as of splendid cluster of great minds shone togecourse was the appellation of Buddha. The ther in the intellectual sky. Confucius, in name Gautama he took from his clan, and China, and Pythagoras, Xenophanes, and another name, Siddhartha, is said to have Heraclitus, in Greece, were contemporanebeen given to him in childhood, though its ous, or nearly so, with Gautama ; while in significance, “he whose desires are accom- Western Asia the Hebrew prophets, Daniel, plished," seems to indicate a later origin. Ezra, Nehemiah, Habakkuk, Obadiah, and According to Buddhist legend, Gautama was Zephaniah lived and taught, during some part born on the earth at least 550 times before of the life of the great Indian reformer. he was born a Buddha, passing from the very Kapilavastu, his birth-place, was the capital lowest forms of existence up to the highest, of a province of the same name at the foot by the force of unswerving moral purity, love, of the mountains of Nepaul, north of the and charity. When, at last, he was to be born

present Oude.

Its site and ruins were a Buddha, he is said to have selected his visited by Fahian in the fifth century, and own parentage and place of birth. Oriental by Hiouen Thsang, the great Chinese Budlegend, always prodigal of its marvels towards dhist, two centuries later. Suddhodana, the heroes and saints, has surrounded his birth father of Gautama, was King of Kapilavastu, with every circumstance that could give it dignity and impressiveness in oriental eyes. Flowers lavishly blooming on all sides, ec- * In the sketch which follows, the writer has sol. static songs of miraculous birds, sweet strains lowed-as well as Max Müller-the interesting life of

Buddha given by Mr. C. D. Mills, an American of musical instruments played without hands, writer, in his “ Buddha and Buddhism," as this is magical banquets undiminished by being in some respects fuller.

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