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ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE, HISTORY, POLITICS AND
CAREY AND LEA.
SOLD IN PHILADELPHIA BY E. L. CAREY AND A. HART-IN NEW YORK
CARTER & HENDEE.
EASTERN DISTRICT OF PENNSYLVANIA, to wit:
BE IT REMEMBERED, that on the tenth day of August, in the fifty-fourth year of the Independence of the United States of America, A. D. 1829, Carey, Lea & Carey, of the said district, have deposited in this office the title of a book, the right whereof they claim as proprietors, in the words following, to wit:
"Encyclopædia Americana. A Popular Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature, History, Politics and Biography, brought down to the present Time; including a copious Collection of Original Articles in American Biography; on the Basis of the seventh Edition of the German Conversations-Lexicon. Edited by Francis Lieber, assisted by E. Wigglesworth."
In conformity to the act of the Congress of the United States, entitled, "An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts and books to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned:" and also to the act, entitled, "An Act supplementary to an act, entitled, 'An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts and books to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned;' and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving and etching historical and other prints."
NTARA (Gaelic, crean tarigh); the cross of shame, because, says sir Walter Scott, in his note on the passage of the Lady of the Lake (canto 3), in which he has made such a fine use of it, disobedience to what the symbol implied, inferred infamy. The Highlanders of Scotland appear to have borrowed it from the ancient Scandinavians, of the use of it among whom, for rousing the people to arms, Olaus Magnus gives a particular account. As late as the insurrection in 1745, the crantara, or fiery cross, was circulated in Scotland, and, on one occasion, it passed through the district of Breadalbane, a tract of 32 miles, in three hours. After Charles Edward had marched into England, two of the king's frigates threatened the coast with a descent. The crantara was sent through the district of Appine by Alexander Stuart of Invernahyle (who related the circumstance to sir Walter Scott), and, in a few hours, a sufficient force was collected to render the attempt of the English hopeless.
CRAPE; a light, transparent stuff, like gauze, made of raw silk, gummed and twisted on the mill, woven without crossing, and much used in mourning. Crapes are either craped (i. e., crisped) or smooth. The silk destined for the first is more twisted than that for the second, it being the greater or less degree of twisting, especially of the warp, which produces the crisping given to it, when taken out of the loom, steeped in clear water, and rubbed with a piece of wax for the purpose. Crapes are all dyed raw. This stuff came originally from Bologna; but, till of late years, Lyons is said to have had the chief manufacture of it. It is now manufactured in various parts of Great Britain. The
crape brought from China is of a more substantial fabric.
CRAPELET; father and son; two printers. The father, Charles, born at Bourmont, Nov. 13, 1762, established his printingoffice in 1789, and died Oct. 19, 1809. He might be called the French Baskerville. Like this printer, he endeavored to unite the greatest simplicity with elegance, to deliver the art of printing from the heterogeneous ornaments with which it was so overloaded, particularly in France, and from which even Didot could not entirely free himself; but he surpassed his model in the form of his types and the regularity of his work. His editions are no less correct than neat and beautiful. He has also been successful in printing on parchment, and has shown his skill by producing an impression in gold (13 copies of Audebert's Oiseaux dorés, Paris, 1802, 2 vols., folio).-A. G. Crapelet has extended his father's business, and has even excelled him in elegance. His Lafontaine (1814), Montesquieu (1816), Rousseau and Voltaire (both 1819), are monuments of his taste; and the large vellum-paper copies are truly splendid works. The words “De l'imprimerie de Crapelet” are a great recommendation. Renouard has had all the editions published at his expense printed by Crapelet, who, in 1800, employed 22 presses.
CRASSUS. Two Romans of this name are here to be mentioned. 1. Lucius Licinius Crassus, who was made consul A. U. C. 658 (B. C. 96), and passed for the greatest orator of his time. He was distinguished for talent, presence of mind and integrity. 2. M. Licinius Crassus, surnamed Dives (the rich), so called, like many of his family, on account of his vast
riches. He possessed a fortune equal to $5,000,000. He once gave an entertaininent to the whole people, in which 10,000 tables were set, and, besides this, distributed corn enough to last each family three months. In the years of Rome 683 and 698, he was a colleague of Pompey, in the consulship, and, in 688, censor. As he was one of the most influential men in Rome, and very ambitious, his friendship was sought by Cæsar, who formed, with him and Pompey, the famous triumvirate. He perished, with a great part of his army, in an expedition against the Parthians, undertaken from motives of avarice and ambition, B. C. 53.
