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that even in his low estimate of will be with the purchasing tenants. Irish honour and morality, Mr There is no reason whatever to Gladstone is outdone by the Irish suppose that they will be disleaders themselves. Mr Dillon honest, even at the bidding of the cynically avows that he and his League. Happily we have some colleagues will, for political rea- experience to guide us on this sons, advise the purchasing tenants point. Under the Ashbourne to be dishonest :

Acts £5,143,000 have been ad

vanced ; and the amount that has “He warned the English taxpay become payable by purchasers is ers that if they advanced the money to the Irish people under present cir- £310,450, of which only 1 per

Under cumstances, the time might and cent has not been paid. probably would arrive when, for all the Land Purchase Acts now political as well as for social purposes, in force in Ireland (for the Act of the Irish members would call upon 1881 was a Purchase Act), 20,000 their people to repudiate the debt."

tenants have purchased, and Mr T. P. O'Connor followed in £10,000,000 has been advanced ; the same line:

yet in only four cases have the

authorities had to fall back upon “Hon. gentlemen thought that this the guarantee funds in consequence Bill would limit the area of discon- of the tenants' default. Only a tent. On the contrary, it would little over 2 per cent of the inwiden the area of possible repudiation. If those tenants bought under stalments remains uncollected. Mr compulsion from the landlords, backed Gladstone holds up this deficiency by removable magistrates and by a as serious, and as an indication perpetual Coercion Act, there was no

that wholesale repudiation will sanctity in the contract. If a tenant

occur. If repudiation does occur, who should have entered into a bargain under this Bill with his eyes

it will be because he, and such as open could, by a temporary postpone- he, have suggested that it should ment of his payments to this country, be made to occur, by propounding aid in turning the present Govern- the novel doctrine that if an elecment out of office, he would be mor

tor enters into a private bargain ally justified in adopting such a course."

against the wishes of his political

representative, he has a right to Morally justified in being im- repudiate his obligation! But the moral! These are the men to bulk of the Irish tenantry, whatwhom we are asked to intrust the ever their faults, are not rogues government of Ireland!

and swindlers, and they will bitThe evil spirit of Repudiation terly resent the stigma which has will be summoned from the vasty been placed upon them by those deep; but will it come? The who have declared them to be spirit of No-Rent, the Plan of capable of a gigantic act of robCampaign spirit, and the anti- bery. They may well pray to be Land Court spirit, were all so saved from their friends"—those summoned, but they refused to friends who beguile them with obey the call. In spite of the flattery at one time, and load protestations, demonstrations, and them with calumny at another. objurgations of Dillon & Co., the The second reading debate Irish tenants went into the Land brought out very clearly three Courts, laughed at the Plan of things: (1) the utter demoralisaCampaign, and trampled the No- tion and confusion of the OpposiRent manifesto under foot. So it tion; (2) the extreme and irre



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concilable nature of Parnellite who ranks next in influence to Mr demands; and (3) the dangers Parnell, upon the congested diswhich beset the question of Local tricts. Mr Balfour rightly claims Government in Ireland.

that his Bill proposes to treat Upon the first point it is not the people of these districts more necessary to dwell, further than generously than any measure ever to say that the most contradictory submitted to Parliament, and that, theories and schemes were advo- taken in connection with what cated from the Opposition benches, he has already done, it forms a -schemes and theories which de- remedial and constructive policy stroyed each other, so that the far in advance of anything yet most effective answers to oppo- attempted by any Government. nents of the Bill were delivered How are these overtures received by their own colleagues. Sir W. by the Nationalists? With ingraHarcourt made a slashing speech titude, contumely and indignation. against Land Purchase ab initio, Mr Dillon, while disdaining to -a speech which, as to its main recognise the efforts of the Chief argument would

have been Secretary, has the impudence to wholly admirable if it had been propose an alternative scheme of directed against a proposed scheme his own, of which the main feaof Land Purchase forGreat Britain, tures are these: that landlords in but which, considered in its appli- the congested districts should be cation to Ireland, was utterly ab- compelled to sell their estates for surd. Of course he disguised the eight years' purchase of Griffith's fact that he and his colleagues are valuation, even though they may responsible for the necessity which be worth double; that the tenants has arisen for these exceptional should be relieved from all rent,measures in Ireland.

