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18 Confession suggested by Reformers, Latimer, Ridley, &c.

that that tender language of true confession were kept the first compilers of the in England, for it is a good Prayer Book 2, the same thing;" and Ridley, that who are now made the very "confession unto the miwatchword of party to ex-nister, which is able to interminate all confession to struct &c., might do much a Priest from the English good in Christ's congregaChurch, does speak the tion;" and Ussher, "no words of " truth and sober- kind of confession, either ness" and Christian love: public or private, is disalrequiring such as shall be lowed by us;" and Wake, satisfied with a general con- "The Church of England fession not to be offended refuses no sort of confeswith them that do use, to sion," where is the authority their further satisfying, the for stirring up the people auricular and secret confes- against those who, for the sion to the priest; nor those sake of others, give themalso which think needful or selves up to minister to the convenient, for the quietness sorrows of others? of their own consciences, I may repeat again what particularly to open their I before said, because it exsins to the priest, to be plains to your Lordship the offended with them that are principle upon which I have satisfied with their humble acted, and may be an answer confession to God, and the to those who are goading general confession to the the people.

Church; but in all things "It is an entire perverto follow and keep the rule sion of the whole question of charity; and every man that some have ventured to to be satisfied with his speak of priestly power,' own conscience, not judging 'spiritual independence,'saother men's minds or con- cerdotal rights,' &c. If a sciences; whereas he hath physician goes about to no warrant of God's Word minister to the sick, bind to the same. up the broken, apply to the cure of diseases the medicines which God has given


When Latimer says, "would to God right and

2 In the first Prayer Book, in the reign of Edward VI., recognised even when, under foreign influence, it was withdrawn, towards the end of Edward VI.'s reign.

3 Preface to Sermon I. on Absolution.

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A relief to broken hearts, not priestly power.

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him the knowledge and the counted a benefit; to minisskill to use, no one speaks ter to spiritual, which men of assumption of power;' know not of, is a reproach. no one thinks it a part of In the world, they that exindependence,' to die neg-ercise lordship over them lected. Why then speak are called benefactors;' but of priestly power,' when even an Apostle had occapeople ask the Ministers of sion to say, 'Am I therefore God to impart that with become your enemy, because which God has entrusted I tell you the truth?'” them? Why is it undue I will close this subject 'power' to bind up the bro- with some additional words ken-hearted, to pour into of Bishop Andrewes, in their wounds the wine and which he cites Bishop White, oil of penitence, to lift them as declaring it to be " up when desponding, to slander" against the Church loose them, in Christ's of England to say that she Name, from the chains of had abolished confession. their sins, and encourage "Dr. White1, in his 'Way them anew to the conflict? to the Church,' (§ xl. 231,) Why, but that to those who quotes all this latter part know not what the conflict of the Exhortation (in the is, what sin is, who have no Communion Service) showidea of mental sickness, or ing against the slander of anxiety, or distress, all, both the Jesuits, that we abolish sickness and remedy, must not, but willingly retain, seem a dream? To minis- the doctrine of confession." ter to bodily wants is ac


4 From MS. Notes of Bishop Andrewes, in an interleaved book of Common Prayer in Bishop Cosin's Library (quoted in Tracts of the Anglican Fathers).


Propitiatory, taken in two senses:

II. Mr. Dodsworth's statement continues; "By teaching the propitiatory Sacrifice of the Holy Eucharist, as applicatory of the One Sacrifice of the Cross."

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To this statement your ed upon as a mere question Lordship perhaps adverts, of words; so necessary is it when you say, 66 a propi- to regard, not what words a tiatory virtue is attributed person uses, but in what to the Eucharist." I say, sense he uses them." I perhaps," for your Lord- noticed that Ridley disship's words do not seem tinguished two senses of the to myself to represent my word "propitiable," meaning, and I trust that only of which he seems to my meaning may approve reject. There is also a itself to your Lordship. I doubt in the word 'propistated many years ago (I tiable,' whether it signify trust that this is not an un- here that which taketh away due speaking about myself, sin, or that which may be since it is myself whom I made available for the taking am explaining), that "the away of sin; that is to say, word propitiatory' was whether it is to be taken in taken in a good or bad the active or in the passive sense, or the question look- signification."

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5 Tract 81, P. 50. I said again, in the Letter to Dr. Jelf, p. 68, "Propitiatory" is, as Thorndike explains it, that which "doth render God propitious;" it is thus used by a modern Roman writer also, "we say, the Mass" [the Holy Eucharist] "is a propitiatory sacrifice, that is to say, a sacrifice that renders God propitiatory to man.' (Dr. Butler's Lect. 8, p. 226.) Bishop Overall adopts the word as occurring in the Fathers, Tract. 81, p. 73, and others also. In the same sense Nelson prays "that I may so importunately plead the merit of it" [the full perfect Oblation on the Cross] in this commemoration of that Sacrifice, as to render Thee gracious and propitious to me, a miserable sinner." (Ib. p. 303.) Those who with Bishop Jewell (ib. p. 61) and Bishop Hall (ib. p. 107) take "propitiatory" in the sense of "being" or "making a propitiation' must reject it. (Letter to Dr. Jelf, p. 68, note.) Bishop Moreton acknowledges:-"In the which large acceptation Protestants may account it propitiatory' also." (Tract 81, p. 93.)

the one, accepted; the other, rejected.