CRATER. (See Volcano.) CRAVAT; an unhealthy, uncomfortable, unbecoming article of European and American dress. The ancients were unacquainted with this ridiculous and injurious style of bundling up the neck. They left unconfined that important region of the body, through which so many vessels pass, and in which are situated so many organs, which will endure no constraint with impunity. In some cases, indeed, they defended themselves from the cold by a woollen, cotton or silk band, called, in Latin, focale, from fauces, throat. But no one could venture to use this contrivance publicly, unless he was sick; in which case he might cover his head, and the upper part of the shoulders, and even wear breeches (q. v.), without disgrace. "Palliolum, sicut fascias et focalia," says Quinctilian, "sola excusare potest valetudo." It was allowable, indeed, to cover the neck with the toga in bad weather, or to hold the hand over it, for the preservation or restoration of the natural temperature. The Poles never wear any thing round the neck, notwithstanding the severity of their winters. The same custom prevails among the Orientals, by whom a white, round neck is compared to the beauty of an ivory tower. The bare neck gradually became unfashionable in Europe. It was at first surrounded, but not constrained, by a starched band of fine linen, on the upper edge of the shirt, falling back naturally upon the bust, where it was fastened by a small cord. This was the origin of all the different species of collars since used-the innocent parent of those thick, hot folds, in which the neck was destined to be afterwards muffled. Ruffs, stiffened or plaited, single or in many rows, an inconvenient, indeed, but not a dangerous ornament, had their turn, and lasted as long as short hair was in fashion. They were abandoned, when Louis XIII allow
ed his hair to grow: then standing collars, embroidered and pinked, the plaited collarettes, the neck-band, plain or laced and pointed, encompassed the neck chin-deep; and, when Louis XIV adopted those enormous periwigs, which hardly left the throat visible, all these splendid envelopes gave way to ribands, tied in brilliant bows. Next came the epoch of the dangerous subjection of the neck to constriction and compression, from which it had hitherto been exempt. In 1660, a foreign regiment arrived in France, composed of Croats, in whose singular costume one thing was generally admired and imitated. It was a bandage about the neck, consisting of common stuff for the soldiers, and of muslin or silk for the officers. The ends were disposed in a bow, or garnished with a tuft or a tassel, and hung not ungracefully over the breast. This new article of dress was at first called a croate, and afterwards, by corruption, a cravat. The military and the rich, at that time, wore very fine cravats, with the border embroidered, or edged with broad lace. Those of the soldiers consisted of a scrap of cloth, of cotton, or, at the best, of black, plaited taffeta, bound round the neck by two small cords. Afterwards, the place of these cords was supplied by clasps or a buckle, and then cravats took the name of stocks. Under Louis XVI, the stocks yielded to the cravats à la chancelière. The last flourished but for a moment: the revolution came, and with it disappeared cravats, and even tight breeches. Soon after this epoch (1796), the cravat recovered its popularity, and increased to an incredible degree of extravagance. Some persons enveloped the neck with whole pieces of muslin; others, with a padded cushion, on which were wrapped numerous folds. In this way, the neck was puffed out so as to be larger than the head, with which it was imperceptibly conThe shirt-collar arose above founded. the ears, and the upper edge of the cravat buried up the chin and the mouth nose-deep; so that the visage, bristling on either side with a grove of bushy whiskers, and its upper regions ensconced to the eyes by the hair flattened down over the brows, absolutely showed nothing except the nose, projecting in all its plenitude. The exquisites thus cravatted resembled any thing rather than men, and afforded excellent subjects for caricatures. If they wished to look any way except straight forward, they were obliged to turn the whole trunk, with which the neck and head formed but one piece. It was im
possible to incline the head in any direction. Most fashions have been invented to hide an infirmity or a deformity: large cravats were probably first used to conceal some disagreeable scars, or some unlucky malformation. A singer or a public speaker cannot use his voice to advantage during the time when his cravat is tied too tight. The habit of wearing large cravats renders the neck very liable to be affected by exposure. By uncovering the neck imprudently when heated, severe and dangerous diseases have often been contracted. A young man or young lady, on leaving a party in a warm apartment, should be careful to protect the neck and breast from cold.
