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KNOWLEDGE:

A WEEKLY MAGAZINE.

ANTHON, JOHN, LL.D.: lawyer: 1784, May 14–1863, Mar. 5; b. Detroit; brother of CHARLES A. He graduated at Columbia College 1801, was admitted to the bar 180.7, became a founder and pres. of the New York Law Institute, and published Anthon's Law Student and American Precedents (1810), and other works.

ANTHONY, ån'tho-, HENRY BOWEN: 1815, Apr. 1– 1884, Sep. 2; b. Coventry, R. I.: statesman.

He gradu ated at Browị Uuiv. 1833, edited the Providence Journal 1838-59, was gov. of R. I., 1849–51, aud U. S. senator from 1859 till his death, serving on the committees on claims, naval affairs, mines and mining, and post-offices and post-roads.

ANTHONY, JOHN GOULD: 1804, May 17–1877, Oct. 16; b. Providence, R. I.: naturalist. He received a limited education, was engaged in commercial business Cincinnati 35 years, applied himself closely to the study of natural history from boyhood, accompanied Prof. Agassiz on the Thayer expedition to Brazil, 1867, and was in charge of the conchological dept. of the museum of comparative zoology froin 1863 till his death.

ANTHONY, WILLIAM ARNOLD: physicist: b. Coventry, R. I., 18:35, Nov. 17. He graduated at the Sheffield Scientific School (Yale) 1861; taught the sciences at E. Greenwich, R. I., 1860–61. Franklin, N. Y., 1863–67, Autioch College 1867-70, and the lo. Agricultural College 1870–72; and has been prof. of physics in Cornell Univ. since 1872. He has designed and constructed a number of important electrical apparatus, and contributed numerous papers to the American Assoc. for the Adv. of Science and the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, of both of which he is a member, and to several electrical and scientitic publications.

ANTIIONY'S NOSE: (1) in Montgomery co., N. Y., the n. branch of the Mohawk river, on the extremity of the hill or mountain called the Klips (rock or cliff); slopes from an elevation of about 500:-. toward the river, and when viewed from the river at the n. entrance to the Highlands resembles a nose 300-400 ft. long; (2) bold promontory on the e. side of the Hudson river in Putnam co., N. Y., projecting from the s. side of Breakneck Hill, opposite the site of old Fort Montgomery, near the s. exe trance to the Highlands, below West Point.

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ANTIETAM, ăn-tē'tam, BATTLE OF (Confederate name, SHARPSBURG, BATTLE OF): 1862, Sep. 17, on Antietam creek near Sharpsburg, Md., between the Union army un. der Gen. McClellan and the Confederate army under Gen. Lee. The strength of the opposing armies has been vari. ously stated. Gen. McClellan reported his own at 87,164, and estimated Gen. Lee's at 97,445; Gen. Lee reported 40,000; the Richmond Enquirer credited him with 60,000; and Pollard's Southern History of the War estimated tbe Confederate force at 45,000 in the morning and 75,000 in the afternoon. The movements of both armies had been spirited from Sep. On the fourth, fifth, and sixth, Gen. Lee threw his forces across the Potomac near Leesburg, occupied Frederick, and possessed himself of the surrounding country. Gen. McClellan, eager to protect Washington and anxious to prevent a further invasion of Union territory, forced Lee to abandon Frederick on the 12th by interposing a strong force between the Confederates and the fords of the Potomac, Lee moving toward Hagerstown. While McClellan and Lee were watching each other here, a Confederate force under “Stonewall' Jackson hastened to Harper's Ferry, and compelled its surrender with 12,000, to 13,000 prisoners, Sep. 15. On the 14th McClellan occupied Cramptoris Gap and the heights of South Mountain, commanding the road to Hagerstown, and, a second time checking Lee's advance, forced him to retreat across An. tietam creek to Sharpsburg: A portion of the Union army under Gen. Hooker followed in pursuit on the 16th, had a sharp engagement with the Confederates, and gained their object-a favorable position. Early the next morning Hooker forced the battle by attacking the Confederate left, while Gen. Burnside engaged the right. Hooker at first drove the left wing backward to a cornfield bordered by woods, and was bearing the brunt of the fightivg when he was wounded and had to be carried from the field. Gen. Sumner then took command at this point, and though twice repulsed at the cornfield, the Union army succeeded in holding the position. On the Union left, Burnside was twice checked in attempting to cross the creek, but in the afternoon drove the Confederates back to a range of hills where several Confederate batteries bad been posted. Ordered to secure these hills, he captured the first battery; but by this time Lee had so strengthened the second hill that Burnside reported he could not hold the ground already gained without reinforcements, and as these were not furnished him he was driven back to the bridge. Gen. French, commanding the centre of the Union line, pressed forward steadily toward the hills, but could not guiu them; while Gen. Richardson with a div. of Sumner's corps, drove the Confederates from the river nearly to Sharpsburg. Darkness then put an end to the fighting for the day: An armistice to bury their dead was granted the Confederates the next day, and during the night they retreated to the right bank of the Potomac. McClellan reported his loss at 12,469, including 2,010 killed; the Confederates acknowledged a loss of 13,533 in toe.r Md. campaign. McClellan held the field, entirely frustrated Lee's plans, and in the campaign took 13 guns, 39 colors, more than 15.000 stand of arms, and more than 6,000 prisoners, without losing a gun or a color.

