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feast of acorns. He crept home quietly, such as one would expect, and indeed often only a few hundred yards distant, and then find, in mountain regions, we saw long he was actually obliged to run some bul- stretches of mud, covered with a luxuriant lets ; but still he was in time to shoot Mr. growth of wild grasses, through which it was Bruin, who was munching his breakfast of very difficult to pull the canoes. On all sides nuts quite unconcernedly in the same place. were large patches of water lilies, as exquisiteWe rarely hear of these animals doing any ly beautiful as the purest camelia or lily of damage to the young cattle. They prefer the conservatory. In passing over the nuts and berries, on which they fatten won “carries” between the lakes-and it is rarely derfully well before retiring to their winter a lake is not connected with one or more in siesta. Wolves are often found prowling this country--the ground was perfectly gorround the more distant cabins and shanties, geous with cardinal flowers, which were growand you see their skins in many of the farming with a luxuriance the writer has never houses, where they come in very convenient- seen equalled in Canadian woods. Not in ly as floor mats.
the tropics themselves are the azaleas or rhoIn the course of my most recent ramble dodendrons more beautifully massed than are through the mountains, I had an opportu- these flowers of the Laurentian Hills. All nity of visiting the most curious cave which the flowers of this wild section are unrivalled has yet been found in Canada. It is situated for size and colour. Nature here revels in in the Township of Wakefield, some twenty proving what she can do among the primeval miles due north from the city of Ottawa. rocks. The soil, rich with the accumulation A camping expedition through this country of ages and watered by the freshets of spring, will well repay the adventurous tourist, pro- produces flowers, plants, and trees of an vided he or she do not mind an occasional abnormal size. Away in the heart of this thunderstorm. I have heard of a party of wilderness, far from any post road, only acladies and gentlemen who went out during cessible to the world in winter, stands the last summer with much enthusiasm to en- hut of a French Canadian, on the brow of a joy the beauties of nature among the pic- hill overlooking a lake glittering with lilies. turesque, hills and lakes of this wild country. The slope is so stony and precipitous that It was very charming to young ladies some it is impossible to use a plough, but still what bored with the dissipations of the among the rocks we saw oats and wheat, capital, to camp by the side of the lake, sur- with a stalk of some five feet in height and rounded by the pine-clad hills. How lovely well filled ears. The habitant uses a grubthe moon would light up the dark blue waters bing hoe to plant his little crop, which proves and shed her rays among the avenues of firs ! the luxuriance of the soil. If a man had a But, alas, instead of the moon, there arose hundred acres of such soil, free from rocks the most fearful thunder and lightning storm and stumps, he would soon make a handsome of the year, and the once hopeful party had livelihood. But it is hard work using a hoe to run from their white tents under the among the rocky hills. The habitant who romantic pines, and seek shelter in a very owns his solitary cabin does not depend on unromantic barn, where the lightning flashed the little crop garnered from the stony slopes, wildly through the logs ; and next day they but makes potash, for which there is abunreturned sadly home to illustrate once more dant material on all sides. “the vanity of human wishes." But to the The most interesting feature of the Wakeold weather-beaten rambler storms like these field Cave is the entrance, which lies on the are only so many breaks in the monotony of side of a beautifully wooded hill. The mouth sylvan life; they serve to show nature in her is almost hidden by ferns and trees, and is of most awful guise ; for the thunder rolls from an oval form. Unfortunately my exploration hill to hill, and the lightning discharges on was only very partial, on account of my time many a pine, and shrivels the bark to the being limited and the supply of lights giving
out too soon. On this account, I cannot do The lakes of Wakefield are of considerable better than give the reader a minute descripsize, and distinguished by such trite names tion of its leading features as furnished me as Mud or Dam Lake, which, if not eupho by Dr. Grant of Ottawa, who has probably nious, are at least illustrative of naiural char- explored the cave more thoroughly than any acteristics. Instead of clear, rocky margins, one I know, in his zeal to make himself ac
quainted with the geological attributes of the chamber, and presents a rich appearance as Ottawa Valley. “The mouth of the cave,” seen through the opening above the arch. I am now quoting the words of the doctor, To the right of the oblique floor of the an" is fully eighteen feet in diameter, of an tero-lateral cavity, is an opening, horse-shoe oval shape, beautifully arched, and having shaped, scalloped, about five feet in diameter, overhanging it pine and cedar trees of con- and considerably obscured by the oversiderable size. The entire height of the hanging rock. From the body of the cave mountain is about 300 feet and the entrance the passage leading from this opening takes to the cave is about 100 feet below the sum- a direction at an angle of about 25 degrees mit. At the base of the mountain is a small to the right. Its entire length is about 270 lake, which discharges into the Gatineau feet, height between 4 and 5 feet, and width River through a mountain gorge of exquisite the same. The floor is rough and covered beauty. Looking inwards from the mouth of with small fragments of rocks of various the cave it is funnel-shaped, directed oblique