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find them inhabiting excavations of con- nobody will ever surpass thee!" Tlie siderable depth along the borders, or a city of Ghent alone had 21 altar-pieces by short distance within the current of the him. In Flanders and Brabant are many stream, at the bottom of which they lie of his works, and some of his pictures are hid. In the spring of the year, by cau- in the public collections at Vienna and tiously approaching, and remaining quietly Münich. His paintings are praised for on the margin of such a stream, we may fidelity to nature, excellent drawing, and a see the crawfish industriously bringing coloring approaching the manner of Vanfrom the lower part of their caves the dirt dyke. The latter was his friend, and took accumulated there; and this enables us to his likeness. Crayer died in 1669. comprehend the manner in which they CRAYONS; a general name for all colororiginally made their retreats. Upon the ed stones, earths, or other minerals and two great claws, folded towards each oth- substances used in designing or painting er, and thus forming, with the front of the in pastel, whether they have been beaten, body, a sort of shelf, the dirt is carefully and reduced to a paste, or are used in their brought to the surface, and thrown down primitive consistence, after being sawn or just where the current will sweep it away. cut into long, narrow slips. The sticks of As the substances thus brought up are dry colors which go under this name, and very light, it requires a very gentle move- which are cemented into a friable mass, by ment of the anirnal to avoid spilling, or means of gum or size, and sometimes of rather washing off his lading; and he clay, afford a very simple means of applytherefore rises in the gentlest and most ing colors, being merely rubbed upon pacircumspect manner. We can testify to per, after which the shades are blended or the patience with which this labor is con- softened by means of a stump or small tinued, as, with the view of observing the roll of leather or paper. The drawings operation, we have often quietly pushed require to be protected by a glass covering, in the earth from the edge of the water, to save them from being defaced, unless which they as often have toiled on to some means have been adopted to fix
It is upon these fresh-water them, so that they may not be liable to be species that the observations have been rubbed off. This may be done by brushmade, relative to the re-production of ing the back of the paper with a strong limbs or claws violently broken off. But solution of isinglass, or by passing the a short time elapses before a growth or drawing through a powerful press, in convegetation occurs at the stump or broken tact with a moist paper. part, and a new limb, similar to the origi- CREAM OF TARTAR (potassa supertarnal, though sometimes rather smaller, is tras ; cremor tartari). This salt exists in soon formed. This facility of re-produc- grapes and in tamarinds. The dregs of tion is found to extend throughout the wine also contain a considerable quantity crustaceous class. Fresh-water crawfish of it. Cream of tartar contains a very are regarded by many as furnishing a dels considerable proportion of super-tartrate icate dish for the table, though their small of potassa, about seven or eight hundredths size, and the trouble of collecting a suffi- of tartrate of lime, and a small quantity of cient number of them, are great obstacles silica, albumen, iron, &c. It is insoluble to their being extensively employed in this in alcohol, but may be dissolved in 15 way. They are preyed upon by various parts of boiling and 60 of cold water. It animals, especially by certain birds, whose may be rendered much more soluble by long bills are adapted to picking them out mixing with it a certain quantity of bofrom the bottom of their dens.
racic acid or borate of soda, which renCRAYER, Gaspar, a Dutch painter, born ders the cream of tartar soluble in its own in 1582, at Antwerp, was a pupil of Raph- weight of cold water, and in the half only ael Coxie, and became, by the study of of this menstruum when boiling. This nature, one of the greatest historical and preparation is known by the name of soluportrait painters. At the Spanish court in ble cream of tartar. Its aqueous solution is Brussels, he painted the portrait of the soon decomposed by the contact of the cardinal Ferdinand, brother of the king, air. It is obtained by dissolving in boiland received a pension. He established ing water the common tartar-à white or himself in Ghent, where he constantly reddish crystalline matter, which forms on executed works for the court. He labored the internal sides of the vessels in which with industry and perseverance till his wine has been kept-mixing with it some 86th year. When Rubens saw his finest clay, which precipitates the coloring matpainting in the refectory of the abbey of ter, and then permitting the liquor to Afeghem, he cried out, "“ Crayer, Crayer, crystallize. The action of this substance
varies according to the dose in which it is yet it suited the taste of the age. His administered. In small doses, it is ab- chef d'euvre, at least according to La sorbed, and acts as a temperant; and, in Harpe, is his Rhadamiste (1711). But Boithis quality, it is employed in jaundice, leau, on his death-bed, hearing the first foulness of the stomach and intestines, &c. scenes of this tragedy read to him by LeIn larger doses, it principally spends its verrier, could not help exclaiming to his action on the mucous intestinal membrane, friends, “ Heavens! do you wish to hasten and induces alvine evacuations, especially my death? Why, the Boyers and Pradons when given in powder. Its taste being were suns to this author! I shall be more rather less unpleasant than that of some willing to leave the world, since our age other neutral salts used in medicine, and is becoming inundated with silly trash." its operation being of a very gentle nature, Most persons of the present day would it is very frequently administered. In probably agree with Boileau. France, the soluble cream of tartar is gen- days, tlie Rhadamiste passed through two erally preferred.
