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38 God propitious to Church thro' Memorial of His Son.

lib. i. cont. Advers. Legis et Church addressed herself Prophet. cap. 20. The unto Him (which is that I Church, saith he, offereth undertook to prove), is apunto God the Sacrifice of parent by a saying of Oripraise in the Body of Christ, gen, Hom. 13 in Levit., ever since the fulfilling of where, treating of the shewthat in Ps. 1. C The God of bread, which was continugods hath spoken, and called ally set before the Lord with the earth from the rising of incense, for a memorial of the sun unto the going the children of Israel, that down thereof.' is, to put God in mind of

"Lastly, that the repre- them, he makes it in this sentation of the Body and respect to have been a lively Blood of Christ in this figure of the Christian's Christian Service was in- Eucharist; for, saith he, tended and used as a rite That is the only commewhereby to find grace and moration which renders God favour with God, when the propitious to men.'"

The Real Presence, the belief of the English Church. 39

III. The next statement is: "and by Adoration of Christ really present on the altar under the form of bread and wine."

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This statement involves that our sinful bodies are two points, which in my made clean by His Body, and own mind are distinct: 1. our souls washed through The real Presence of our His most precious Blood;" Lord; 2. The Adoration of that we may evermore Christ Present in the Holy dwell in Him, and He in Eucharist. us. I believe that "the 1. Of the Real Presence Body and Blood of Christ of our Lord I have spoken which were given and shed so much at length, and what for us" [not assuredly His I wrote was so widely cir- absent Body and Blood, nor culated, that I need hardly a figure only of His Body repeat here what I have said. and Blood] preserve our I believe simply the teach- Bodies and Souls unto evering of our Church, in the lasting life." I believe that Catechism, the Articles, and " the Body of Christ is the Eucharistic Service. I given, taken, and eaten," believe that "the Body and [given by the Priest and Blood of Christ are verily taken by the people] " only and indeed taken and re- after a spiritual and heavenceived by the faithful in the ly manner" [i. e, not in any Lord's Supper." I believe carnal, or physical, or earththat "then we spiritually ly manner, but spiritually, eat the Flesh of Christ and sacramentally, truly and indrink His Blood; we dwell effably]. And I believe that in Christ, and Christ in us; "the means whereby the we are one with Christ, and Body of Christ is received Christ with us." I believe and eaten in the Supper is that we 66 so eat the Flesh Faith." For assuredly Faith of God's dear Son Jesus only perceives, faith only Christ, and drink His Blood, receives His Presence, or

8 The Holy Eucharist a Comfort to the Penitent, and App.



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To eat spiritually is to eat holily,

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Himself; as St. Augustine and die, yea, by receiving, says, Believe, and thou die! Whence the Apostle hast eaten "." The word saith, Eateth and drinketh spiritually," against which judgment to himself.' It some have excepted, as was not that the sop of the though it were opposed to Lord was poison to Judas. really," is the very word And yet he received and of St. Augustine : "Eat when he received, the enemy Life, drink Life; thou wilt entered into him: not that have life; yet is Life entire. he received an evil thing, But then will this be, i. e. but that he being evil did in the Body and Blood of evil wise receive what was Christ will be life to each, good. Look to it, then, if what in the Sacrament is brethren, eat ye spiritually visibly taken, in very truth the heavenly bread, bring is spiritually eaten, is spi- innocence to the altar." ritually drunk." "We 2 too


And this which is called at this day do receive visible either the substance (res) or food but the Sacrament is the virtue (virtus) of the one thing, the virtue of the Sacrament, is explained to Sacrament another. How be the Body of Christ. "The many receive from the altar sacrifice of the Church con

9 Hom. 25 in S. Joh. § 12. This statement has been excepted against in recent controversy, but is found in later writers also. Thus Alex. Alensis :-" To complete feeding, there is required, a threefold union, by nature, knowledge, charity. Union by nature [i.e. having the same nature as our Incarnate Lord] renders man capable thereof; union by love completes that aptness as relates to spiritual feeding; union by knowledge, as to sacramental. Wherefore it must be said, that as he who hath not charity, in no wise feedeth spiritually; so he who in no wise hath knowledge, i. e. of faith, doth not sacramentally. Wherefore not every wickedness taketh away the feeding sacramentally, but that which is of defect of faith. Defect of faith, I mean, which is complete, whether with love or without it. Since then all the good have love, but all the bad are not wholly without faith, therefore it does not follow, although all the good eat spiritually, that all the bad [? do not eat sacramentally." iv. qu. xi. memb. 2. art. 2. § 2. 1 Hom. in N. T. Šerm. 131.