sizes, and from the ceiling hang many small ly forwards and downwards a distance of 74 stalactites. At the inner terminus of this feet, at which point it is contracted to a passage is an opening more or less circular, height of five feet and a width of fifteen feet. about 20 feet in diameter, and the rock over This contraction forms the entrance to the it is concave, and fully 15 feet in height. first grand chamber, 80 feet in length, 31 Stones thrown into this well or cavity give feet across, and 9 feet in height throughout. rise to a loud, rumbling noise. Its depth is At the posterior part of this chamber, in an 37 feet, and the bottom measures 9 feet by oblique direction to the left, is an opening 30 feet, on either side of which are two openfive feet in height, forming the entrance to ings, one 5 feet by 12 feet, 22 feet in depth, the third chamber, which is about 18 feet in the other 2 feet by 3 feet and 45 feet in diameter and five feet high. The floor, depth. The floors of these lower cavities however, is covered with calcareous breccia are covered with fine sand, and on every side to a depth of three feet or more. Looking are to be seen beautiful stalactites. On the outwards, two openings are to be seen to right and left of the main passage of this the left of the first chamber, one anterior, well are to be observed several smaller pasbroad and elevated, and one posterior, con- sages which, from their narrowness, are entracted and shallow, passing obliquely up- tered with difficulty. Here and there in wards and backwards a distance of fully 25 each chamber, particularly from the ceilings, feet. This chamber is entirely encrusted with are to be seen rough projecting portions of carbonate of lime of a cheesy consistence, rocks of various shapes and composed chiefly and in the centre a perfectly white column of quartzite, pyroxene, serpentine, iron pyreaches from the floor to the ceiling, about rites, and various mineral ingredients peculiar six inches in diameter, formed by the union 'to the crystalline Laurentian limestone formaof stalactite and stalagmite. The antero- tions. În many parts of the cave, the walls, lateral chamber passes in an oblique direc particularly those to the right of each chamtion upwards, a distance of 30 feet, at which ber as entered, were covered with almost point the ceiling is fully 50 feet high, of a uniform sheets of carbonate of lime. The gothic shape and beautifully ornamented cavern is entered by descending on talus or with stalactites and fringe-like encrustations broken rock ; this is succeeded by a floor of carbonate of lime. Some 60 feet from the partly flat, smooth, and presenting a watermouth of the cave, to the right, is a narrow worn appearance. From the foregoing depassage, rough, uneven, and forming the en- scription, it will be seen that the chambers trance to a chamber, the floor of which as- are, as a rule, small, and not very convecends obliquely upwards a distance of 30 niently reached on account of the lowness of feet, the height of this point being about 50 the passages. The atmosphere is somewhat feet. On the way up, a beautiful arch is to variable, quite warm in parts, and lower be seen, above and beneath which this cham down quite chilly, but it is entirely free from ber communicates with the one entered by any deleterious gases.
The evidences of the antero-lateral opening from the Grand the action of water are very clearly seen Chamber, and the light reflected from a lamp throughout the cave, and it may be surmised through the opening below this arch illumi- that at some very distant time in the past a nates the entire ceiling of the adjoining stream of water another “ Lost River"
found here a subterranean passage. A careful mistaken-just as he is, so often, in his exploration of all the passages will, in all weather speculations ; for the writer recalls probability, give us many facts, interesting to mind the fact that even so eminent an from a scientific point of view. It would re- authority as Dr. Dawson had no idea of the quire a considerable sum of money to clear existence of gold in Nova Scotia, where he out the debris, and to excavate at certain and other geologists had long been engaged spots in order to solve the problem whether in geological researches ; and it was left to a the part so far explored is only the ante-thirsty wayfarer to see the precious metal chamber, as it were, to a much larger cavern. glittering from the pebbly bed of a little The results will hardly be as interesting to brook, as he knelt down to drink of the crysthe world in general as those of Dr. Schlie- tal water. mann in the East, but they may not be un- The country beyond the river in the Déimportant to us who dwell in a region of sert has been very little explored, and the rocks, where every day we hear of the fresh tide of settlement has stopped at the village, discovery of minerals. Who can say that with a description of which I may approthere may not be some "treasure trove" in priately close this desultory sketch. From this curious cave of the Laurentian range ? the moment you leave the Six Portages on
