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Xópos, the real crest. The crests of commanders (appipaλot), of course, were generally larger than those of common soldiers. The Eginetan statues (see Eginetan Style) have crests of horse-hair. In the middle ages, when rank and honors became hereditary, and particular heraldic devices were appropriated to particular families, the crest became a distinguishing hereditary mark of honor. It denotes, in heraldry, a figure placed upon a wreath, coronet, or cap of maintenance, above both helmet and shield; as, for instance, the crest of a bishop is the mitre. The crest is considered a greater criterion of nobility than the armor generally. It is commonly a piece of the arins, as that of Castile is a castle. Crests, therefore, form an important subject in the unimportant science of heraldry.


CRETE. (See Candia.) CRETICUS. (Sec Rhythmus.) CRETINISM makes a very close approach to rickets in its general symptoms. It differs principally in its tendency to that peculiar enlargement of the thyroid gland, which, in France, is denominated goitre, and in the mental imbecility which accompanies it from the first. The enlargement of the gland does not always, however, accompany the other symptoms, though it does generally. Cretinism was first distinctly noticed and described by Plater, about the middle of the 17th century, as occurring among the peasants in Carinthia and the Valais. It was afterwards found, in a still severer degree, in other valleys of Switzerland, and the Alps generally. It has since been detected in various other regions, where the country exhibits similar features, as among a miserable race called Cagots, inhabiting the hollows of the Pyrenees, whose district and history have been described by Mr. Raymond; and in Chinese Tartary, where it is represented as existing by sir George Staunton. On the first discovery of cretinism, it was ascribed by some to the use of snow-water, and by others to the use of water impregnated with calcareous earth, both which opinions are without foundation. The first is sufficiently disproved by the fact that persons born in places contiguous to the glaciers, and who drink no other water than what flows from the melting of ice and snow, are not subject to this disorder; and, on the contrary, that the disorder is observed in places where snow is unknown. The second is contradicted by the fact, that the common water of Switzerland, instead of being impregnated with calcareous

matter, excels that of most other countries in Europe in purity and flavor. The water usually drank at La Batia and Martigny is from the river Dranse, which flows from the glacier of St. Bernard, and falls into the Rhone. It is remarkably free from earthy matter, and well tasted. At Berne, the water is extremely pure; yet, as Haller remarks, swellings of the throat are not uncommon in both sexes, though cretinism is rare. As comfortable and congenial warmth forms one of the best auxiliaries in attempting the cure of both cretinism and rickets, there can be no doubt that the chill of snow-water must considerably add to the general debility of the system when laboring under either of these diseases, though there seems no reason for supposing that it would give rise to either. It is not difficult to explain why water impregnated with calcareous earth should have been regarded as the cause; for in cretinism, as in rickets, the calcareous earth, designed by nature for the formation of the bones, is often separated, and floats loose in various fluids of the body, for want of a sufficiency of phosphoric acid to convert it into a phosphate of lime, and give it solidity. And as it is, in consequence, pretty freely discharged in the urine, this seems to have given rise to the opinion that such calcareous earth was introduced into the system with the common water of the lakes or rivers, and thus produced the morbid symptoms. M. de Saussure has assigned the real cause of the disease. The valleys of the Alps, he tells us, are surrounded by very high mountains, sheltered from currents of fresh air, and exposed to the direct, and, what is worse, the reflected rays of the sun. They are marshy, and hence the atmosphere is humid, close and oppressive; and when to these causes we add the meager, innutritious food of the poor of these districts, their indolence and uncleanliness, with a predisposition to the disease, from a hereditary taint of many generations, we can sufficiently account for the prevalence of cretinism in such places, and for the humiliating character which it assumes. The general symptoms of cretinism are the same as those of rickets; but the disease shows itself earlier, often at birth, and not unfrequently before this period, apparently commencing with the procreation of the fœtus, and affording the most evident proofs of ancestral contamination. The child, if not deformed and diseased at birth, soon becomes so; the body is stinted in its growth, and the organs in their developement.


