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mann cites the case of a whole family plain many puzzling phenomena. Thus upon whom coffee acted like opium, while M. Danney made experiments during ten opium had no sensible effect whatever on years with rabbits, a hundred couples them; and Dr. Lucas knows a family upon being selected by him with a view to the whom the slightest dose of calomel pro- creation of peculiarities. By always choosduces violent nervous tremblings. Every ing the parents “d'après des circonstances physician knows how both predisposition individuelles fixes et toujours les mêmes to and absolute protection against certain dans certaines lignées,” he succeeded in specific diseases are transmitted. In many obtaining a number of malformations acfamilies the teeth and hair fall out before cording to his preconceived plan. And the ordinary time, no matter what hygiène such experiments have been repeated on be followed. Sir Henry Holland remarks, dogs, pigeons, and poultry with like suc"the frequency of blindness as an heredit- cess. It is on this fact of individual heritary affection is well known, whether oc- age that longevity depends. There is no curring from cataract or other diseases of term of life for the “species,” only a term the parts concerned in vision. The most for individual; a fact which sets all remarkable of the many examples known the speculations of Cornaro, Hufeland, to me, is that of a family where four out and Flourens at nought. There are limits of five children, otherwise healthy, became which neither the species” nor the intotally blind from amaurosis about the age dividual can be said to pass; no man has of twelve; the vision having been gradu- been known to live two hundred years; ally impaired up to this time. What adds but the number of years which each into the singularity of this case is the exist-dividual will reach, without accident, is a ence of some family monument long prior term depending neither on the “species,” in date, where a female ancestor is repre- nor on his own mode of life, but on the sented with several children around her, organization inherited from his parents. the inscription recording that all the num- Temperance, sobriety, and chastity, howber were blind." * But not only are ever desirable, both in themselves and in structural peculiarities transmitted, we see their effects, will not insure long life; ineven queer tricks of manner descending to temperance, hardship, and irregularity will the children. The writer had a puppy, not prevent a man living for a century and taken from its mother at six weeks old, a half. The facts are there to prove both who although never taught “to beg” (an propositions. Longevity is an inheritance. accomplishment his mother had been Like talent, it may be cultivated ; like taught), spontaneously took to begging talent, it may be perverted; but it exists for everything he wanted, when about independent of all cultivation, and no culseven or eight months old : he would beg tivation will create it. Some men have for food, beg to be let out of the room, a talent for long life. and one day was found opposite a rabbit M. Charles Lejoncourt published, in hutch begging for the rabbits. Unless we 1842, his Galerie des Centenaires, in which are to suppose all these cases simple coin- may be read a curious list of examples cidences, we must admit individual herit-proving the hereditary nature of longeage; but the doctrine of probabilities will vity. In one page we have a day laborer not permit us to suppose them coincident. dying at the age of 108, his father lived Let us take the idiosyncrasy of cannibalism, to 104, his grandfather to 108, and his which may be safely said not to appear daughter then living had reached 80. In more than once in ten thousand human another we have a saddler whose grandbeings; if, therefore, we take one in ten father died at 112, his father at 113, and thousand as the ratio, the chances against he himself at 115; this man, aged 113, any man manifesting the propensity will was asked by Louis XIV. what he had be ten thousand to one, but the chances done to so prolong life; his answer was, against his son also manifesting it will be “Sire, since I was fifty I have acted upon —what some more learned calculator must two principles; I have shut my heart and declare.
opened my wine cellar.” M. Lejoncourt Not the Species, but the Individual, also mentions a woman then living aged then, we are forced to admit, presides 150, whose father died at 124, and whose over heritage; and this will help to ex- uncle at 113. But the most surprising of
the cases cited by Lucas is that of Jean * " Medical Notes and Reflections,” p. 23.
Golembiewski, a Pole, who in 1846 was still living, aged 102, having been eighty dogs inherit the peculiar cunning necessary years as common soldier, in thirty-five to hunt the peccari without danger. F. campaigns under Napoleon, and having Cuvier has observed that young foxes, in even survived the terrible Russian cam- those parts of the country where traps are paign, in spite of five wounds, and a sol- set, manifest much more prudence than dier's recklessness of life. His father died even the old foxes in districts where they aged 121, and his grandfather, 130. In- are less persecuted. Again, birds born in deed, the practice of every annuity and a country inhabited by man inherit their insurance office suffices to convince us of alarm at his presence; but travellers narordinary experience having discovered that rate that the same species encountered on length of life is somehow dependent on uninhabited islands manifest no alarm, and hereditary influence.
