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amined and refuted. He who feels ashained for his opinions to be compared with those of another, or is afraid to consider the reasoning of an opponent, pays but a poor compliment to his own character and creed. It has been well said, “Whoever fears to examine the foundation of his opinions, and enter into the consideration of any train of counter-argument, may rest assured that he has some latent apprehension of their unsoundness and incapacity of standing investigation; and as a fear of this sort is totally at variance with that spirit of candour and fairness which is the proper disposition for the attainment of truth, no man should suffer it to prevent him from engaging in the requisite examination.”

constant readers ” have, during nearly six years, tested the practical value of these enlightened sentiments, and with the most satisfactory results. It is of course impossible for us to daguerreotype the secret workings and progress of truth, but we know of some cases in which, through the influence of our work, opinions have been beneficially changed, or materially modified, while “the falsehood of extremes” has been exposed, a spirit of kindly and mutual respect has been generated, and, at the same time, a process of mental training has been going on, sitting its subjects to take a more important position in life, and to exercise a stronger and more elevating influence on those around them.

We may here, without impropriety, refer to an interesting experiment made during the present year, for the purpose of registering the opinions of our readers on the subjects discussed in our Fifth Volume.

It was thought that the deliberate judgment of "a constituency of cultivated intellect," engaged in an earnest search after truth—beyond the reach of corruption, intimidation, or even influence and expressed only after thorough debate, would be a most novel, interesting, and valuable species of statistics; and although, from various causes, only a small portion of our subscribers sent in their “votes,” the result was far from being uninteresting, as indicating, in their proportional relationship, the opinions of a large number of intelligent persons, resident in all parts of the United Kingdom.

On the question of Church Polity, 240 voted for Episcopacy, 120 for Presbyterianism, 324 for Congregationalism, and 155 were Neutral. On the question of Communications being now made to Man from a Spiritual World, 143 were in favour of the Affirmative, 547 were in favour of the Negative, and 150 were Neutral. On the question of Napoleon Bonaparte being worthy of the admiration of the French people, 470 were in favour of the Affirmative, 151 were in favour of the Negative, and 125 were Neutral. On the question of Scotland having reason to complain of Injustice, 265 were in favour of the Affirmative, 409 were in favour of the Negative, and 168 were Neutral. On the question respecting the Universities being Open to all, 612 were in favour of the Affirmative, 163 were in favour of the Negative, and 65 were Neutral. On the question of the Maine Liquor Law, 407 were in favour of the Affirmatire, 385 were in favour of the Negative, and 48 were Neutral. And on the question of Slavery being Justifiable under any circumstances, 108 were in favour of the Affirmative, 709 were in favour of the Negative, and 23 were Neutral.

Apart from the intrinsic worth of this Report as a barometer of thoughtful opinion," we value it as an incontrovertible proof of our success in gaining the support and confidence of a large body of intelligent men of all sects and parties.

Our editorial labours have not, however, been confined to polemical subjects; we have

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endeavoured to afford suitable advice and assistance to youthful aspirants and self-educationalists generally. Our “Aids to Self-Culture,” as well as the courses of study prescribed in the various classes, are not designed to be exhaustive, but rather stimulative and suggestive; and such, we believe, they have proved. The communications which we are constantly receiving, reveal bow wide-spread is the desire for instruction, and how acceptable are our efforts to promote it. The ultimate influence of the contents of this and preceding volumes we will not attempt to estimate. Every year deepens our conviction of their value, for we are frequently enabled to recognize amongst those who now occupy important and responsible positions in society, some of our first student readers, who are not slow in acknowledging the beneficial aid and impetus which they derived from this magazine. We cannot, then, but rejoice in the success of our preceding volumes, nor avoid looking with satisfaction on the one which we now send forth to the world; and, concerning all, we indulge the cheering hip’, that when this work may have passed into other hands, or even ceased to exist, the influence of our labours will be felt in some cultivated minds and disciplined hearts.