CRAVEN, Elizabeth, lady; margravine of Anspach, youngest daughter of the earl of Berkeley; born in 1750, and married in 1767, to William, last earl of Craven, by whom she had seven children. But, after a connexion of 14 years, in consequence of his ill-treatment, a separation was agreed upon in 1781. Lady Craven, after this, lived successively at the courts of Versailles, Madrid, Lisbon, Vienna, Berlin, Constantinople, Warsaw, St. Petersburg, Rome, Florence and Naples; then in Anspach, where she became acquainted with the margrave Christian Frederic Charles Alexander, a nephew of Frederic the Great. On this tour, in 1787, she was persuaded by the count Choiseul-Gouffier, French ambassador to Constantinople, to descend into the grotto of Antiparos, which no woman had ever before visited. After the death of lord Craven, at Lisbon, in 1791, the margrave married her, surrendered his estates to the king of Prussia for a yearly pension, and went, with his consort, to England, where he purchased an estate (Brandenburg), not far from Hammersmith, and died in 1806. From that time, lady Craven has lived partly in England, partly in Naples. The account of her travels through the Crimea to Constantinople, in a series of letters, was first published in 1789. A new enlarged edition appeared in 1814. Besides these, she has written poems, plays and romances; also her own memoirs (Memoirs of the Margravine of Anspach, formerly Lady Craven, &c., London, 1825). These are interesting on account of her intercourse with Catharine II, Joseph II, and other princes.
CRAWFISH (astacus, Fab.); a crustaceous genus, belonging to the family decapoda macroura (ten legged, long tailed), characterized by having the anterior part of the elongated semi-cylindric superior shell
produced to form a rostrum or beak; the abdomen large, slightly attenuated posteriorly, composed of six joints, forming a tail quite as long, when extended, as the body, and terminating in five broad-fringed, swimming appendages, which fold laterally upon each other. In both sexes, the under part of the abdomen is generally provided with five pairs of false claws, each terminated by two plates or plaments. The exterior jaw-feet are mostly narrow, elongated, and do not entirely cover the other parts of the mouth. The gills are pyramidal, brush-shaped, or plume-like, separated from each other by tendinous slips, and situated beneath the sides of the great superior shell, over the external base of the feet. Of the latter, the second and third pairs are elongated, slender, and furnished at the last joint, which is movable, with small pincers; the fourth and fifth pairs have the last joints simply pointed or hooked. The sexual organs are placed, in both sexes, in the basal joint of the last pair of feet. The species belonging to this genus, as at present restricted, do not exceed six. Some of these kinds are peculiar to salt and others to fresh water. Of the former, the most celebrated is the lobster (astacus gammarus), so prominent among the luxuries of New York, and our other eastern maritime cities. In their modes of living, the crawfish generally resemble the aquatic crabs (see Crab), feeding on putrefying animal matter, spending their time on the sandy or rocky bottom of deep waters, and only approaching the shallows when impelled by the necessity of undergoing their change of shell, or when under the sexual influence. The common lobster is the largest species, and grows to a size which may well appear wonderful to persons accustomed to see none but small ones. They are brought to the New York market more than two feet in length, and weighing 20 pounds and upwards. Such individuals, however, are not preferred for the table, as their size is a good indication of their age, and their period of lite is stated to extend to 20 years and more. The smaller, or half-sized lobsters, are considered the best. The quite small, or young ones, which are commonly sold in New Haven (Connecticut), as too small for the New York market, are, in our opinion, far superior to cither. The fresh-water crawfish, of which one species (astacus bartnoïïi) is very common in most of the freshwater streams and brooks from Pennsylvauia southward, affords us the best opportunity for observing their habits. Wẹ