APACHES, &-på'chāz: tribe of American Indians of the Athabasca family, having reservations in Ariz. and N. M. They are very warlike, great raiders, and strongly averse to civilized forms of life. The tribe comprises several semi-independent bands, and their great war chief is Geronimo. They have given the frontier settlers of Mexico, Ariz., and N. M., and the federal govt. much trouble in recent years. Geronimo became known 1876, and has been captured several times by U. S. troops, but almost invariably has made his escape. He is considered by experienced army officers to be the most tricky, lawless, deceitful, treacherous, and murderous of living Indians. Gen. Crook chased his renegade band into Mexico 1883, and captured the chief and his followers. They were placed on a farm, and though Gen. Crook promised them protection as long as they behaved themselves, they soon tired of the restraint. Geronimo escaped from Fort Apache 1885, May 17-his third escape-was captured by Gen. Miles 1886, and has since been confined in Fla.

APIA, &'pe-&: principal town and commercial emporium of the Samoan or Navigator's Islands, in the s. Pacific Ocean, lat. 13° 30'—40° 30' s., long. 1690—173° w. It is on the n. coast of Upolu, about midway between the e. and w. extremities of the island, wbich is divided into three parts, Ania at the e., Se Tuamasaga in the centre, and Aana at the w. end. A. also is divided into three parts or villages, which are separated by small streams. Vessels generally make the e. end of Upolu and run w., keeping the reef about one m. distant till off the harbor of A., where pilots are taken on board, and numberless little frail canoes containing natives cluster around. During Pres. Grant's administration, a kind of American protectorate over the islands was established, with Albert Barnes Steinberger in charge. This subsequently (1886) gave way to German occupation, though the United States and England had large commercial interests in the islands as well as Germany. After a series of native outbreaks and revolutions, the Germans_deposed King Malietoa and exiled him to the Marshall Islands, and recognized Tamasese as his successor. The natives apparently preferred American to German protection and banded themselves under Malietoa’s principal chief, Mataafa. Dissensions soon arose between the natives and the German consul, and later between the latter and American merchants; and these in time led to official acts by the German authorities against both the natives and American business representatives that were deemed unwarranted to the former and hostilo to the latter. In 1888 a kind of civil war broke out, in which Germany claimed that the natives under Mataafa were encouraged and directed by an American citizen. The question of the govt. of Samoa then became one for diplomatic action. United States, England, and Germany agreed to a convention to be held in berlin for the settle. ment of all questions in dispute and a new treaty was signed there by representatives of the three nations 1889, June 14. In the meautime the American men-of-war Trenton. Vundulia, and Nipsic, the Euglish Culliope, and the German Adler, Olga, avd Eber were sent to A. 10 protect the several national interests. On the afternoon 1889, Mar. 15, a hurricane suddenly broke over the harbor, and raged with fury till the next day. Though each vessel attempted to steain out to sea the Culliope alone succeeded in doing so. On the 16th the Trenton (flagship of Rear-admiral Kimberly), Vindalia, Eber, Adler, and Oiga were wrecked on the reefs, and the Nipsic grounded and greatly injured. The loss of life was, Americans, 4 officers, 46 men; Germans, 9 officers, 87 men; total 146.

ARKANSAS.—The executive authority is vested by the constillution (1874) in a gov , elected for 2 years, salary $3,000 per annum; the legislative in a general assembly, comprising a senate of not less than 30 nor more than 35 members (32, 1890) elected for 4 years, and a house of representatives of not less than 73 nor more th:ın 100 members (95, 1990) elected for 2 years, salary of each $i per day; and the judicial in a supreme court of 3 judges, salary $3,000 each per annum, circuit courts for which one judge is elected in each judicial district, co. courts of one judge each, who is also judge of probate, courts of common pleas held by the co. judges at the direction of the general assembly, chancery court in Pulaski co., prosecuting atty. in each circuit, and justices of the peace. The gov. must be a citizen of the United States, at least 30 years of age, and must have resided in the state 7 years. In case of a tie vote for gov., choice is made by a joint vote of the general assembly. The constitution gives him power to veto any single item in an appropriation bill. In his death, ab. sence, or disability, the pres, of the senate acts in his stead. All other members of the executive dept. are elected at the same time and in the same manuer as the governor. The general assembly holds biennial sessions iu odd-numbered years, meetiug on the second Monday in Jan., and limited to 60 days. In case of disagreement between the two houses with respect to the time of adjournment, the gov. may adjourn them to such time as he may think proper, not beyond the day of the next meeting of the gen. assembly. Senators must be 2.5 years of age and have a state residence of 2 years, and representatives must be 21 years of age and have similar residence. Impeachments are to be preferred by the house and tried by the senate, the chief-justice presiding. All state officers are liable to impeachment, or may be removed by the gov. for cause upon the joint address of two-thirds of each house. Judges of the supreme court are elected for terms of 8 years; they must be 30 years of age and in practice 8 years prior to election. Judges of the circuit courts must be 28 years of age, and residents in the circuits. Where a cir. cuit judge is absent or disqualitied, the members of the

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