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not part of the faith from the first, and so omitted. 103

ever since been believed. have appeared for centuries. He who lay on Jesus' The editor then, in a former Breast,' and he on whose work, while excluding invoconfession of faith the cations, admitted what was Church was built, could not involved in the word Oɛoróbe ignorant of any thing be- roÇ, as sanctioned by an longing to that faith 6. Nei- Ecumenical Council, to ther can it be believed that whose authority the English they withheld any thing be- Church yields unquestionlonging to that faith". To ing submission. In the preimagine either, was, of old, sent he has omitted the accounted to be subjecting whole second section of the Christ to reproach.' Yet, it Worship and Veneration of seems inconceivable that S. the Blessed Virgin Mary!' Peter, S. John, and S. Paul And, generally, for members should have believed what is of the English Church, who now earnestly taught and desire the prayers of the debelieved upon authority parted, it has to him ever within the Roman Church, seemed safest to pray for as to the present office of them to Him, ' of Whom the Blessed Virgin, or that, and through Whom and to believing it, they could have Whom are all things,' our written as (e. g.) S. Paul God and our All, Who, acwrote through the Holy cording to the current RoGhost, in the Epistle to the man explanation also, reHebrews; or that, if Al-veals to them the desire of mighty God had willed it to those below to have their be believed in the Church, prayers." it should have been so ex- And now, my Lord, I cluded from Holy Scripture, might venture to ask any and the doctrine itself not one who has read or repeated

6 For after that our Lord arose from the dead, and they were endued with the power of the Holy Spirit coming upon them from on high, they were fully filled as to all things, and had perfect knowledge. It is unlawful to say that they preached before they had perfect knowledge.' S. Iren. 3. 3. 1. According to these [the heretics] Peter was imperfect; imperfect also the other Apostles. And were they to live again, they must needs become the disciples of these, that they too may become perfect. But this were absurd.' Ib. 12. 7. See also in the same book ii. ult.

7 Id. iii. 3. 5.
8 Tert. de Præser. Hær. c. 22.
9 I meant "express the desire for those prayers to God."

104 Different uses of Crucifixes. A Crucifix, or

this statement about me, is worn, full often, in mewhether they imagined that mory of one out of sight. this was all which was meant Is it then a strange thing, by the use of "rosaries"- that Christians should wear, forms of devotion, addressed unseen by man, the Human to the Holy Trinity, or to our resemblance of Him Who Lord, pleading to Him His died for them, to remind own Life and Sufferings and them, by its very touch, Death, that He should have Whose they are, Whom mercy upon us, and forgive they should obey, recalling our sins, or give us His their forgetfulness, (even as Graces ? does the grave look of an elder friend,) or, speaking

Of the same nature, I to them, without words, doubt not, is the misappre- unheard by others, remindhension as to "the use of ing them of His love for crucifixes." A crucifix may them, that Christ died for either (1) be worn near the us sinners? heart, to remind us of Jesus The objection cannot be Christ and Him Crucified; merely to representations of or (2) it might be used to our Lord. Pictures of the fix the attention, by the Crucifixion abound every sight of his sufferings for where. If any representaus, or to move the affections tion of our Lord were of love and contrition, by wrong, all would be. None beholding Him as crucified are wrong in themselves. for love of us; or (3) it This is what I thought it might be an object not of right to explain. While reverence only (as any re- substituting in "the Spiritpresentation of our Lord ual Combat," the words must be), but of worship. "representation of Christ I suppose that this last is Crucified" for "Crucifix," what would be commonly in order to suggest rather suggested to the minds of the use of pictures, I said, English people. "Neither the use of the We, or at least English Crucifix, nor of the pictures women, wear the pictures of the Crucifixion, which of those they love. The are more common among miniature portrait of a child ourselves, can be in any


1 Spiritual Combat, p. 198, note, ed. 2.

picture of Crucifixion, not against 2nd Commandment. 105

way regarded as contrary to Crucified" for " the Crucithe second Commandment, fix." Strange it is, that when used to set before the while, not the Lutheran eyes the Divine love and only, but the united LuSufferings of our Crucified theran and Reformed bodies Lord. For what is forbid- in Prussia, have the Crucifix den in that Commandment upon their Communion Tais to make for ourselves any ble, the very name of a likeness of God: but to Crucifix amongst us awakrepresent Christ Crucified ens only thoughts of idolais but to exhibit the Human trous worship. There can, Form which for us and in principle, be no difference our salvation He Himself between the Picture of the took." Crucifixion and the Figure

It may remove the preju- of Christ Crucified; both dice of some, that in this alike set before our eyes I had the remarkable con- Christ Crucified; the piccurrence of Dr. Arnold 2. ture ordinarily, by aid of who was naturally biassed colour, sets forth His Sain quite a contrary direc- cred Form and Countenance, tion, yet was so alive to the and the Eyes which seem truthful impressions of hu- almost to look on those who look on Him, more vividly

man nature.