CREUSA; the name of several celebrated females of antiquity. 1. Daughter of Erectheus, who, before she was married to Xuthus, gave birth to Ion, the fruit of an amour with Apollo. To her second husband she bore Achæus. 2. The daughter of Priam and Hecuba, wife to Eneas, and mother of Ascanius. In the tumult of the conflagration of Troy, when Eneas fled with the images of his gods, with his father and son, he lost her, and, after he had sought her a long time in vain, her spirit appeared to him, saying that the mother of the gods had taken her to herself, because she was not willing that she should leave Phrygia.

CREUTZ, Gustavus Philip, count of; a Swedish poet and statesman, was born in Finland in 1726. He was a member of the learned and elegant circle, which surrounded the queen of Sweden, Louisa Ulrica, sister of Frederic the Great; and his Atis og Camilla, an erotic poem in five cantos, published at Stockholm (1761), grew out of the meetings of this society. This poem and his Letter to Daphne are considered as masterpieces in Swedish poetry. He was appointed minister to Madrid, and, at a later period, to Paris, where he remained twenty years, and became particularly acquainted with Marmontel and Grétry. April 3, 1783, he signed, with doctor Franklin, a treaty of amity between the United States and Sweden. He was afterwards placed at the head of the department of foreign affairs in Stockholm, but he could not endure the climate of his country, and died in 1785. His works and those of his friend Gyllenborg are published together, under the title Vitterhets Arbeten of Creutz og Gyllenborg, Stockholm, 1795. At a chapter of the Seraphim order, April 28, 1786, king Gustavus himself read the eulogy of Creutz.


and 1803, which was received with approbation, as was also his subsequent publication, De Xenophonte Historico (1799). In 1802, he was made professor of eloquence in the university at Marburg, and, in 1804, professor of philology and ancient history, at Heidelberg. His Dionysus sive Commentationes Academica de Rerum Bacchicarum Originibus (Heidelberg, 1808) may be considered as the first specimen of his views on the connexion of the mythological traditions of the ancient world. According to Creuzer, there existed, in the most ancient times of Greece, a body of Grecian poetry berrowed from the East. Homer, and more particularly Hesiod, instead of being the authors of the religion, or even of the mythology, of their country, merely introduce us to a previously existing world of poetry, philosophy and theology. The most ancient Greek poetry contained the symbolical and even the Magian and allegorical ideas; and though this poetry, which was introduced from the East, changed its forms at different times, it was never substantially lost among the Greeks. It was preserved in the hierarchical institutions and mysteries, and was in later times an object for the investigation of historians and philosophers; but the traces which remain are only sufficient to enable us to determine and describe its most essential features. According to Creuzer, this ancient wisdom was received first from the Pelasgi, who were, if not altogether a ruling tribe of priests, yet a tribe with ruling priests. But exclusive hierarchical institutions could not prosper upon the soil of Greece. The Pelasgi were expelled by the Hellenes. After the ancient races had become extinct, the Hellenic spirit departed more and more from the spirit of the East. Families of priests had united into castes, and what remained of the old and religious poetry was confined to the mysteries. In Homer and Hesiod there are evident traces of a misunderstanding of the elder notions and traditions; yet there are also evidences that they were not ignorant of the ancient theology. The first germ of the more profound theological doctrines can therefore be found only in a revelation from above, to which we must refer the religious belief of different nations, and we must conclude that similar symbols and allegories are founded upon similar primitive views. Creuzer developed these principles in his Symbolik und Mythologie der alten Völker, besonders der Griechen (Leipsic and Darmstadt, 1819–

CREUZER, George Frederic (in his late publications called simply Frederic), professor at the university of Heidelberg, a philologist and antiquarian, born at Marburg, in Hesse, March 10, 1771, was devoted, from his earliest youth, to the ancient classics. He studied at the universities of Marburg and Jena, and after wards lived in and near Giessen, occupied with the study of the Greek historians, and at the same time with teaching. About this time, he published his first literary production, Herodotus und Thucydides; Versuch einer näheren Würdigung ihrer Historischen Grundsätze (Essay toward determining the listorical Principles of Herodotus and Thucydides), Leipsic, 1798