Nor would we forget our generous coadjutors, for they have enabled us to make this volume what it is. We beg them to accept thanks which come warm from our very “heart of hearts,” and we invite them to share with us our anticipations, all bright and glorious as they are !

We cannot conclude without casting a hopeful but anxious glarce towards the future of the BRITISH CONTROVERSIALIST. What that future may be, we cannot, of course predict; but we cherish the belief that it will be not merely worthy of the past, but far excel it in character, and exceed it in success. That this may be the case, it is only necessary for our readers to remain faithful to “their own Magazine;" to lose no opportunity of making known its character and contents; and to aid it in other ways to carry out its designs to ENLIGHTEN, ELEVATE, and BLESS.

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293
298

PAGE

PAGE
EUROPEAN PHILOSOPHY:-

HISTORY :-(Continued.)
The Ionic School - The Philosophy of Na- Was Mahomet an Impostor ?
ture

1
41 Affirmative Article, I.

290
Anaxagoras 161 Negative Article, I..

331
Diogenes of
Affirmative Article, II.

373
Apollonia.
321 Negative Article, II.

376

Affirmative Article, III.
AIDS TO SELF-CULTURE:

Negative Article, JII.

415
The Art of Reading

81
Affirmative Reply

458
The Art of Writing.
121 Negative Reply

460
Arithmetic

241
The Essentials of English Grammar and POLITICS:
Composition, No. I.

201
No. II..

281

Is the Ballot more desirable than Open Voting?
No. III.

361
No. IV.

Affirmative Article, I.
401

28
No. V.

441
Negative Article, I....

59
Affirmative Article, II.

101
RELIGION:

Negative Article, II.

103
Do the Scriptures teach that the Punish-

Affirmative Reply

150
ment of the Wicked will be Eternal ?

Negative Reply

153
Affirmative Article.-I.

S Was the British Government Justified in En.
Negative Article.-I..

11 tering upon the Present War with Russia ?
Affirmative Article, II.

46
Negative Article, II.

48
Affirmative Article, I.

183
Affirmative Article, III.
86 Negative Article, I.

217
Negative Article, III.

89
Affirmative Article, II.

261
Affirmative Article, IV.
128 Negative Article, I1.

264
Negative Article, IV...

133

Affirmative Article, III.
Affirmative Reply

166 Negative Article, III.
Negative Reply

170
Affirmative Article, IV.

337
Negative Article, IV.

379
PHILOSOPHY:-

Affirmative Reply

418
Is the Notion of a Plurality of Worlds Con. Negative Reply

463
sonant with Science and Revelation ?
Affirmative Article, I.

16 SOCIAL ECONOMY:-
Negative Article, I...

20
Affirmative Article, II.

Is Secularism Consonant with the Highest

50
Negative Article, IÍ.

91

Amount of Social Happiness ?
Affirmative Article, III.

141
Negative Article, I...

106
Negative Article, III.

173
Affirmative Article, I.

191
Affirmative Reply

207

Negative Article, II.
Negative Reply

249
Affirmative Article, II.

225
Is Reason Confined to Man ?

Negative Article, III.

268
Affirmative Article, I.

285
Affirmative Article, III.

270
Negative Article, I.

287
Negative Article, IV..

302
Affirmative Article, II.

326
Affirmative Article, IV.

306
Negative Article, II.

328
Negative Reply

342
Affirmative Article, III.

Affirmative Reply
368

347
Negative Article, III.

371 Is the Unanimity required in Juries Conducive
Affirmative Article, IV.

405 to the Attainment of Justice ?
Negative Article, IV..

409
Neutral Article
447 Affirmative Article, I.

388
Affirmative Reply
450 Negative Article, I.

390
Negative Reply
453 Affirmative Article, II.

427

Negative Article, II.
HISTORY:

Affirmative Reply
Has Monachism been beneficial to European Negative Reply

470
Society?

THE ESSAYIST:
Negative Article, I.

28
Affirmative Article. I.

54 Advantages to be derived from the Study
Negative Article, II.

94

of History.-- Prize Essay, by D. M. West 350
Affirmative Article, II.

