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not to circulate the Apocrypha, and that by the scriptural ministrations of Martin he is determined to found a new Bible Bos, had been led to separate themselves Society at Niort, not to correspond with from the corrupt Church of Rome, is very that at Paris, which is addicted to this afflicting. Though the laws permit Roman fault, but with those in England." The Catholics openly to embrace Protestantism, writer adds, “ M. O., one of the refugees if, after undergoing the instructions of a from the canton de Vaud, is travelling in priest, they persist in wishing to do so; the departments to awaken attention to yet, in point of fact, this permission is this subject; he calls on the pastors, ur. procrastinated by every excuse, with a gues with them, and reads to them a view to tire out the constancy of the tractate which he has written against the convert. The Protestants continue howApocrypha. His zeal, adds the writer, ever to meet for the worship of God in knows no bounds; when he cannot ride secret, though with the certainty of im. he walks ; and he seems determined to prisonment and severe penalties as often visit the whole of the midland districts of as they are discovered. They have borne France.
their persecutions with great meekness
and constancy; and the prayers of their PROTESTANT CONVERTS IN fellow.Christians will not be wanting that AUSTRIA.
they may be abundantly strengthened, by We lament to learn that the con- the presence of their Saviour, and the dition of the honourable band of con- consolations of his Holy Spirit, and a way fessors at Gallneukirchen, who, instructed opened for their deliverance.
SACHARISSA, AN INDIAN CHIEF. years, and died lamented by numerous
attached friends and acquaintance. The To the Editor of the Christian Observer.
tears and sobs visible among his own The poet asks: “ All our praises why people, when his remains were about to should lords engross?” And the Christian be conveyed to the grave, strongly evinced may in like manner ask, why should our the attachment and affection which they notices of the power and grace of God in cherished towards him. He will be affecthe conversion and subsequent holy life of tionately remembered by those who walked sinners, be confined to persons of our own with him to the sanctuary of God. He “ clime, complexion, or degree?” True early acceded to proposals made by the religion, in all ages, under all latitudes, and New-York Missionary Society, for inevery circumstance of human life, is sub- structing his people in the great truths of stantially the same. It is trusted that its Christianity, and remained faithful to his power was felt by the subject of the fol- profession to the last. He ever manifested Jowing brief notice.
affection and respect for missionaries who · Departed this life, some months since, came among his people, and treated them Sacharissa, the principal and venerable as the servants of Christ. The blessed Chief of the Tuscarora Indians. He was message which they brought, it is fervently educated a heathen, in all the sins and hoped, had affected his own heart; and prejudices of his tribe ; but by the mercy of though more enlightened nations may feel God he was among the first of that tribe something bordering upon contempt for who embraced the blessed doctrines of an obscure Indian chief, yet who can say the Gospel, with the requisitions of which how many will for ever live to call him his external conduct and appearance well blessed, for having been the instrument of accorded. During four months of his last erecting among bis savage tribe che Cross illness his sufferings were intense: but of the Redeemer, who died alike for all, they were borne with great fortitude, and and whose kingdom will not be perfected resignation to the will of God. He ar- without trophies from every nation and rived at the advanced age of eighty-three tribe under heaven?
VIEW OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS.
FRANCE.--In our last Number we re. far beyond the ken of human sagacity to marked, that the French government foresee. We will briefly recapitulate a would need all the eclat arising from the few of the memorabilia of these extracapture of Algiers to meet the new Cham. ordinary events. ber of Deputies, who were considerably On the 26th of July appeared in the more anti-ministerial and constitutional Moniteur, the government paper, a most than the former, which had just been dis- extravagant report, signed by the ministers solved on this very account. We added, Polignac, Chantelauze, D'Haussey, Peythat the King and his ministers must be- ronnet, Montbel, De Guernon Ranville, fore long “ either yield to the public feel and Capelle, declaring to his majesty that ing in the cast of their policy, or come to the nation was in a dreadful state of anaran open, and perhaps fatal, collision;" and chy; reprobating the late constitutional we expressed our apprehensions lest, elections ; declaiming at great length, and whichever party might triumph, true Re- with much vehemence, against the periligion would be endangered; the ultra. odical press ; and recommending certain liberals being too generally the disciples measures, alleged to be “ within the true of Voltaire, and the ultra-royalists the de. spirit of the charter,” but “beyond the votees of Rome. Our chief hope, we limits of legal order, the resources of which added, was from the influence of " that had been exhausted in vain." What somewhat small number of persons, of truly these measures were, appeared too fatally liberal and enlightened mind, who are at in the ordinances of the King, pubonce genuine constitutionalists in politics, lished at the same time, and dated July 25 and sincere friends of religion ;" to whom (Sunday!), suspending the liberty of the we mainly looked “to avert the opposite periodical press, establishing a censorship, evils which threatened their country. commanding that no writing under twenty
Little did we anticipate, what the revo- pages should be published without a warlution of a few hours informed us of-that rant of the public authorities, illegally disat the very moment when we were writing solving the newly-elected chamber of dethose remarks the “open and fatal col puties before its meeting, and ordaining, lision," which we apprehended, had com- in defiance of the charter, a new scheme menced ; that the infatuated King, and his of representation, under which a fresh his more infatuated ministers, had issued parliament was to be elected. The desedicts virtually abolishing the constitu- potic character of these ordinances could tion as established by the charter, and ren. only be equalled by their suicidal fatuity. dering the government a pure despotism; How the king and his ministry could have and that Paris, and ultimately the whole been so blinded as to embark on this fatal nation, was in arms, as one man, to resist course, is a mystery that remains to be this unconstitutional aggression.