editions, and Paris and Versailles vied CRÉBILLON, Prosper Jolyot de, the with each other in admiring it. Crébillon elder, a writer of tragedy, who is com- had been told that his talent lay in the pared, by his countrymen, even to Æschy- terrible, and thought, therefore, that he lus, born at Dijon, Feb. 15, 1674, early could not exert himself too much in scenes manifested talent at the school of the Jesu- of horror, and hence was called the terriits in his native town, but, at the saine ble. Xerxes (1714) exceeded, in this retime, a boisterous and heedless temper. spect, all that he had before written, but Being designed for the profession of law, soon disappeared from the stage. Semirhe was placed with an attorney named amis (1717), the mother enamoured of her Prieur at Paris; but they were both lov- son, and not cured of her passion by the ers of the theatre, so that the youth made discovery of his relationship, was severely little progress in his studies. The attor- censured. It was not till nine years after ney perceived, too, that his pupil was dis- this that his Pyrrhus appeared (1726), and qualified for the profession by his passion- met with a good reception, contrary to the ate temperament, but showed penetration expectation of the author, who, in this and judgment in his criticisms on dra- work, had abstained from the frightful matic performances: he therefore advised and shocking. Domestic distress and him, though he had, as yet, written noth- poverty seem, from this time, to have ing but some trifling songs and scraps of crippled the powers of his genius. His verse, to apply himself to dramatic com- small patrimony was absorbed by debts position. Crébillon did so; but his first and law expenses. A father and a beloved piece, La Mort des Enfans de Brutus, was wife were taken from him within a short rejected by the players. He burnt the time. Amidst the embarrassments in manuscript, and resolved to have no more which he was involved, he refused, with to do with the drama; but, subsequently, characteristic inflexibility, all the offers of at the persuasion of Prieur, he wrote Idomé- assistance which were made him. When née, which, in 1705, was brought upon the madame de Pompadour wished to humble stage. The faults of the play were over- Voltaire, Crébillon was thought of as a fit looked in consideration of the youth of instrument for her purpose. The king the author, and the promising talent gave him the office of censor of the police, which it displayed ; and the promptness a yearly pension of 1000 francs, and an with which the author in five days wrote appointment in the library. Thus freed anew the last act, which had displeased at from anxiety, he finished his Catiline, the first representation, drew the attention which was represented, at the king's exof the public to the young poet, whose pense, in 1749, with all the pomp that the talents, after the appearance of his Atrée, court theatre could display. This piece, in 1707, were loudly applauded. Prieur, overrated by the party opposed to Volthough sick, requested to be carried to the taire, is undervalued by La Harpe. To theatre, and said to the young tragedian, make some atonement to the character of “ I die content; I have made you a poet, Cicero, which was thought to have been and leave in you a man who belongs to wronged in his Catiline, he wrote, at 76, the nation.” A strange taste for unnatural the Triumvirate, or the Death of Cicero, declamation had been excited by the Rho- which was brought upon the stage in his dogune, and this manner was carried to 81st year. The defects of the piece were excess by Crébillon, in the Atrée. In 1709 overlooked, from respect to the age of the appeared his Electre, which is as declam- author. Thius much for his dramatic atory and as intricate as his earlier plays; compositions. In general, Crébillon shows
none of the true elevation of the tragic l'Esprit (Hague, 1736, 3 vols.), perhaps the art, but only an imitation, sometimes a
most successful, but unfinished. One of happy one, of the manner struck out by his most voluptuous pieces is Le Sopha Corneille. He was a man of a proud and (1745, 2 vols.). In the same licentious independent character, disdained to flatter strain are most of his other writings comthe great, and passed much of his life in a posed. It is still a disputed point whether condition bordering on poverty. More he was the author of the Lettres de la Marfortunate circumstances might have given quise de Pompadour. They are not inmore amenity to his spirit; but, neglected, cluded in the edition of 1779, 7 vols., as he imagined, by mankind, he sought 12mo. Crébillon held a small office in consolation in the company of