He even

"The question of rent, in fact, blessed dual ownership, and very ought to be abolished all over the naturally, as he helped to create west of Ireland"; that "the tenit. As Mr Wyndham demon- ant's interest in the holding should strated in his effective reply, Sir not be seizable for any debt of any W. Harcourt "ignored the real kind contracted after the passing conditions of the problem in Ire- of the Act"; that the Congested land.” He expatiated at great Districts Board should consist of a length upon the anomalous fea- majority of Nationalists; and that tures of the Bill.

It would un- the Boards of Guardians in these settle the “settlement” of 1881; districts should have power to levy create a lower rent alongside the double the amount of poor rates judicial rent; make the payers of now paid. Rob the landlords ; judicial rents dissatisfied; use the bleed the Loyalists; bribe the rewards of all for the benefit of the tenants—that is Nationalist policy few; was a censure on the land- all over. lords—and all the rest of it. But With regard to Local Governon the most monstrous anomaly ment, it is to be feared that of all-viz., the abnormal condi- Mr Chamberlain's well-intentioned tions which exist in Ireland and efforts to conciliate the Parnellites their authors—Sir W. Harcourt have done much more harm than was judiciously silent.

good. To give county councils in The real nature of the Parnellite Ireland the powers of landlordsdemands is brought out clearly power to veto all transactions enough in the speech of Mr. Dillon, under the Bill, and power to dispose of a portion of the funds re- will have to buy his own interest paid by purchasing tenants—would as well as the landlord's, as the be absolutely disastrous. It is rent is assessed upon the tenant's amazing that a man of Mr Cham- improvements.

In other words, berlain's perspicacity should have it repudiates the judicial rents made such a suggestion, except on fixed under the Act of 1881, and the supposition that he wished to the contracts based upon them. preserve a semblance of consist- How can such people as these ever ency. Mr Balfour and Lord Hart- be satisfied ? All that can be prediington refused to countenance the cated of the BiN is, that it will insidious proposal, as indeed they tell, and tell powerfully, in the were bound to do, both by their right direction; that it will exown previous declarations and by tend the area of content, and dethe inexorable facts of contem- crease the area of disaffection; and porary Irish history. But the that so it will bring nearer the danger is not yet over.

This time when Ireland will have peace point will be fiercely contested in within her gates and prosperity Committee, and it behoves all who within both her cottages and her realise its momentous importance palaces. to see to it that the Loyalists of Sir W. Harcourt unwittingly Ireland are not again betrayed testified to the beneficent characeither by the weakness of their ter of this Bill when he uttered friends or the malignity of their these words : “When you have enemies.

reduced Ireland to this condition, Finally, will this Bill satisfy the I do not see why the whole proIrish people and settle the Irish cess should not begin again, and question ? Emphatically not. There why these small tenancies should is no magic power in it. The Irish not coalesce like drops of quickpeople have been so demoralised silver which you run upon a plate, that nothing short of a gift of the and which join together into one land, and a salary for the trouble I see nothing in your Bill of living on it in idleness, will to prevent this land being sold pacify many of them. And as for no limit to the people who may settling the Irish question, there purchase.” Exactly. And therein are too many persons interested in lies the virtue of the Bill. So far keeping it unsettled to admit of as it is operative, it will restore that being done just yet. The Pery the condition of things which was boons given to the tenants will be ruthlessly torn up by Sir W. Harmade the germ of a new agitation. court and the other destructive Already the ‘Freeman's Journal' statesmen who were associated with says that under this Bill the tenant him in the work of ruining Ireland. INDEX TO VOL. CXLVII.



