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in grain (Art. XIII., $ 7); to make laws forbidding the sale of lottery tickets in the State (Art. IV., $ 27).

THE METHOD OF LEGISLATION

37. In order that the Legislature may exercise its powers properly, the Constitution fixes quite definitely the manner in which laws shall be made (Const., Art. IV., SS 11-13). This corresponds to that which is usual in all the States, and is fully explained in Part I. (pp. 41-46). One or two special provisions in Illinois may be noted.

38. Revenue Bills The Constitution of the United States * and those of several of the States require that bills for raising revenue shall originate only in the lower house. This is in imitation of a custom of the British Parliament, for which at one time there was an excellent reason. No such reason exists in our country, however, and the Illinois Constitution very properly provides that any bill may originate in either house, but may be altered, amended, or rejected by the other (Const., Art. IV., § 12).

39. The Popular Veto—The Referendum-Not all resolutions of the Legislature have to go to the governor.

As has been seen (p. 53), a plan for a new Constitution is drawn up by a body of representatives of the people—a Constitutional Convention. This is, unlike the Legislature, a unicameral body, and the plan which it may draft is not submitted to the governor for his approval, but to a vote of the people. If a majority of all those voting approve the plan, it is

* U. S. Const., Art. I., 87.

adopted and becomes law. Otherwise it is rejected. This amounts to a veto by the people—an absolute veto, as there is no way of passing it if the people disapprove. The governor's veto is not absolute, as a two-thirds vote in each house may make a bill become a law, notwithstanding the disapproval of the governor.

A resolution of the General Assembly in favor of a constitutional amendment also does not go to the governor, but, like the plan proposed by a constitutional convention, goes to the people instead. If a majority of those voting approve, the proposed amendment is adopted and becomes law.

The Constitution also provides that in some cases even measures which have passed both houses of the Legislature and received the approval of the governor do not become law unless they receive also the direct assent of the people.

No indebtedness can be incurred by the State beyond the sum of $250,000, "except for the purpose of repelling invasion, suppressing insurrection, or defending the State in war,” without the express approval of the people (Art. IV., $ 18).

The total expenditure on the State house building and grounds cannot exceed $3,500,000, unless the people approve (Art. IV., $ 33).

No law authorizing banks can go into effect until the people have approved (Art. XI., $ 5).

The above three requirements, together with those relating to amending the Constitution, require a vote of the people throughout the State.

There are other restrictions on the legislative power of the General Assembly which relate only to particular

counties. No division of a county can be made, and no addition to the territory of a county or subtraction from it, without the assent of the people concerned (Art. X., SS 2, 3).

No county seat can be changed without the assent of the voters of the county-in this case a three-fifths affirmative vote being required (Art. X., $ 4).

There is also a like limitation in the taxing power of county authorities (Art. X., $ 8-see also p. 153).

The above are requirements of the Constitution. In enacting laws in accordance with its powers the General Assembly has also in some cases made use of the same principle. In 1895 a law (p. 148–9) was passed applying the merit system to the government of cities, but providing that it should not apply to any city without the consent of the voters. *

The reference to the people of a proposed law gives the people an absolute veto on the measure. This is also called sometimes “direct legislation,” sometimes the “referendum.”

In Illinois no law takes effect until July 1 next following its passage, unless the General Assembly by a vote of two-thirds of all the members of each house declare that an emergency exists—in which case the law may

take effect at once. The veto of the governor of Illinois is fatal to a bill unless it is passed in spite of his objections by a vote of two-thirds of all the members of each house.

* Rev. Stat. c. 24, § 483-4.

CHAPTER VI

THE STATE GOVERNMENT—THE EXECUTIVE

STRUCTURE

1. The Executive Department of the government carries on the State business--the administration. This might more accurately be called the executive departments, as in fact it consists of a number of officers who are not very closely related to one another, and who are not under a common control. In this respect Illinois is quite unlike the l'nited States. The difference is plainly seen by quoting from the two Constitutions.

The Constitution of the United States (Art. II., $ 1) reads: “ The executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America."

The Constitution of Illinois (Art. V., S 1) reads : “The executive department shall consist of a governor, lieutenant-governor, secretary of state, auditor of public accounts, treasurer, superintendent of public instruction, and attorney-general.”

From these statements, and from the subsequent distribution of powers, it will appear that the President directs and controls the Federal administration, while the Illinois governor has little or no control over the remaining executive officers. These officers are not

responsible to the governor, because he does not appoint them and he cannot remove them. He can only ask information from them.

THE GOVERNOR

STRUCTURE OF THE OFFICE

of

2. The Governor is elected by the people at each alternate biennial general election (p. 58). His term of office is four years, beginning on the second Monday of the January following the election. 3. Election and Term of Office—The election

governor, it will be seen, comes in the same year as the choice of Presidential electors (the year whose number is divisible by four), and the governor's term of office very nearly coincides with that of the President (Art. V., SS 1, 3).

While the governor's term of office is four years, nevertheless it does not expire "until his successor is elected and qualified.” Thus, in case of any failure to elect a new governor, or of any delay in the assumption of office, the former governor continues to hold the chair. On the other hand, as soon as the President's term has expired, he becomes at once a private citizen. There might, then, be circumstances in which there would be no President of the United States. But it is likely that there will be, under almost any circumstances, a governor of Illinois.

If, at the election, there should be two candidates for governor with an equal vote, and that higher than any other, then the General Assembly, by joint ballot, chooses one of the two (Art. V., $ 4). Any contest as

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