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I cited also Dr. Water-pitiation was so perfectly land, who speaks approv- obtained for man, that noingly of Pfaff, who had ac- thing can be added to the knowledged that "the Eu- price of our Redemption, as charist is propitiatory also in being infinite. If then the a qualified sober sense," and propitiation has been acexpresses his persuasion that quired by the Sacrifice of "there is a great deal of the Cross, it is not acquired truth in what that learned or obtained afresh by the gentleman has said, and that Eucharistic sacrifice, unless a great part of the debate, you take obtained in the so warmly carried on a few sense of applied. Whence years ago, was more about it appears, how ambiguous names than things.' that word 'propitiatory' is, I cited also the statement in that it may be taken as of Pfaffius himself: "The well for the acquiring and Council of Trent maintains obtaining,' as for the that the Sacrifice of the Eu- plying, of the one and the charist is propitiatory, and same thing, and so opens that this is to be believed the door to numberless under pain of anathema, strifes of words. For if which yet is not said in the you say that the Eucharist service, which does not call applies' to the faithful the the Holy Supper a 'sacri- propitiation made by the fice,' much less a 'propiti- Sacrifice of the Cross, no atory' one. Still the Tri- Protestant will dispute this. dentine Fathers, while they But if you believe that the call the sacrifice of the Mass devotion of the Eucharist 'propitiatory,' distinguish it acquires and obtains propifrom the Sacrifice of the tiation, you may be saying Body of Christ upon the what is perhaps at variance Cross. For through the from the opinion of the Sacrifice of the Cross, pro- Church of Rome."

6 Doctrine of the Eucharist, c. xii. p. 345, ed. Van. Mildert. 7 Heb. ix. 11. seq. x. 1. seq. 1 John i. 2.


8 Pfaff. Diss. de Oblatione Vet. Eucharistica Irenæi Fragm. Anecdot. subject. p. 211. In illustration of the last words, it may be said, that Bellarmine says, that "a sacrifice being, so to speak, a Не sort of prayer in act, not in words, is properly 'impetratory."" adds, "the Sacrifice of the Cross was truly and properly meritorious, satisfactory, and impetratory, because Christ was then subject to death, and could merit and satisfy. The sacrifice of the Euch



At stated

Commemorative Sacrifice in Holy Eucharist, This doctrine of a com- Church until now. St. Clememorative sacrifice in the ment of Rome says1, Holy Eucharist has been must do all things in order, maintained by a current of which the Lord commanded our Divines ever since the us to perform. Reformation. times must both oblations I believe it to be con- and sacred offices [liturgies] tained in Holy Scripture, in be performed," and he then the prophecy by Malachi, of contrasts with them the the pure offering which he Jewish sacrifices. St. Igforetold should be offered natius speaks of "the Euby the (then) heathen charist and oblations"," 2," and throughout the world, when" of the altar 3." St. Justin the Jews had been rejected. M. and St. Irenæus, in reIt is part of our Blessed ference also to the Holy Saviour's priesthood after Eucharist, speak of the the order of Melchisedech," one " oblation of the New as this has ever been under- Testament, which oblation stood by the Church. It is the Church, receiving from witnessed to by the very the Apostles, throughout the mention of "altars" by our whole world, offers to God," Lord and by St. Paul. It as a fulfilment of the prois contained in our Lord's phecy of Malachi. own words, "Do this as a This sacrifice is presented memorial of me," pleading, by the Son to the Father. He would say, My Merits," Offering," Origen says ®, and representing My Death" to the God of the universe to the Father, until I come. prayers through His Only


In this way the Apostolic Begotten Son, beseeching Fathers spoke, and the whole Him, being the propitiation

rist (as offered by Christ the great High Priest) is properly only impetratory, because Christ, no longer being subject to death, can neither merit nor satisfy." (De Missa, ii. 4.)

9 Eis Tùy ¿μǹv áváμvnow “for the [specially appointed] memorial of Me!” ἀνάμνησις and μνημόσυνον being as well as ,, of which they are translations) sacrificial words; Lev. xxiv. 7. Numb. x. 10. Lev. ii. repeatedly, and elsewhere.

1 Ep. 1. ad Corinth.

2 Ep. ad Smyrn. § 7. (Theodoret reads poo popás.) 3 Ep. ad Eph. § 5. ad Magnes. § 7. ad Trail. §7.

4 Dial. c. Tryph. § 116-118.

6 Cont. Cels. viii. 13.

5 4. 17. 5.

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