ANIMALS PAINTED AND SCULPTURED, Chamberlain's Mr, efforts to conciliate
by Frank E. Beddard, 517.

the Parnellites, 868.
Appreciations: with an Essay on Style,' Chartist agitation, collapse of the, 328.

by Walter Pater, reviewed, 140. CHESTERFIELD, LORD, 206—publication
ARGIN TO TOSKI, FROM; OR, THE Nile of a new set of letters of, ib.-a "tea-
CAMPAIGN OF 1889, 747.

table scoundrel,''207-the moralteach-
• Asolando: Fancies and Facts,' by Robert ing of the letters, 209–Dr. Johnson's
Browning, reviewed, 133.

charges against, 210—Chesterfield's
Beauties, some great and social celebri- abuse of country life and sports, 213
ties, 170 et seq.

-gambling in the eighteenth century,
• Beecher Stowe, the Life of Harriet,' re- 214-Chesterfield's claim to distinction,
viewed, 409.

215—his political capacities, 216–his
Begründung des Deutschen Reiches vers de société, 220.
durch Wilhelm I., Die,' von Heinrich "Claire Brandon,' by Frederick Marshall,
von Sybel, reviewed, 615.

reviewed, 425.
Bibliomania, the disease of, 684.

Blantyre, the mission settlement of, 20, bric-a-brac shops, ib.-grounds for col-

lecting, 678_dangers of the sale-room,
Boston, Old, by John C. Locking, 242 679-marvelous changes in value, 681

—an early trading emporium, 243– -the art of planting,"682—bints to
the ancient parish church of St Botolph collectors, 683—the disease of biblio-
244—the town during the civil war, mania, 684-old china, ivories, and
246—the records of the incorporation, enamels, 685—old silver plate, ib.-
247—long list of worthies, 248.

spoiling country churches, 686.
Theodore Martin, K.C.B., 112.

Horace Hutchinson, 510.
*Bull i' th' Thorn, the,' by Paul Cushing, Crockford's Club and the Gambling Com-
reviewed, 427. -

mittee, 5.
Burn, THE, by Peter Bayne, LL.D., DANDIES, IN THE DAYS OF THE, by Lord


by A. Silva White, 520—the old crater Taste, 1-extravagances of dandy life,
bed, ib.-weather reports, 521-semi- ib.Count d'Orsay and Gore House,
tropical vegetation, 522—preparing for 3— Lady Blessington, 4-Crockford's
excursion, 523—valley of Orotava, 524 Club and the Gambling Committee, 5
-humours of camping out, 525– -Lord Willoughby de Eresby, 6-
sketching, 527-routine of daily life, Louis Napoleon and the Duchess of
528—ascent of the Peak, 530—the Hamilton, 7-Lady Jersey, 8--Lady
final climb, 532—peeping into the Palmerston's dinners and receptions,
crater, 533.

10—Lord Palmerston's epigrammatic
CANNIBAL CHIEFS, THE LAST OF THE, power, 11—David Urquhart and his

648—the practice of cannibalism, ib. Foreign Affairs Committees, 12-put-
--cannibalism not incompatible with ting a deputation in a Turkish bath,
warmth of domestic affection, 649— 15—the faith according to Urquhart,
sketch of the Buli of Nandrau, ib.- 16.
murder of a Wesleyan missionary and II. SOME GREAT BEAUTIES AND
the wars it led to, 650-death cere- Social CELEBRITIES, 170_homage to
monies, 653.

beautiful women, ib. — the sisters

Sheridan, ib.—the Eglinton Tourna- Fenian Conspiracy, the, and its organisa-
ment and its cost, 172—Lord Eglinton tion, 432.
and billiard playing, 173—the Prince


of Parma and Baron Ward, the York- ENCES on, II., by Kirpios, 291-the
shire stable-boy, 174—Duke of Hamil- Eastern Question, ib.—the attitude of
ton's grandeeship of manner, 177-visit the Russian peasant, 293—the Pan-
of the Empress Eugenie to Hamilton salvist programme and its issues, 296–
Palace, ib. distinguished diplomat- General Kauffmann's averted disgrace,
ists, 180—-Lord Ponsonby's career, 181 297—currents of Russian policy, 299_
—thoughts before death, ib.-famous the last Russian war with Turkey, 300
dancers, 184.