developed. They were urged on, it is The ultimate result of the proceedings very clear, by the devotees of the Church in France, during the last few years, and of Rome, and they possibly were not withespecially the last few months, every out hope of support, if necessary, from some considerate person must have anticipated; of the continental despotisms; but that but it was still possible that the king they received any shadow of countenance might be forced to the alternative we from the British cabinet is utterly impromentioned, of yielding to the public bable and incredible. There are, indeed, feeling, and thus for a wbile avert that those among us who have spoken and “ fatal collision ” which seemed otherwise written very indiscreetly, recommending inevitable; or, even should he persist those very measures which have proved with only common sagacity in his un. their ruin : the Quarterly Review, for exhappy views of policy, the struggle might ample, has in the very last number labe protracted, much blood might be shed, mented that Louis XVIII., “in an evil and it might be only after many years of hour, entangled himself and his successors anarchy that France would really and by the crude and ill-advised engagement" practically enjoy the blessings of rational of a constitutional charter, instead of freedom. But the blind rashness and ob- governing despotically; they “would hail stinacy of Charles X. and his advisers have the censorship of the press ;” and they precipitated events beyond all calculation “hope and trust the king and his ministers or parallel; and in a few short days has may succeed” in effecting this object, been commenced and completed a se- and in extinguishing the chamber of depucond-rather might we say, a fifth or ties as an independent body; all which, sixth-revolution, the ultimate results of they own, “ would be a virtual abolition which, to France and to all Europe, it is of the charter” which the king had sworn
to obey, but this they account a compara- buildings in possession of the people. tively trifling evil. Now, if respectable The deputies had also formed a provisional writers in Great Britain can descant thus government, and appointed the well-known lightly upon the violation of constitutional Lafayette commander of the national oaths and pledges, and thus prefer, at least guard. On Friday the municipal comfor their neighbours, a despotism, like that mission declared that Charles X., having of Ferdinand or Miguel, to a limited violated the charter and made war upon monarchy and a representative govern- the people, had ceased to reign. On Sament, we are not astonished that the par- turday the king fled ; and the same day ties in France who thought it their in the Duke of Orleans was declared by the terest to act upon such notions, calculated chamber of deputies Lieutenant-general upon receiving better support than they of the kingdom. Thus in less than one have met with, or are likely to meet with week from the signing of the fatal ordiin carrying them into practice. But though nances, the whole frame of the late gosuch speculations might" sound very plau. vernment was subverted by the almost sibly three months ago, in the Vatican, at unanimous voice of the people. The sucthe Tuilleries, or in the pages of the Quar- ceeding events succeeded with almost equal terly Review, it is impossible to conceive rapidity; the provincial towns every where for a moment that they could have ever followed the example of Paris; the threeentered the mind of a statesman like coloured cockade was declared again the the Duke of Wellington; the best proof national emblem; the King and the Dauof which is, that our government have de- phin too late resigned the crown in favour clined recognising Charles X. or his grand of the young Duke de Bordeaux; but the son in a royal capacity, and have acknow deputies refused to accept this noininaledged the new government, which they tion, declared the throne vacant, and could not with any justice have done, proceeded to offer it to the Duke of Orhad they themselves abetted the measures leans and his male heirs, under the title which led to their downfall.