are knocked down as easily as a gentleman Although instincts, in the general ac- in Fleet-street; they soon, however, learn ceptation of the term, may be said to be to dread man, and this dread they translong to the species and to be transmitted mit. As these last illustrations may be with the specific type, we have abundant relegated to the vague region of instincts, evidence of the individual transmission of we will confine ourselves to more indiwhat are called instinctive peculiarities, or vidual and accidental characteristics. Thus acquired habits. Thus Girou relates the Girou relates how a man known to him case of a sporting dog, taken young from had the habit of sleeping on his back, with its mother and father, who was singularly his right leg crossed over the left; one of obstinate, and exhibited the greatest ter- his daughters showed the same peculiarity ror at every explosion of the gun, which from her birth, and constantly assumed it always excites the ardor of the species. in her cradle, in spite of her swathings. On the owner expressing his surprise to Venette knew a woman who limped with the gentleman from whom he received the the right leg; her daughter was born with dog, he was told that nothing was more the same defect in her right leg. Ambrose likely, for the dog's father had the same Paré noticed that several children who had peculiarity. How the vicious disposition a peculiar mode of shaking the head, inof horses is transmitted all breeders know. herited it from their parents. Again, we know that the vice of drunken- The inevitable conclusion from all these ness is very apt to be inherited; and that facts is, that parents transmit their indi. the passion for gambling is little less so. vidual peculiarities of color, form, longev“A lady with whom I was very intimate,” ity, idiosyncrasy, &c., to their offspring, relates Da Gama Machado, "and who and that they do this not as reproducing possessed great wealth, passed her nights the species, but as reproducing their own in gaming: she died young, from pul- individual organizations. But now comes monary disease. Her eldest son was equal the difficult part of our inquiry :—Which ly addicted to play, and he also died of is the predominating influence, that of the consumption at the same age as his mother. male or that of the female ? If both parHis daughter inherited the same passion ents join to form the child, does one parent and the same disease.” * Other and more give one group of organs, and another crapulous vices are inherited, and are ex- parent another group; or do both give hibited in cases where the early death of all ? the parents, or the removal of the children in infancy, prevents the idea of any imita
“Half is his, and half is thine: it will be worthy tion or effect of education being the cause.
of the two!" That the "thieving propensity” is transmitted from father to son through genera- sings the poet; and the physiologist asks, tions, all acquainted with police-courts - Which half?
know. Gall f has cited some striking ex- Speaking of mules, Vicq-d'Azir says, amples; and that murder, like talent, runs with proper caution, that "it seems as if in families, is too notorious to need illustra- the exterior and the extremities were tions here. Dogs taught to “point” or modified by the father, and that the visset,” transmit the talent. The American cera emanate from the mother.” The re
serve with which the great anatomist ex* " Théorie des Ressemblances,” p. 154, quoted presses himself has not been imitated by by Lucas.
his successors; indeed, men are generally + " Fonctions du Cerveau," i. 207.
averse from uncertainties——they like a decisive opinion, a distinct formula. Hence opposite conclusion, declaring that it was we have the very popular formula adopted the mare whose influence preponderated by Mr. Orton in his “ Lectures”—“That in the foal. General Daumas replied, and the male gives the external configuration, cited a letter addressed to him by Abd-elor in other words, the locomotive organs; Kader, who may certainly be said to unwhile the female gives the internal, or in derstand Arab horses better than Europeother words, the vital organs ;” which is ans. The letter is worth reading for its
" generally stated with more scientific pre-own sake: we can, however, only quote cision thus-“the male gives the animal its testimony on the particular point now system, the female the organic or veget- under discussion. “The experience of ative." Very great and authoritative centuries has established," he says, " that names may be cited in support of this the essential parts of the organization, view;
and as all such formulas are the ex- such as the bones, the tendons, the nerves, pressions of numerous facts, we must ex- and the veins, are always derived from the pect to find their advocates powerful in stallion. The mare may give the color facts to support them. If there are facts and some resemblance to her structure, which are equally explicit and diametri- but the principal qualities are due to the cally opposed to those used as evidence stallion.” This is very weighty testimony, for the theory, it is clear that the theory on which we will only for the present expresses only part of the truth. Let us remark, that it merely asserts the preponsee how the case stands.