1821, 5 volumes, with an atlas). He has met with much opposition. G. Hermann, in his Briefe über Homer und Hesiod, vorzüglich über die Theogonie (Heidelberg, 1818), and in a letter addressed to Creuzer, Über das Wesen und die Behandlung der Mythologie (Leipsic, 1819), opposed him with much perspicuity and force of argument. I. H. Voss declared open war against Creuzer, in the Litteraturzeitung of Jena, and published his Antisymbolik (Stuttgart, 1824), which was followed by replies from Wolfg. Menzel and others. The study of the theories of Creuzer, which are elaborated in his Symbolik with the most extensive learning, has been facilitated by a perspicuous abstract, Auszug der Symbolik und Mythologic (Leipsic and Darmstadt, 1822, 1 volume). In 1809, Creuzer accepted the professorship of philology in Leyden; but, before entering on the office, he felt the injurious influence of the Dutch climate upon his health, and returned in October of the same year to Heidelberg. He has since published an edition of Plotinus de Pulchritudine, acced. Procli Disp. de Pulchritudine et Unitate, Nicephori Nathanaelis Antitheticus (Heidelberg, 1814). Guigniaut has partly translated, partly recomposed, Creuzer's Symbolik in his work Religions de l'Antiquité considérées principalement dans leur Formes Symboliques et Mythologiques (Paris, 1824). The academy of inscriptions, at Paris, chose Creuzer a foreign member in 1825.


CREVENNA, Pietro Antonio (commonly called Bolongaro Crevenna), a bibliographer, born in the middle of the 18th century, at Milan, received from his father-in-law Bolongaro (whose name he took) a large fortune, and lived mostly in Holland. Love for the sciences, in particular for literary history, induced him to devote his hours of leisure, from an extensive commercial business, to literary pursuits, and to collect a choice library. The learned catalogues of his books, prepared by himself and others, have given to the works which belonged to him great value in the eyes of amateurs, and the catalogues themselves have bibliographical authority. His Catalogue Raisonné de la Collection des Livres de M. Crévenna (Amsterdam, 1776, 6 vols., 4to.) contains an exact description of the Incunabula, with collations of rare books, and letters of many learned men of the 17th and 18th cenîuries, printed there for the first time. To understand the importance of the Crovennian library, it is necessary to compare with this catalogue another, the Catalogue

des Livres de la Bibl. de M. Crevenna (Amsterdam, 1789, 6 vols.). In 1790, he sold the greatest part of his library by public auction. What he retained may be known by the Catalogue de la Bibl. de feu M. Crévenna (Amsterdam, 1793). Towards the end of his life, he left Holland, and died in Rome, Oct. 8, 1792.

CRIBBAGE; a game at cards, wherein no cards are to be thrown out, and the set to make 61; and, as it is an advantage to deal, by reason of the crib, it is proper to lift for it, and he that has the least card deals.

CRICHTON, James, was born in Scotland, in 1551, or, according to some accounts, in 1560, of a noble family. On account of his remarkable endowments, both of body and mind, he obtained the surname of the Admirable. He was educated at the university of St. Andrew, and, before his 20th year, had run through the whole circle of the sciences, could speak and write to perfection 10 different languages, and was equally distinguished for his skill in riding, dancing, singing, and playing upon all sorts of instruments. Thus accomplished, he set out on his travels, and is said to have gone to Paris, where he offered to dispute in any art or science, and to answer whatever should be proposed to him in any of these 12 languages-Hebrew, Syriac, Arabic, Greek, Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, English, Dutch, Flemish and Sclavonic; and this either in prose or verse, at the option of his antagonist. On the day fixed, he is said to have maintained the contest from nine o'clock in the morning until six at night, to the great admiration of the spectators, who saluted him as the "admirable Crichton." Before and after the dispute, he was engaged in tilting, vaulting, &c., or in balls, concerts, and other similar amusements. This account is probably derived from the following letter, which has generally been applied to Crichton. "There came to the college of Navarre a young man of 20 years of age, who was perfectly well skilled in all the sciences, as the most learned masters of the university acknowledged. In vocal and instrumental music, none could excel him. In painting and drawing in colors, none could equal him. In all military feats, he was most expert, and could play with the sword so dexterously, with both his hands, that no man could fight him. When he saw his enemy, he would throw himself upon him at one jump of 20 or 24 fect distance. He was a master of arts, and disputed with us, in the schools of the