145
Ditto, ditto, by J. W. Hardman, A.B.

393
Negative Article, III.

177
Benjamin Franklin: a Study.

30
Affirmative Article, III.

210

Byron
Negative Reply

252 Decimal Coinage: The Necessity for its
Affirmative Reply

257

Adoption-Its Advantages over the Pre-

222

428
468

308

.... 238

.... 318

437

PAGE

PAGE

THE ESSAYIST :-(Continued.)

SOCIETIES' SECTION :-

sent System—and the Various Plans for

REPORTS OF MUTUAL IMPROVEMENT

carrying it out which have been proposed

SOCIETIES:

33, 68, 113

Bow and Stratford Mutual Improvement
Gerald Massey
109 Association

38
Hints on Extemporaneous Speaking 431 Bristol (Cooper's Hall) Mutual Improve.
Shelley
63 ment Society

79
The True Test of Merit

433

Christchurch Mutual Improvement and
Thomas Moore

228 Debating Society
True Object of History.
273 Crieff Debating Club.

119
Young Men's Associations

231 Edinburgh Young Men's Association 278

Glasgow, Dundas-street Young Men's Mu-

THE INQUIRER:-

tual Improvement Society

196

Questions requiring Answers :36, 71, 115, 157,

* Wardlaw" Young Men's Lite-

rary Association ....

196

192, 233, 274, 314, 357.

Great Yarmouth Discussion Society.. 238

Answers to Questions:

High Wycomb Discussion and Mutual Im-

A Course of Mathematical Study
399 provement Class ...

278

A Scripture Query

.194, 315

Kirkintilloch Young Men's Mutual Im-

A Telescope..

359 provement Society

79

Aqua Vivarium

397

Law Students' Mutual Corresponding So-

Cambridge Examinations.

115

ciety.

.38, 437

Cause of the Apparent Size of the Moon in

Liverpool, “Franklin" Mutual Improve-
Rising and Setting..

158
ment Society

196
Composition and Style

315 London, Bermondsey, and Horselydown

Division of the Sciences

116 Mutual Improvement Association.... 360

Equation of Time

192

Early Closing Association.. 238
Geological Question

434

St. James's Literary Society

George Sand

Society of Compositors

360

Glasgow University

158

The Lorrimore Mutual Improve-

Hebrew Grammar and Dictionary

. 159, 434

ment Society

How to Obtain a Thorough Knowledge of

Madras Young Men's Literary Society.

78

Latin

233

Meirion Literary Institution

78

How to Obtain Skeletons of Leaves

194

Monkton Young Men's Mutual Improve-

Hyperion

158

ment Society

118

India

398

Neophyte Writers' Society

38

Intellect and Habit

Newcastle-on-Tyne Debating Society

37

79

Is Bull's Blood Poison ?

235

Redruth Mutual Improvement Society.

437

Latin Pronunciation

71

Retford Mutual Improvement Society..197, 310
Lenore

359 Skipton-in-Craven Young Men's Mutual
Matriculation Examinations of the London

Improvement Society

79

University

193 Spalding Mechanics' Institution

38

Meaning of Names.

.195, 275

Staines Mutual Instruction Class

239

Painting

315 Swansea Christian Literary and Scientific

Photography

399

Association

436

Red-haired Men of Genius

275

Walthamstow Mutual Improvement Society 198

Religious Sect of Duchoborzen in Russia. 358

Wolverhampton Mutual Improvement So-

The Barber's Pole.

ciety

239

The Collodion Process

275 LITERATURE:-

The Invariable Value of Gold

.315, 358

Lists of New Books ON EDUCATIONAL,

The Philosophy of Death.

433

LITERARY, AND SCIENTIFIC SUBJECTS,

The Scotch Bawbee

276

Trial of the Pyx

39, 119, 198, 279, 438.

75

Works on Oratory

LITERARY INTELLIGENCE, 40, 80, 120, 160,

158

199, 239, 280, 319, 360, 400, 439.