derance of the male influence as respects Linnæus says that the internal plant the locomotive system; it does not assert (i.e., the organs of fructification) in all hy that absolute independence of any female brids is like the female; the external influence, maintained in the formula of (organs of vegetation), on the contrary, Prevost and Daumas, Lallemand and resembles the male. This is, however, others, which we are now combating. diametrically opposed by De Candolle, Abd-el-Kader's statement is tantamount who announces it as a general law that the to that made by Mr. Orton,organs of vegetation are given by the female, those of fructification by the male.* “I do not mean it to be inferred that either When two doctors of such importance parent gives either set of organs uninfluenced differ on a point like this, we may suspect by the other parent; but merely that the leadthat both are right and both are wrong; ing characteristics and qualities of both sets of and here our suspicion is supported by the qualities are due to the male on the one side, mass of facts adduced in the experiments and to the female on the other, the opposite paof M. Saguretzt which refute the hypo- rent modifying them only.” thesis of Linnæus and the hypothesis of De Candolle. What we have just indicated
This is a much more acceptable theory with regard to plants, has been the course than the other, but it is only an approxipursued with regard to animals: one class mation to the truth. Mr. Orton's first ilof observations has seemed to prove that lustration is the hybrid of the horse and the father bestows the “animal system;" ass. another class of observations has seemed to prove that the mother bestows it; and “It is known that the produce of the male ass a third class has proved both theories in- and the mare is a mule; but I do not think it adequate. Quite recently General Daumas stallion and the female ass is what has been de
is equally well-known that the produce of the published the result of his long experience nominated a hinny-yet such is the case. with Arab horses, I arguing that according The mule, the produce of the ass and to the testimony of the Arabs, the stallion mare, is essentially a modified ass—the ears are was the most valuable for purposes of those of an ass somewhat shortened—the mane breeding. Upon this, the Inspecteur des is that of an ass—the tail is that of an ass-the Haras, who had traversed Asia for the skin and color are those of an ass somewhat
modified—the legs are slender, the hoofs high, express purpose of collecting evidence on the subject, published his diametrically The body and barrel are round and full
, in narrow, and contracted, like those of an ass.
which it differs from the ass and resembles the * "Physiologie Végétale," p. 716.
mare." “Pomologie Phisiologique," p. 555, sq. I
"Les Chevaux de Sahara ;" see also an article in the “Revue des Deux Mondes,” May, 1855, on
This description is accurate, but-we Le Cheval de Guerre.
put it interrogatively--is it always the de
scription of a mule, and never that also of when it was hurt. A similar remark has a hinny? This latter, the produce of the been made by all who have attended to stallion and the female ass, “is essen- cross-breeding in birds; the hybrid of the tially a modified horse—the ears like those goldfinch and the canary has the song of of a horse somewhat lengthened—the the goldfinch mingled with occasional mane flowing—the tale bushy like that of notes
of the canary, which seem perpetua horse--the skin is fine like that of a ally about to gain the predominance. Fihorse--the legs are stronger, and the nally, we know, how, in the human family, hoofs broad and expanded like those of a a magnificent voice is inherited from a horse. The body and barrel are flat and mother as often as from a father. narrow, in which it differs from the horse, These illustrations, apart from their inand resembles its mother the ass." From terest, teach us to be cautious in generthese facts, Mr. Orton deduces the con- alizing from a few facts, however striking, clusion, that the offspring of a cross is in questions so complex as all biologinot simply a mixture of the two parents, cal questions are. Let us, however, connor is it an animal that has accidentally a tinue to call on Mr. Orton for facts. He similitude to one or other of its parents, quotes a letter from Dr. George Wilson inasmuch as we can produce at will either (whose opinion on any subject will be the hinney or the mule. The reader will worth hearing) to Dr. Harvey, respecting presently see why such a conclusion can- the produce of the Manx cat and the not be accepted; and we may at once an- common cat. The Manx cat has no tail, ticipate what will hereafter be more fully and is particularly long in the hinder legs. explained, by saying that the differences “You will see,” says Dr. Wilson, “from Mr. Orten signalizes are easily interpreted the facts communicated, that where the by another theory. In point of fact, both Manx cat was the mother, the kittens had mule and hinny are modified asses: in tails of a sort; where the Manx cat was each the structure and disposition of the the father, three-fourths of the kittens had ass predominates; and it does so in vir- no tail.” Mr. Orton also quotes a comtue of that greater “potency of race" munication made to him by Mr. Garnett, which belongs to the ass -a potency of Clitheroe : which is less effective on the hinny, because the superior vigor of the stallion “From these I select those pertaining to the modifies it, according to ascertained Muscovy duck and some hybrids produced be
tween it and the common duck. You are aware laws.
that the Muscovy drake exceeds in a striking “I would call your consideration,” Mr. Or- degree the duck in size : the drake weighing ton continues, "to a very curious circumstance from 8 to 97 lbs,, while the duck weighs only pertaining to the voice of the mule and the hinny; from 3 to 4 lbs. Hybrids produced from the to which my attention was called by Mr. Lort. Muscovy drake and common duck followed this The mule brays, the hinny neighs. The why peculiarity of the male parent as to the relative and wherefore of this is a perfect mystery, until size of the male and female hybrids; the male we come to apply the knowledge afforded us by weighing from 5 to 6 lbs.,
the female not half as the law I have given. The male gives the lo much. On the other hand, the difference in the comotive organs, and the muscles are amongst size of the sexes when the hybrids were the prothese ; the muscles are the organs which mod- duce of the common drake and the Muscovy ulate the voice of the animal; the mule has the duck, was not apparent.” muscular structure of its sire the ass, and brays; the hinny has the muscular structure of its sire A valuable observation, certainly. Mr. the horse, and neighs."