The River du Liévre also comes down the Gatineau, some 70 miles from Ottawa, into the Ottawa from the same region of you lose sight of a rapid river and picturesque rocks and lakes where the Gatineau takes its country, and pass over a comparatively rise. It runs parallel, as it were, with the level tract, covered for the most part with latter, and is a much smaller stream, but it unsightly stumps and gaunt trunks of is also remarkable for its rapid waters, its dead pines, and only brightened at discascades, and its encircling hills. It is in tant intervals by a glimpse of a little lake, the country between these two rivers that around which a young growth of hardwood the most valuable mineral discoveries have and poplars has sprung up since the fires of late been made. Valuable mines of which have devastated the whole of this secplumbago, unequalled in extent and richness tion. It was a piercing cold day when we of quality, are worked in the vicinity of Buck- reached the top of the ridge overlooking the ingham, a village of some thousand souls, valley where the Désert and Gatineau Rivers picturesquely situated, and containing several mingle their waters. As we drove rapidly stores and churches. The discovery of phos along the smooth icy road there floated over phate is on a very remarkable scale, for the wind a sound as welcome as that which there appears to be no limit to its deposit Whittier tells us delights the ears of the Red all through this region. Mr. Vennor, a prac- River voyageurs as they draw near the end tical geologist of repute, has been engaged of their bleak journey over the plains of the in making explorations for some time, and far North-West : is of opinion that the phosphate is found in a broad belt of incalculable richness, and in
Hark ! Is it the clang of wild geese ;
Is it the Indian's yell ; definite extent, and that it must become
That gives to the voice of the north wind eventually one of the most important indus
The sound of a far-off bell ? tries of the Ottawa valley. Already people are buying up mineral rights in all directions, Then as we rounded a hill we saw for the and the prospector with his shovel and pick first time the massive stone church of Notre is every day seen in the most secluded spots, Dame du Déseri, whose gilded image crowns where the hunter or lumberman was the only the tower and watches over that wide exvisitor a few years ago. Iron exists in great panse of country of which she has been quantities, and of an undoubtedly superior elected the guardian angel. Adjoining the quality. Mica is picked up everywhere, and chapel is a building for the accommodation there are deposits of asbestos. Indications of the priests and religieuses, engaged in the of silver have also been found, but according education of the Indians of this mission. The to Mr. Vennor, what many persons believe village itself is small, but many of the buildto be silver is nothing but mispeckel, a sort ings are neat frame structures, which were of fool's silver. If it is found at all, accord- built in more prosperous times when the ing to him, it will only be in unremunerative lumber trade was more actively carried on quantities. But it is just possible he may be than at present. Close to the river side, but
at some distance from the village, is a block the St. Maurice district; and of Makiskaw, on of buildings belonging to the Hudson's Bay the height of land whence the descent is to Company, whose posts are now found scat- Hudson's Bay. The Roman Catholic mistered at distant intervals all through the sionary was, up to a year or two, the only north and west as far as the Rocky Moun professor of the Christian faith to be seen in tains. Their next nearest station is at Lake this cheerless savage region. Even now, his Kakebonga, and the farthest north at James's church alone dominates the surrounding Bay, many hundreds of miles distant from country and calls the people to worship. the Désert. The post at the latter point is Neither the colds of winter nor the heats of now or will soon be deserted, as the traffic summer retard his progress among the Inin furs is not sufficient to pay all its expenses. dians, scattered over the face of this counThe country around the Désert is cultivated try. Differ from him we may, but we must on a very limited scale, by some of the lum- always admire that fidelity to his purpose bermen and a few Indians. For the most which, for ages, has taken him into the most part the land is poor, and the lumber be- remote corners of the earth. Here, on the comes more inferior the further north you go. verge of the wilderness, he has built a noble
The Désert village is the last outpost of church, for the sole use of the Indian tribes; commerce and civilization in the country and one cannot but wonder at a zeal and north of the Ottawa. A vast wilderness of devotion which Protestant sects might well picturesque lakes, hills, and barrens, with imitate. limited tracts of arable land, stretches to the The Indians of this region are somewhat waters of the distant Hudson's Bay. A numerous, and belong to the Algonquin country of silence, except when the Indian family, who have always occupied the north. or voyageur dips his paddle to some monot- Some of the more remote tribes speak a diaonous chant. The Kakebonga Lake is the lect--for instance, the Indians of Wassilimit of the lumberman's operations in this nippi—which approaches nearer the Cree. region. If you follow the map, you will no- Many of them are industrious and cultivate tice that the Désert River takes a sudden small farms, on which they have built snug curve, a few miles from its junction with the log cabins or frame cottages ; but the majorGatineau, runs parellel with it for a consider- ity continue to subsist by hunting and fishable distance, and then merges at last in the ing. In the Désert district, the Indians are Lake of the Désert, into which flows a chain civilized, and are outwardly very devout, if of streams and lakes, all connected with one may judge from their behaviour in Lake Kakebonga, and finally with the river church. They are very fond of processions, Ottawa itself. In fact all the rivers and and the priests, who understand them well, lakes of the upper Ottawa country form a do not fail to please them in this way on the series of water-stretches, remarkable for feasts of the Epiphany, and on other occatheir erratic courses, and it is quite possible sions. The interior of the large chapel is to ascend the Ottawa to Lake Temiscamin. very bare at present, as the priests have not gue in a canoe, and, after passing over a few yet succeeded in raising money sufficient to « carries” to avoid the rapids and falls, to plaster and decorate it. The choir is comdescend at last into the Gatineau at the posed of two violins and four Indian voices, Désert.