dogs and the censorship of the press. He died at cats, which he picked up in the streets Paris, April 12, 1777. (the poorest and most sickly were those CRECY or CRESSY EN PONTHIEU ; & which he preferred), and found a species town in France, in Somme; 10 miles N. of enjoyment in an irregular manner of of Abbeville, and 100 N. of Paris; populiving. In 1731, he became a member of lation, 1650. It is celebrated on account the academy. Crébillon died June 17, of a battle fought here Aug. 26, 1346, be1762, at the age of 88. Louis XV erected tween the English and French. Edward a magnificent monument to him in the III and his son, the Black Prince, were church of St. Gervais, which, however, both engaged, and the French were dewas never entirely completed till it was feated with great slaughter, 30,000 foot removed to the museum of French monu- and 1200 horse being left dead in the ments (aux petits Augustins). Besides the field; among whom were the king of Bosplendid edition of Crébillon's works pub- hemia, the count of Alençon, Louis count lished by the order of Louis XV, for the of Flanders, with many others of the benefit of the author, after the successful French nobility. performance of Catiline (Cuvres de Cré- Credit, in economy, is the postponebillon, imprimerie R. du Louvre, 1750, 2 ment agreed on by the parties of the payvols. 4to.), there is another published by ment of a debt to a future day. It imDidot the elder, 1812, 3 vols., in both of plies confidence of the creditor in the which, however, six verses are omitted in debtor; and a “credit system” is one of genCatiline, which had been left out in the eral confidence of people in cach other's representation, as applicable to madame honesty, solvency and resources. Credit de Pompadour.
is not confined to civilized countries; Mr. CRÉBILLON, Claude Prosper Jolyot de, Park mentions instances of it ainong the the younger, son of the preceding, boin Africans; but it will not prevail extenat Paris in 1707, succeeded as an author sively where the laws do not protect propin an age of licentiousness. By the exhi- erty, and enforce the fulfilment of pronbition of gross ideas, covered only with a ises. Public credit is founded upon a thin veil, and by the subtleties with which confidence in the resources, good faith lie excuses licentious principles, Crébillon and stability of the government; and is contributed to diffuse a general corruption does not always flourish or decline at the of manners, before contined to the higher same time and rate as private credit; for circles of Parisian society. In later times, the people may have either greater or less the French taste has been so much chang- confidence in the government than in cl, especially by the revolution, that such each other: still there is some sympathy indelicacies as are found in lis works and correspondence between the two; for would not be tolerated at the present day. a general individual confidence can rarely, His own morals, lowever, appear to have if ever, take place in the midst of distsust been the opposite of those which he por- of the government; and, vice versa, a firm trayed. We are told of his chcertulness, reliance upon the government promotes Duis rectitude of principle, and his blame- a corresponding individual confidence less life. In the circle of the Dominicaur among the citizens. The history of every (u Sunday society), he was a favorite, and industrious and commercial community, the caveau where Piron, Gallet, Collé, under a stable government, will present wrote their songs and uttered their jests, successive alternate periods of credit aus was made respectable by his company. distrust, following each other with a good Of his works, the best are-Lettres de la deal of regularity. A general feeling of Marquise *** au Comte de *** (1732, 2 prosperity produces extension and facilivols., 12mo.); Tanzai et Néadarné (less tics of credit. The mere opinion or inlicentious, but full of vow unintelligible agination of a prevailing success has, of allusions); Les Égaremens du Caur, et de its own force, a most powerful influence