NOTICES OF BOOKS:

THE YOUNG STUDENT AND WRITER'S

An Essay on the Art of Writing

ASSISTANT:

472

Cyclopædia of Universal History

320

GRAMMAR CLASS :-Model Exercises, 37, Liber Cantabrigiensis

320

76, 117, 159, 195, 236, 276, 315, 435.

Mann's Guide to the Knowledge of Life 280

MATHEMATICAL CLASS: - Questions for Ragg's Creation's Testimony to its God

Solution, 37, 77, 118, 159, 195, 237, 277, 318, Ragonot's Vocabulaire Symbolique Anglo-

359, 400.

Francais

439

Solutions, 118, 159, 195, 237, 277, 318, 359, 400, Ryland's Extension, Security, and Moral

436.

Influence of the Church of England.... 280

GeoGRAPHICAL Class:- Exercises, 77, 118, Sunday School Union Publications for 1855 80

160, 196, 237, 277, 318, 359, 400.

The Age we Live in

472

LOGIC Class:-Exercises, 77, 118, 160, 196, The British Workman

280

238, 277, 318, 360.

The Dawn of History

472

PHONETIC SHORT-HAND CLASS :-Exer. The Dignity of Labour, a Lecture

200
cises, 38, 77, 118, 160, 196, 238, 277.

The Pilgrim Fathers, a Lecture ..........

200

76

240

CONTRIBUTORS' SIGNATURES.

B. S...

PAGE

PAGE Arhondbu... 409 Junius (Chelmsford)

284 Benjamin

48, 225 L'Ouvrier (Birmingham) 11, 115, 170, 305 Beta (Leeds) 390, 412, 470 Maxwell

312 74, 190, 194, 195, 249, 426 Morfhaich.

393, 472 C. W., jun. 36, 71, 115 N.

91 Clement (Ashton-under-Lyne) 133, 290, 457 Onward.

465 D. M. W. 233 P. D. (Dublin).

293, 460 E. L.J... 222, 468 Persona

270, 287, 453 E. W. S. (Buckingham). 67, 231, 314 Philalethes.

20, 210 F.J. L., B.A. (Bedford). 76, 217, 235, 435 Republicola

418 G. F.

376 Rolla.

109, 298, 317 Gray. .63, 150, 157 Scotus

358 Halket 117, 308 Sigma

15, 50, 173 H. C.F.

105 S. N.

85, 106, 284, 367, 404, 446 H. D. L. 25, 252 S.S.

9+ Horatio. 350 Stanislaus

59, 261 Irene 30, 153, 267 Taliesin

373 J. A.C. 128 Thor

330 James

192, 228 Threlkeld

54,328, 379, 399, 430 J. F. (Ollerton).

89, 370 T. U. (Edinburgh) 33, 113, 110, 301, 337, 463 J. G. R. (Manchester) 103, 388 T. W. R.

428 J. L.

273 Vincat Veritas

28, 177, 257 John Brown. 100, 183 Vinculum.

450

ERRATA.
Page 52, col. 2, line 4, for“ 1000," read“ — 100°."
Page 112, col. 1, par. 2, line 7 thereof, for" practical power,'' read “ poetical power."
Page 113, col. 2, line 10,“ but for the surged up," read" but as there surged up."
Page 245, line 32, for“ possession," read * possessing."

Page 275, col. 2, line 13 from bottom, instead of " By this process beautiful positive pictures are obtained for negatives," read “ By this process beautiful positive pictures are obtained;" and instead of " Albumen is used instead of collodion, as follows," read “For negatives albumeir is used instead of collodion, as follows."

Page 326, col. 2, line 12, for“ arbitration," read" abstraction."
Page 327, col. 1, line 35, for “ reviewed," read “ received.”
Page 327, col. 2, note, for “ Kirtzand, Spence," read “ Kirby and Spence."
Page 379, col. 1, line 16, after" was," insert“ in some cases."
Page 428, col. 2, line 47, for“ has Rogers," read “as Rogers."
Page 430, col. 1, line 33, for “ were," read was."

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