Orton adds the following of his own. He
placed a Chochin cock with his common This seems decisive, until we extend hens: our observations, and then we find the law altogether at fault. Thus the produce “Reasoning that the vital organs were due of a bull and a mare neither loved nor to the female, then the cross between these birds neighed, but uttered a shrill cry somewhat (being externally Cochins and internally comlike that of the goat. The prodúce of a dog mon hens) should lay white eggs, the secretion and a she-wolf sometimes bark and some
of the egg being a vital function. You know times howl, according to Buffon; and the The half-breed did what theory said they should
that the Cochin lays a chocolate-colored egg. produce of a bitch-fox and a dog, accord. do-laid white eggs; and not only white eggs, ing to Burdach, barked like a dog, though but eggs also which on the evidence of myself somewhat hoarsely, and howled like a wolf | and family, were very inferior in taste, having
lost the mellow, buttery taste of the Cochin an evidence that the “ vital organs” are egg."
not solely given by the female.
The result of Mr. Orton's researches But he has recorded another curious
prove that the male does transmit his fact respecting this same experiment which qualities to his descendants; as a matter of might have made him aware of the prob- fact this must be always distinctly relematical nature of his theory, had not his membered; but neither his researches sagacity been hoodwinked by the theory: nor those of his predecessors suffice to
prove this transmission to be absolute, in “These same half-bred birds afforded another the sense required by those who maintain and a very unlooked-for illustration of the po- that the male gives the animal and the sition we have taken. They were all, when first female the vegetative organs; as well as by hatched, like the Cochin cock, profusely feather- those who maintain that the male influence ed on the legs and feet, so much so, that they had to be marked to distinguish them from the necessarily and invariably predominates in pure bred birds. We see here that, according the animal, the female in the vegetative to the law, the male parent implanted his cha- organs. Still it is important to know that racteristics; but what was curious, in a few by the pollen of flowers we can modify weeks, in some of the half-breeds all, and in the tints, and produce any varieties of many most of the leg feathers were shed. Two tulip, violet, or dahlia ; important to know out of some twenty birds only retained them in that we can also modify the plumage of any very conspicuous degree. Now, why was birds, and the color of animals: it is imthis? The cock had implanted his external characteristics, the hen had given her vital portant to know that the male qualities organs. The feathers of the male were there; are transmissible. But for scientific rigor but the vital organs necessary to their growth this is not enough. Before we can esta were not there, and consequently, after a time, blish a law of this kind, we must be sure for want of nutriment, these feathers were that the fact is constant and admits of no shed.”
exceptions, or only of such apparent ex.
ceptions as may be classed under unexWe will not here enter on the question plained perturbations. Now daily obserof the growth of feathers (a very complex vations, no less than recorded cases, asmatter), but, accepting his own premises, sure us that the law is very far from being ask him, if the external characteristics are constant, that the female as unmistakethus dependent on the vital organs for ably transmits her qualities as the male their growth and development, and these transmits his, and that any theorist who vital organs are given by the female, how should reverse the current theory and dedoes the child ever exhibit the character- clare the mother bestowed the animal sysistics of the male, after infancy? Of what tem, leaving the vegetative to the father, use is it for the male to implant his cha- would be able to make a formidable arracteristics, when the female influence is ray of facts. Let us glance awhile at the thus certain to annihilate them.
evidence. Mr. Orton further cites the practice of It is said the male gives the color, but Bakewell with respect to his celebrated the female does so likewise. A black cat Dishly sheep. His rams might be bought and a white cat will have kittens which or hired, for a good price; but his best may be all black, all white, or black spotewes were sacred. These he would nei-ted with white, and white spotted with ther sell nor let.
black. Every street will furnish examAs a counter-statement, let it be noted ples. Isidore Geoffroy St. Hilaire speaks that, according to Girou, the farmers are of a case under his observation, of a black more particular about the bull than about buck and a white doe; the first produce the cow when they want a good milking was a black and white fawn; the second cow, for it is observed that the property a fawn entirely black, except a white spot of abundant secretion of milk is more cer- above the hoof.* Burdach mentions the tain to be transmitted from a bull than case of a raven and gray crow, who had from a cow. We question the fact of the a brood of five: two black like the father; bull having greater influence than the two gray like the mother; and one mixed. cow, believing that in each case the pro- The same result is observed with respect perty is transmitted according to direct to all other qualities. But perhaps the heritage; but that the bull should be known to have any importance in this respect, is * "Dict. Classique d'Histoire Naturelle," x. 121.