in exciting the enterprise, and quickening or of paper currency, where the issuing the industry, of a community. The first of notes for supplying currency by comrequisite to industry is a stock of instru- panies or individuals is permitted. Indiments, and of materials on which to ein- viduals or companies thus draw into their ploy them: a very busy and productive bands an immense capital, and it is by no community requires a great stock of both. means a fictitious capital when it comes Now if this stock, being ever so great, into their possession, but actual money, were hoarded up; if the possessors would goods, lands, &c.; but, if they are in a neither use, let, nor sell it, as long as bad, losing business, the capital, as soon it should be so withdrawn from circu- as they are intrusted with it, becomes ficlation, it would have no effect upon the titious in respect to those who trusted general activity and productiveness. This them with it, since they will not again is partially the case when a general dis- realize it. Extensive credits, both in sales trust and impression of decay and decline and the issuing of paper, in new and cause the possessors of the stock and ma- growing communities, which have a small terials to be scrupulous about putting them stock and great industry, grow out of their out of their hands, by sale or otherwise, necessities, and thus become habitual and to be used by others; and others, again, custoinary, of which the U. States hithhaving no confidence in the markets, and erto have given a striking example. seeing no prospect of profits, hesitate to CREECH, Thomas, a scholar of some purchase materials, or to buy or hire the eminence for his classical translations, was implements, mills, ships, &c., of others, or born in 1659. He took the degree of to use their own in the processes of pro- M. A. at Oxford in 1683, having the preduction and transportation. This state of ceding year established his reputation as a surplusage and distrust is sure to be fol- scholar, by printing his translation of Lulowed by a reduction of money prices; cretius. He also translated several other and every one who has a stock on hand, of the ancient poets, wholly or in part, and whose possessions are estimated in comprising selections from Homer and money, is considered to be growing poorer Virgil
, nearly the whole of Horace, the and poorer every day. But when prices thirteenth Satire of Juvenal, the Idyls have reached their lowest point, and begin of Theocritus, and several of Plutarch's regularly to rise, every body begins to Lives. He likewise published an edition esteem himself and others as being pros- of Lucretius in the original, with interpreperous, and the opinion contributes pow. tations and annotations. He put an end erfully to verify itself. Credit begins to to his life at Oxford, in 1700. Various expand ; all the stores of the commu- causes are assigned for this rash act, but nity are unlocked, and the whole of its they are purely conjectural. He owes his resources is thrown open to enterprise. fame almost exclusively to his translation Every one is able readily to command a of Lucretius, the poetical merit of which sufficiency of means for the employment is very small, although, in the versification of his industry; capital is easily procured, of the argumentative and mechanical parts, and services are readily rendered, each some skill is exhibited. As an editor of one relying upon the success of the others, Lucretius, he is chiefly valuable for his and their readiness to meet their engage explanation of the Epicurean philosophy, ments; and the acceleration of industry, for which, however, he was largely inand the extension of credit, go on until a debted to Gassendi. surplus
and stagnation are again produced. CREED; a summary of belief; from the The affairs of every industrious and ac- Latin credo (I believe), with which the tive community are always revolving in Apostles' Creed begins. In the Eastern this circle, in traversing which, general church, a summary of this sort was called credit passes through its periodical ebbs ráönua (the lesson), because it was learnand flows. This facility and extension of ed by the catechumens; yodon (the writcredit constitutes what is commonly called ing), or kávwv (the rule). But the most comfictitious capital. The fiction consists in mon name in the Greek church was many individuals being supposed to be olyBodov (the symbol, q. v.), which has also possessed of a greater amount of clear passed into the Western church. Numercapital than they are actually worth. The ous ancient formularies of faith are premost striking instance of this fictitious- served in the writings of the early fathers, ness of capital, or, in other words, excess Irenæus, Origen, Tertullian, &c., which of credit, appears in the immense amounts agree in substance, though with some diof negotiable paper, that some individuals versity of expression. The history of and companies spread in the community, creeds would be the history of the church,
and of its melancholy aberrations from Unity, neither confounding the persons, the simple doctrines of Jesus. Into this nor dividing the substance.” For (to give interesting, but humiliating history we briefly the remainder of this position) there cannot now enter, but must confine our- are three persons, but one Godhead. The selves to a rapid view of a few of its Father, Son and Holy Ghost are uncreate, most prominent features. Of the earlier incomprehensible, eternal