generally led by one of the “Sisters” in The village of Our Lady of the Désert, charge of the educational establishment. in the Algonquin tongue, Maniwaki or Land The airs are generally low, monotonous of Mary—is the centre of the Indian mis- chants, suited to the Indian voice. sions for a large tract of wilderness. Here, a very blustering day when the writer entered some years ago, under the old Government the chapel
, during the afternoon service, and of Canada, many thousands of acres of land certainly no one could do otherwise than be were set apart for the Indians of the Désert. impressed with the seeming harmony of the The situation is favourable for bringing to Indian voices with the wild north wind as it gether the Indians of Grand Lac, Temisca- sighed around that lonely church on the mingue, St. Maurice, and Abbitibbi. It is bleak hills of the Désert. from this point that the Indian missionaries In the remote parts of the wilderness of set out periodically in canoes for the distant this section, the missionaries have a difficult missions of Wassinippi, the furthest post of work to cure the Indians of the superstitions
and juggleries which they have been wont to game is scarce, and the valuable fur-bearing practice for centuries. Some of them are animals will soon be hunted off the face of still said to practice what they call the Kasa- the region. Wolves prowl among the hills, bandjakerin or La Cabane, in which the In. and ever and anon pounce down on the setdian conjuror proves himself the prototype tlements within twenty miles of the capital. of the Davenport Brothers. He builds a No farming population is likely to be attractconical lodge of upright sticks and bark, un-ed to a region which only offers a great der which he is carried when he has been variety of rocks, and water-stretches of rare firmly tied with cords. Once inside, the beauty. The Désert village is likely to rejugglery commences. The awestruck audi- main the last settlement of importance to the ence, who are awaiting revelations around north of Ottawa, and it, we know, owes its the lodge, are soon rewarded by the most existence to the enterprise of the missionary frightful groans and invocations to the Evil and lumberman. Silence and shadow will Spirit, who at last makes his appearance in always rest upon this wilderness, unless, inthe shape of a little ugly black man, who deed, valuable economic minerals can be liberates the conjuror from his bonds and found amid the rocky hills which rise in all gives him all the information he requires. A directions. Perhaps it may become vast similar trick was practised in Champlain's grazing grounds for flocks of sheep, though time, and shows that the so-called Spirit- the long, expensive winters must always ualistic magicians of modern times are only stand in the way even of that enterprise. mere imitators of the aborigines.
The fact that mineral deposits are being conWhat is to be the future of the vast wilder- stantly unearthed in the country towards ness which stretches from the headwaters of Ottawa, leads one to hope that the rocks the Gatineau and St. Maurice to the lonely which stretch from the Désert for many days' shores of Hudson's Bay ? What I have seen journey, may eventually be found to have of the country, and what I have learned of some value. But until such discoveries are its topographical features from surveyors who made, the region beyond this little village of have, at one time or other, travelled over its the North must always remain a Désert in rocky surface, cannot lead one to form a very fact as well as in name. hopeful opinion. The lumber is poor and scraggy, and the land is unfit for settlement,
J. G. BOURINOT. according as you go further north. Even
LORD MACAULAY AND THE LIBERAL PARTY.
T is the misfortune of great writers such nonsense as his great soul would have
and great artists that they must be re- revolted from in deepest indignation. Monsponsible, in some measure at least, to Fame taigne has been made, even within a year or and Posterity for the development of their so, responsible for religious views which he doctrines, and the offshoots of their style. would never have admitted to be his own, or Long after they have ceased to live, their to be logically deducible from his writings. followers and disciples continue to appeal Savonarola baş been made to figure as a to their authority for logical results they heretic to the Roman Catholic faith, to which would never have admitted, and for mere- no man was more enthusiastically devoted. tricious imitations and adaptations which they Rubens has to bear the blame of much of would never have approved. It would be in the excesses of the fleshly style or school of teresting to know what St. Paul, for instance, painting, in an age when art has ceased alwould have to say to Mr. Matthew Arnold con- most to have any of its old divine instincts, cerning the meanings which that learned and and when artists have forsaken the contemtoo ingenious gentleman has found in his plation of the angels and their Heaven, God words. Plato is made the foster-father of and his saints, for the contemplation of