college, in medicine, the civil and canon law, and theology; and, although we were above 50 in number, besides above 3000 that were present, so pointedly and learnedly he answered to all the questions proposed, that none but eye-witnesses can believe. He spake Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and other languages, most politely. He was a most excellent horseman; and, truly, if a man should live a hundred years without eating, drinking or sleeping, he could not attain to this man's knowledge, which struck us with a panic; for he knew more than human nature can well bear. He overcame four of the doctors of the church, for, in learning, none could contest with him, and he was thought to be Antichrist." Whoever this astonishing youth may have been, it could not, says doctor Kippis, have been Crichton; for Pasquier, from whose Recherches de la France this letter is taken, says, expressly, that this young man made his appearance in 1445, about a century before Crichton's birth. After similar exhibitions at Rome and Venice, we find him, in 1581, at Padua, exposing the errors of Aristotle, astonishing his hearers with his ingenuity and elegance in an extempore oration In Praise of Ignorance; and, finally, to confound his enemies, offering to prove the fallacies of Aristotle, and the ignorance of his commentators, to dispute in all the sciences, to answer all that should be proposed or objected, in the common logical way, or by numbers and mathematical figures, or in a hundred sorts of verses, and, during three days, sustaining this contest with a spirit and energy, with such learning and skill, as to obtain the praises and admiration of all men. His next exploit was at Mantua. There was in that city a famous gladiator, who had foiled the most skilful fencers in Europe, and had lately killed three persons, who had entered the lists with him. Crichton offered to fight him for 1500 pistoles, and, having slain him in the contest, he distributed his prize among the widows of the three persons above-mentioned. The duke of Mantua, in consequence of his wonderful performances, chose him preceptor to his son-a youth of a dissolute life and riotous temper. To amuse his patron, Crichton composed a comedy, ridiculing the weaknesses of men in all employments, and sustained 15 characters in his own play, "setting before the eyes of the spectators the overweening monarch, the peevish swain, the superficial courtier, the proud warrior, the dissembled churchman, the cozening lawyer, the lying traveller,


the covetous merchant, the rude seaman, the pedantic scholar, and the tricksy servant," &c. During the carnival (1583), while amusing himself with his guitar, he was attacked by half a dozen persons in masks. He defended himself, and, disarming their leader, found him to be his own pupil. Crichton fell on his knees, and presented his own sword to the prince, who immediately stabbed him to the heart. The motives which impelled his pupil to the commission of so savage a deed are unknown. It is difficult to decide with certainty on the merits of Crichton. The works which he has left us, consisting of a few Latin odes, and some sketches of scholastic reasoning, do not give us a very elevated idea of his talents; and the original sources, from which our information is derived, are not of the most indubitable character. It appears, from the usual account, that, at 20 years of age, he was acquainted with all sciences, and was master of 12 languages. His death took place 13 years after, during which period we do not find that he performed any thing worthy of his early fame. The best account of him is contained in the Biographia Britannica, and the following sentence is passed upon him there :—“ What, then, is the opinion which we are to form of the admirable Crichton? It is evident that he was a youth of such parts as excited admiration of his present attainments, and great expectations of his future performances. He appears to have had a fine person, to have been adroit in his bodily exercises, to have possessed a peculiar faculty in learning languages, to have enjoyed a remarkably quick and retentive memory, and to have excelled in power of declamation, fluency of speech, and readiness of reply. His knowledge, likewise, was probably very uncommon for his years; and this, in conjunction with his other qualities, enabled him to shine in public disputation. But whether his knowledge and learning were accurate or profound, may justly be questioned; and it may equally be doubted, whether he could have risen to any great eminence in the literary world.”