I do indeed think that it to the mind. Yet pictures is unwise and uncharitable of the Crucifixion are reneedlessly to go against even ceived and beheld by all mistaken prejudices. And with reverence and love; for this very purpose I sub- the Crucifix, with dread of stituted, as I said, the words some wrong design in it. a representation of Christ This feeling, although


2 Life of Dr. Arnold. (Quoted by Mr. Bennett, Letter to Lord J. Russell, p. 36, 37.) Dr. Arnold says, too broadly indeed, "the second commandment is in the letter utterly done away with by the fact of the Incarnation." This it is not, for worship would be forbidden now as then. But Dr. Arnold limits his words in the context (as I did myself) to the making to ourselves representations of Almighty God, although the language is somewhat crude. "God (he says) has sanctioned one conceivable similitude of Himself, when He declared Himself in the Person of Christ." He who had seen the Son in the Flesh had seen the Father; yet then, too, they saw only "the Form of a servant," which God the Son took, not His Invisible Godhead, nor any "similitude of the Father."

106 Worship of images alone forbidden by the Church.

inconsistent, I thought it before him, so that it be right to respect. I could used only to fix and deepen not, when asked, but say our thoughts of His Dying (as I said in the note above Love, and make it present quoted, and as Dr. Arnold to us. This also I have said), that the Crucifix in said, when asked. But as itself was not forbidden by to this also, I have always the second Commandment; spoken of the charity due for the second Command- to the prejudices of others. ment forbids us to make to I need not say to your ourselves any likeness of the Lordship, that, not images, invisible God; the Crucifix but the worship of images represents not the Son, in was forbidden either by the His Invisible Deity, but in Council of Frankfort to "the Form of a servant," which we appeal, or by the which He took for us, and English Church. The Artiin which "He became obe- cle says expressly dient unto Death, and that, shipping and adoration as the Death of the Cross." well of images as of reNor do I know any thing liques." Natural actions, to forbid an English clergy- tokens of love (such as Dr. man, either to wear such a Arnold speaks of 3, and memorial of His Crucified" rather envied the child," Lord himself, or to give it who, in simple devotion to to others to wear, not osten- its Lord, used them) are not tatiously, but unseen by "worship or adoration." man, to recall the thought Who has not seen one kiss of Himself to them. But the picture of one loved but further, neither can I think absent? Who, well-nigh, it wrong for any one to pray, has not done it? If then, any either with a picture of our one, following the outward Lord Crucified, or a Crucifix gesture of St. Mary Mag

66 wor

3 "In the crypt is a Calvary and figures as large as life, representing the burying of our Lord. The woman who showed us the crypt had her little girl with her, and she lifted up the child, about three years old, to kiss the feet of our Lord. Is this idolatry? Nay, verily it may be so; but it need not be, and assuredly is in itself right and natural. I confess I rather envied the child."-Dr. Arnold's Life, ii. 402, quoted by Mr. Bennett. In the context Dr. Arnold says, very unguardedly, "It is idolatry to talk about holy Church," but Dr. Arnold, of course, meant a supposed abuse, not to condemn the Apostles' Creed.

Use of pictures of the Crucifixion in suffering. 107

dalene, and in outward act, ple answer of the sufferer figuring himself like her, after a night of agony. were to kiss this likeness of " And we indeed justly:" his Lord's Feet, I own, I has echoed in many a heart, could not count the action in sight of the likeness of superstitious, nor to imply the outstretched and racked a temper alien from the Form of JESUS. I have English Church. known how the dying sufI do believe, my Lord, ferer has felt like the forthat in this great conflict, in given robber by our Lord's which the hearts of the peo- side. I have known how, ple are to be won back to when the mind could in the depth of "the truth as it feverish illness form no is in Christ Jesus," it is the prayer, the sight of a picture part of Christian love to of Christ Crucified has been avoid, as far as it is con- the one means of gathering sistent with the full main- the thoughts to Him, and tenance of the truth, what been instead of books of may deter others from re- prayer which the brain ceiving it. We have to win could no longer receive, or hearts by the grace of God, the ear hear. I have known and the power of His Spirit, it the outward support of and the might of His truth, months and years of intense and may well forego all suffering, and of the pains which is not necessary. I of death; how suffering has did not wish to promote the been sanctified by the everuse of Crucifixes, in the present sight of those sancpopular sense of that use. tifying Sufferings; or how, But I have seen, my Lord, in life, its presence has in most excruciating pain, quickened the conscience, which flesh and blood could not to act unworthily of not have endured, how deep Him, or crucify Him again, a comfort the well-known our Crucified Lord. picture of the Crucifixion, I have not, then, thought by Guido, has been to the it wrong, my Lord, to give sufferer; how the eye, in-a Crucifix to be worn withstead of rolling in agony, in, upon the chest. I may has rested in peace on that myself have given it, in Sacred Form. "What are some years, to some twelve my sufferings compared to or twenty friends who His?" has been the sim- wished so to wear it. Since

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