, almighty, God, creeds, there are three which require par Lord; yet there are not three Lords, Gods, ticular attention. I. The Apostles' Creed is almighty, eternal, incomprehensible, unso called from its having been formerly con- created, but one. The Father is neither sidered as the work of the apostles them- made, created nor begotten: the Son is selves. This notion is now acknowledged of the Father alone, not made, nor creatto be without foundation. When and by ed, but begotten. The Holy Ghost is of whom it was drawn up, is not known. It the Father and the Son, neither made, nor can only be traced to the 4th century. It created, nor begotten, but proceeding; contains a profession of belief in the and in this Trinity none is afore or after Holy Ghost, in the divinity of Jesus, his another; none is greater or less than andescent into hell, and his ascension into other. He, therefore, that will be saved heaven, in the resurrection of the body, must thus think of the Trinity. The secin life everlasting, &c. II. The Nicene ond position establishes the doctrine of Creed, so called because it was adopted at Christ's incarnation. It is necessary to the council of Nice, A. D. 325, held to everlasting salvation, that we believe oppose the Arian heresy. It therefore rightly in the incarnation of our Lord contains an explanation of the article of Jesus Christ. The right faith is, that he the Apostles' Creed“I believe in Jesus is the Son of God, God and man; perfect Christ, the only Son," &c., which is as God and perfect man; yet not two, but follows: “The only Son of God, begotten one Christ; one, not by conversion of the by the Father, that is to say, of the sub- Godhead into flesh, but by taking of the stance of the Father, God of God, light manhood into God; one altogether, not of light, very God of very God, begotten by confusion of substance, but by unity and not made, consubstantial with the of person. This is the Catholic faith, Father, through whom every thing has which except a man believe faithfully, he been made in heaven and on earth.” cannot be saved. Macedonius, bishop of Constantinople, Besides these creeds, there are numerhaving denied the divinity of the Holy ous Confessions of Faith, which have been Ghost, it became necessary to settle this adopted by different churches, as standpoint, which was done by the council of ards to which the ministers in the respecConstantinople, A. D. 381, who added the tive communions are required to conform. words which follow “I believe in the I. The Greek church (q. v.) presented the Holy Ghost;" viz. “ the Lord and Giver Confession of the true and sincere Faith of life, who proceedeth from the Father to Mohammed II, in 1453; but in 1643, (and the Son' was afterward inserted by the Orthodox Confession of the Catholic the Spanish bishops), who, with the Fa- and Apostolic Greek Church, composed by ther and the Son together, is worshipped Mogila, metropolitan of Kiow, was apand glorified, who spake by the prophets.” proved with great solemnity by the paThe insertion of the words“ and the Son” triarchs of Constantinople, Alexandria, was finally sanctioned by the Roman Antioch and Jerusalem, and for a long church in 883, but has never been receiv- time was the standard of the principles of ed by the Greek church. III. The Atha- the Russian Greek church : it has been nasian Creed is now acknowledged not to superseded by the Summary of Christian have been the work of Athanasius (q. v.), Divinity, composed in 1765, by the metrowhose name it bears. It was probably politan of Moscow (translated into Engwritten in Latin, in the sixth century. In lish, Edinburgh, 1814). II. The church of the 10th century, it was generally received Rome has always received the Apostles', in the Western church, and, at the refor- the Nicene and the Athanasian Creeds; mation, was adopted by the Protestants. It but a public authoritative symbol was first consists of an introduction and two posi- fixed by the council of Trent. A sumtions, with their proofs, deductions and con- mary of the doctrines contained in the clusions. The introduction declares, that canons of that council is given in the “whosoever will be saved must hold the creed published by Pius IV (1564), in the Catholic faith.” The first position then form of a bull. It is introduced by the states, “The Catholic faith is this—that we Nicene Creed, to which it adds twelve worship one God in Trinity, and Trinity in articles, containing those doctrines which