The Technological Specialization of Advanced Countries: A Report to the EEC on International Science and Technology Activities

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Springer Science & Business Media, 30 сент. 1992 г. - Всего страниц: 164
Advanced countries have shown an increasing convergence in their economic performance and technological intensity, with a relative decline of the position of the United States and the emergence of the European and Japanese economies. The Technological Specialization of Advanced Countries moves beyond aggregate patterns and examines the sectoral structure of technological activities, the process of specialization, and the impact on national performance.
Indicators of technology and of scientific activity are examined together with other economic and R & D data, providing a wealth of empirical evidence on the activities, and areas of strength and weakness of individual countries. The amount of disaggregated data provided, and the assessment offered on the state of art in science and technology indicators, make The Technological Specialization of Advanced Countries an important reference work.
A description of the fields of national effort is provided and a special study is devoted to the fields of greater innovative dynamism where patenting has grown most rapidly. Over time, countries have concentrated their technological efforts in the fields of their greater strength, under the pressure of increasing international competition and the proprietary nature of know how. Conversely, in science there has generally been a decrease in the degree of specialization, with countries entering new fields of research, taking advantage of the open flow of scientific knowledge.
For science and technology policy, the findings of The Technological Specialization of Advanced Countries suggest that national efforts should be combined with the growing international integration. The aims of maintaining established areas of strength and of developing new specializations in emerging fields should be balanced, and a more selective policy at the sectoral level is suggested.
 

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Содержание

Introduction and Summary
1
Structural Change and International Strategies in Science and Technology
7
22 The New Strategy of Firms and the Internationalization of Technology
8
23 National Systems of Innovation and Government ST Policy
9
24 The New Cooperative Strategies of Firms Governments and Scientific Communities
12
25 Overview
16
An Overview of Scientific and Technological Activities in the Advanced Countries
18
32 The Resources Devoted to Research and Development
21
64 Overview
87
Sectoral Strengths and Weaknesses of Advanced Countries in Science
89
72 The Sectoral Distribution of World Papers and Citations
90
73 The Patterns of Specialization of Advanced Countries by Fields of Science
93
74 Comparing Scientific and Technological Specialization
98
75 The Sectoral Distribution of the Resources Devoted to Science
100
Degree of Specialization and Size of National Scientific and Technological Activities
103
82 The Degree of Specialization of Technological Activities
105

33 Patents
26
34 Evidence from Bibliometric Indicators
33
35 Comparison of Countries in Terms of Different ST Indicators
35
36 The Convergence of ST Patterns among Advanced Countries
38
Sectoral Strengths and Weaknesses of Advanced Countries in Different Patent Institutions
43
42 Studies on Sectoral Patenting Activities
45
43 The ISRDS Database and the Analysis of Data
46
44 Country Highlights
51
45 The Domestic Market Effect on Patenting
57
Changes over Time and Impact of Patenting Activity The Sectoral Distribution of Patent Counts and Patent Citations in the US
60
52 The Sectoral Distribution of Patents and Patent Citations in the US by SIC Classes
61
53 Country Highlights
65
National Technological Specialization and Sectoral Growth Rates in Patenting
79
62 The Rates of Change in Patent Classes at the 3 Digit Level
80
63 Country Results
82
83 The Relationship between Size and Technological Specialization
107
84 The Degree of Specialization of Scientific Activities
109
85 The Relationship between Size and Scientific Specialization
113
86 Diverging Trends in Science and Technology?
116
The InterIndustry Structure of Technological Specialization
120
92 Method of Analysis
121
94 Sectoral Results
123
95 Discussion
127
The Patterns and Impact of Technological Specialization
129
102 Similarities and Differences in National Technological Specialization
130
103 The Impact of Technological Specialization
136
Conclusions
146
References
153
Index
161
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