CRICKET (gryllus, Lin.; acheta, Fab.); a genus of orthopterous or straight-winged insects, belonging to the grylloid family, which comprises the grasshoppers, molecrickets, crickets proper. This family, like all other orthoptera, do not undergo a complete transformation. They are hatched from eggs symmetrically stuck together by a viscous material, either upon vegetables, or placed under ground;


and, from the moment of escaping from the egg, the young are sufficiently vigorous to seek their own food, which consists of organized substances. While yet very soft, they are perfectly formed, with the exception of the rudiments of the elytra and wings. These, in some species, are never developed. As the insect grows, the skin becomes too small, and requires to be changed as often as seven or eight times, before the insect attains its full size. The crickets are distinguished from the other members of this family by their long, silken antenna, by having but three joints to their tarsi, and by the comparative smallness of their thighs. Their bodies are short, thick-set and soft, with the head, corselet and abdomen immediately applied, and of equal length and breadth. The head is thick, rounded above, and nearly vertical. Between the eyes, which are widely separated and reticulated on the surface, there are two brilliant stemmata. The corselet is quadrangular, somewhat larger transversely, and rounded' at the edges. The elytra, which do not completely cover the belly, are curved squarely, and are not roof-shaped, as in the locust and grasshopper. In the winged species, the wings exceed the elytra, and even abdomen, beyond which they project, in the form of a sort of bifid tail. In addition to the two flexible abdominal appendages common to both sexes, the females have a long borer or oviduct, which is a stiff, square tube, formed of two pieces, separable, and free at the point, sometimes seeming to be split, and terminating by a slight enlargement. The noise, for which all crickets are remarkable, and usually called chirping, is produced by the friction of the bases of their elytra, or wing-cases, against each other, these parts being curiously adapted to produce this sound. Both sexes have the elytra longitudinal, divided into two portions, one of which is vertical or lateral, covering the sides, and the other dorsal, covering the back. These portions, in the female, have their nervures alike, running obliquely in two directions, forming, by their intersection, numerous small nieshes, which are of a rhomboidal or lozenge shape. The elytra of the females have an elevation at the base. The vertical portion in the males does not materially differ from that of the females, but, in the horizontal part, the base of each elytrum is so elevated as to form a cavity beneath. The nervures are stronger, and very irregular in their course, with various inflexions, curved, spiral, &c., producing a


variety of different sized and shaped meshes, generally larger than in the female: towards the extremity of the wing, particularly, there is a nearly circular space, surrounded by one nervure, and divided into two meshes by another. The friction of the nervures of the convex surface of the base of the left or undermost elytrum against those of the concave surface of the base of the right one, causes vibrations of the membranous areas of an intensity proportioned to the rapidity of the friction. In fact, the insect may be regarded as performing on a sort of violin, the base of one elytrum serving for a bow, and the cords of the other as the strings of the instrument. The reader, who may wish to enter upon a very minute study of this and similar insects' contrivances for producing sounds, may advantageously consult De Geer (vol. iii, p. 512), and Kirby and Spence (24th letter, vol. 2, p. 375 et seq.) The chirping of the domestic cricket (acheta domestica) is by many regarded as pleasant or musical, and their presence in holes is regarded as a good omen by some people. Where they are numerous, certainly, to our cars, their noise is any thing but agreeable; and it requires considerable habituation to it to be able to sleep undisturbed by it. They are very harmless, taking up their abode near chimneys, fire-places, and other warm situations, whence they come out, when the inmates of the house have retired to rest, and commence their monotonous song. If a light be brought, they speedily retreat, leaping lightly to their holes, the length and peculiar structure of their long thighs especially fitting them for this mode of progression. One action which we have observed them perform with the antennæ shows the delicacy and perfection of the muscles. They move the long silken appendages, as if cleaning or polishing them, somewhat as we see birds do with their feathers. The field crickets (A. campestris) are as loud and noisy in the day as those above-mentioned are at night, and largely contribute to the music of the fields, so delightful to the car of the student of nature. Both species have attracted the attention of poets, who have celebrated their simple but lively notes in verse of various degrees of excellence. Both species are equally innoxious, subsisting on small particles of organized matter, which might otherwise become troublesome from accumulation; while, from their numbers, birds and other animals of higher rank in the scale of being obtain a part of their supply of food.

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