-Russian designs on Constantinople,
III. THE YOUNG ENGLAND PARTY, 302—-opposition to Russian ambition,
313—the apostles at Cambridge,314— 303 - Russian movements towards
list of the Young England Party, ib.- India, ib.-Austria and Russian ag-
Factory Legislation due to the Young gressive projects, 305—the position of
England Party,315--Lord Lyndhurst's Roumania and Denmark, 306—the
Annual Review of the Session, 317- strength and resources of China, 308
Lord Brougham's sense of the ridicu- -the attitude of the Afghans, 309-
lous, 318—the young England poets, the position of Persia, 310_-import-
319- - an undergraduate fruit - stall ance of the Alsace-Lorraine difficulty,
keeper, 321-Sir Robert Peel and the 311.
party, 323-dining in the House of Forth BridGE, THE, by H. D. Rawns-
Commons in the olden time, 325-

ley, 429.
collapse of the Chartist agitation, 326 Friendly Societies, 331.
-Disraeli's success, 328.

Gambling in the eighteenth century,
• Demeter and other Poems,' by Alfred 214.
Lord Tennyson, reviewed, 137.

D'Orsay, Count, and the habitués of Gore limits of British and German occupa-
House, 3.

tion in East Africa defined, ib.-the
DOWIE DENS, THE ORIGINAL BALLAD OF Stanley expedition of 1887 and its
THE, by Professor Veitch, 739.

object, 690—the concession to the Ger
EAST AFRICA, GERMAN AIMS IN, 689. man Company, 692_result, of the
Eglinton, Lord, and billiard playing, occupation of Witu by the Germans,

693 — difficulties of the Sultan of
Eglinton Tournament and its cost, 172. Zanzibar with Germany, 695— British
EFFEL TOWER, THE, by H. D. Rawns- treaties with the chiefs of the district,
ley, 429.

697----the trading caravan difficulty,
Est Modus IN REBUS, 367.

698—Major Wissman's proclamation
Eugenie's, Empress, visit to Hamilton a violation of treaty engagements, 699
Palace, 177.

--the designs of the Germany, 700—
EVENTFUL VOYAGES, SOME, by C. F. fictions of Dr Peters, 701-he lives by
Gordon Cumming, 372.

plünder, 703—Tippoo Tib, ib.—Emin
EXCHANGE WITH India, by J. S. Wood. Pasha's expedition, 704- necessity for

I. The fall in the price of silver, 384 England protecting her rights, 706.
-metallic and exchange value of coin Ghost BABY, THE, 64.
in circulation, 386—a gold standard, Gladstone's, Mr, charges against the
389-foreign exchange and the transfer Land League, 431–his criticism of the
of values, 393-home charges of the Land Purchase Bill self-answered,864.
Indian Government, 398 – complete GLIMPSE OF LAKE NYASSA A, by Cap-
solution of the Indian problem, 403. tain F. D. Lugard, 18—boat journey

II. Indian imports and exports, 557 up the Kwakwa river, ib.—Mandala
-determination of the rate of ex- and Blantyre, 20—the Portuguese and
change,560—comparison of the ortho- their movements, 21-beauty of the
dox and spurious systems of exchange, wooded shores of the Lake, 22—charac-
564-loss and gain by spurious ex- teristics of the native tribes, 23—their
change, 573-the bimetallists and the art, 24-field labour, 25—bars to the
application of their principles to India, social progress of the region, 26—the
574-the, position and duty of the Arab slave-trader, 27-advantage of
Government of India, 580.

opening Nyassaland for Indian emigra-
a member of Laurence Oliphant's col- GOLD-FIELDS, THE TRANSVAAL AND ITS :

Impressions of a Recent Visit, 535.
* Falling in Love, and other Essays,' by Hamilton's, Duke of, grandeeship of
Grant Allen, reviewed, 145.

manner, 177.

ony, 222.

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