2 Tract. 26 in S. Joh. § 11.

3 Lanfranc. c. Berengar. quoted Decr. de consecr. d. 2. c. 48, as St. Augustine's. The same distinction between the "Sacramentum" and the "res et virtus Sacramenti," occurs in a prayer of Aquinas, received into the Præparatio ad Missam in the Roman Missal and Breviary.


to eat sacramentally only, is to eat unworthily. sists of two things, the visi- | Blood, which was crucified ble form of the elements, and shed by the soldier's and the invisible Body and lance."


Blood of our Lord Jesus But again on this subject Christ; the Sacrament and also, the statement of Mr. the substance of the Sacra- Palmer so fully expresses ment, that is, the Body of my own belief, and that, Christ. The sacrifice of the mostly in words supported Church consists of the sacra- by our formularies, that, ment and the substance (re) with the exception of one of the Sacrament, i. e. the inference, I would willingly Body of Christ. There is, once more adopt it. The then, the Sacrament and the single inference is (as I unsubstance of the Sacrament, derstand it), that, in the i. e. the Body of Christ." case "of the wicked, who This very statement is the are totally devoid of true and basis of the distinction be- living faith," God withdraws tween eating sacramen- the Presence of the Body and tally" and "eating spiritu- Blood of Christ. This seems ally," i. e. the wicked, who to resemble the opinion menreceive "the sacrament" tioned by Aquinas as held only, are said to eat sacra- by some, that" the Body of mentally only; the good, Christ is not in real truth who receive the substance received by sinners, for that of the Sacrament" also, eat the Body of Christ ceased spiritually also. to be present under the eleSt. Jerome again uses ments, so soon as touched the same language: "The by the sinner's lips." Blood and Flesh of Christ This is a great mystery, are understood in a twofold and, as a mystery, I should way: either that spiritual prefer to leave it, as I have and Divine, of which He never spoken of it. The Himself said, My flesh is heading of our Article is, Meat indeed, and My Blood "Of the wicked which eat is Drink indeed;' and 'Un- not the Body of Christ;" less ye eat the Flesh of the in the body of the Article Son of Man, and drink His it is said that they "are in Blood, ye have no life in no wise partakers of Christ." you:' or that Flesh and Certainly, one who partakes

4 In Eph. 1. 7, quoted de consecr. ii. 49.


The wicked cannot be partakers of Christ,

unworthily, and to his con- and the Bread of Life, it demnation, cannot be "par- would not have been writtaker of Christ." Else they ten, "Whosoever eateth this would "dwell in Christ and bread shall live for ever!" " Christ in them, be one The language of St. Auwith Christ and Christ with gustine is still stronger than them." And then, our Lord our Article, if doubtful words says, they would have ever- are omitted. "This, then, lasting life. But Christ it is, to eat that meat and dwelleth not in the soul in drink that drink; to dwell which Satan dwelleth. Nor in Christ, and to have Christ yet can the Body and Blood dwelling in him. And thereof Christ be present without fore who dwelleth not in Him; for where His Body Christ, and in whom Christ is, there He is. It is the dwelleth not, without doubt very test of the reprobate, doth neither eat His Flesh that the Spirit of Christ nor drink His Blood; but dwelleth not in them; and rather doth unto judgment if the Spirit of Christ is not to himself eat and drink the in them, they are none of sacrament of so great a His. In the words of Ori- thing."

gen,- "Many 5 things may And yet it must in some be spoken also concerning sense be the Body and Blood the Word itself, which was of Christ, since the very made Flesh and true Food, ground why those who proWhom whosoever eateth faned the Lord's Supper, shall certainly live to eter-"ate and drank damnation nity, Whom no wicked man to themselves" is, according can eat. For if it could be to Holy Scripture, that they that he that still remains a did "not discern the Lord's sinner should eat the Word Body." "They did not dis

5 Origen. in Matt. xv. vol. iii. p. 500. I use Bishop Beveridge's translation, on Art. 29.

6 Hom. 26 in Joh. § 18, p. 412, Oxf. Tr. The words "spiritaliter," and "licet carnaliter et visibiliter premat dentibus sacramentum corporis et sanguinis Christi," are bracketed by the Bened. Editors on the authority of the MSS., yet retained in the text on the authority of the editions. The same is quoted from him by his disciple S. Prosper, Sent. 139. "He who is at variance with Christ, neither eateth His Flesh nor drinketh His Blood, although he daily indifferently receive the sacrament of so great a thing to the judgment of his presumption."

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