of King of the French, with the guarantee As soon as the above ordinances were and restrictions of a new charter, or bill announced, all Paris was in a state of the of rights. The charter, thus modified, most fervid excitement. The conductors declares, among other points, that all power of the newspapers, almost in a body, re- originates in the people ; that each of the fused to obey the censorship, and, while three estates of the realm shall enjoy the the soldiers were destroying their presses, important right of proposing bills—which published with their names a declaration the late charter confined to the crown, so that the government had lost that character that nothing could ever come under legis. of legality which coinmands obedience, lative discussion but what the ministry for and that the chamber of deputies was in the time being approved ; that the Roman legal existence, and empowered to meet Catholic religion is professed by the maand act. A considerable number of the jority of Frenchmen, and that its minideputies consulted together, and deter- sters shall be supported, together with mined to support the charter; and a strong those of other Christian doctrines, at the expression of public opinion began to be public expense- thus placing all sects upon heard, that the king' had forfeited his one footing; that the house of deputies crown. To quell the public feeling, and is quinquennial; that candidates shall be enforce the ordinances, large bodies of eligible at the age of thirty, instead of troops were posted throughout Paris; forty, and electors may vote at the age of artillery was mounted ; and during Tues- twenty-five, instead of thirty; that trial day the 27th various skirmishes ensued by jury shall be extended to offences between the populace and the military. of the press, and political delinquencies; By the next day the contest became ge- that the king's ministers are responsible neral, and the slaughter on both sides filled for the acts of government; that the sitthe streets with heaps of dead bodies. Buttings of the house of peers shall be public; the people were undaunted and determin. that every facility shall be given to public ed: they formed themselves into a na- instruction, and the liberty of teaching; tional guard; the youth of the polytechnic that the censorship of the press is aboschool led them on; and the soldiers, with lished, and shall never be revived ; that the exception of the Swiss guards, began all the peerages conferred by the late king to throw down their arms, unwilling to shall be void; and that the new charter is fire upon their countrymen. A compro confided to the patriotism of the national mise might still have been effected, but guard and the citizens of France. The the government obstinately adhered to its consent of the peers was not asked to this ordinances, and determined to enforce charter, but they have acceded to it, only them at the point of the bayonet. By not pronouncing upon the article annula Thursday, after fearful scenes of blood. Jing the late peerages, which they refer to shed, the constitutional party had obtain the wisdom of the present king." ed a complete triumph over the military; To discuss the many questions involved who were driven out of Paris, leaving the in these alterations of the constitutional palace of the Tuilleries and all the public charter, would be to dilate upon the whole controversy respecting civil government. it must be a strong case indeed which can We see no benefit from laying down ab- punish any man by an er post facto law. stract propositions as to the power in At the same time, it must be acknowwhich civil government originates. “ By ledged that the generality of these new Me kings reign, and princes decree jus- peers were leagued in opposition to the tice,” is the declaration of Him who is best interests of their country; that the King of kings and Lord of lords; this only object of their promotion was to subevery Christian will acknowledge ; but the vert them; and that their basely, though practical question, who is the temporal legally, acquired rank, might even now be king that thus reigns, must be settled by fatal to the public safety. Still, the meathe circumstances of the country. The sure, unless grounded on alarming fears of house of Brunswick reigns in England by their using their power to effect a counterDivine right, as much as did the house of revolution, seems at variance with that Stuart or Tudor. The Roman Catholic calm and moderate spirit which the de. bigots of France had instilled into the late puties profess themselves anxious to dis.' king the notion that his claims to govern play. But the French have a proverb, that were indefeasible, originating in an au- revolutions are not made with rose-water; thority independent of the wishes or the and, comparing this act of disfranchisepower of his subjects ; in a word, that ment with the severities, proscriptions, he was absolute; as if Divine right lite and bloodshed, which usually follow narally meant “ the right divine of kings to tional convulsions, it forms a striking govern wrong.” To counteract this pro- contrast on the side of clemency. The position, the new bill of rights sets up conduct of the deputies and the populace, another, which, though it may be under- in allowing the king a safe and unmolested stood in a moderate sense, so as to mean retreat, is much to their credit; nor does nothing inconsistent with the paramount there seem any wish to carry rigour to the truth that “the powers that be are or- extreme even against the late ministers, dained of God”- the national will, it may against whom the public indignation is be alleged, being spoken of, not in regard very violent; for thongh they are to be to an abstract theological proposition, but legally tried for high treason, and several only in its practical application between of them are already captured in their man and man, without which no abuses flight, no personal violence has been ofin government could be corrected, and fered to them, no special commission has one man's pleasure must be absolute law been issued to try them, and a proposition to millions; yet is also liable to be is actually before the house of deputies to construed, or at least objected to, in its pass a law abolishing the punishment of atheistic, and not merely its political, death; which, if carried into effect, will sense. Every sensible, well-informed spare their lives, even without the neChristian knows how to reconcile our cessity of a commutation of punishment own bill of rights, by which our beloved by the royal prerogative. This remarkable monarchs reign by the will of the people, proposition, which is warmly espoused by with the Divine authority, which in a the leading deputies, and urged with zeal higher view regulates and overrules all by the new king, shews that the horrors human intercourse; but, as abstract pro of the revolution of 1792 and the succeedpositions on such matters are liable to ing years, have not been lost upon the mistake, and offer a snare for weak con. French people or their leaders. Most sciences, and ground for party jangling, heartily do we wish them success in this they were surely much better avoided. truly humane and enlightened proposal. We know the cabals that disturbed our The new ministry consists of the folown country for half a century on a similar lowing members : Foreign affairs, Count question; the Pretender pleading Divine de Mole; Minister of War, General Gerard; right, and the Brunswick family the will Finance, Baron Louis; Public instruction of the people ; as if in truth there was and president of the council, the Duke de not a third question, which reconciled both Broglie ; for the Interior, M. de Guizot; the former.
the Marine, General Sebastiani ; and With regard to the alterations in the Justice, M. de l'Eure. It seems on all charter, most of them resemble so nearly hands to be admitted that this selection is our own far-famed constitution, that it is higbly judicious. Two only of the numimpossible not to approve of them; and, ber, Gerard and Sebastiani, are stated to remembering the excitement of the mo- be inclined to republicanism; but even ment, and the strong feeling in France in they have yielded to the expediency of a favour of democracy, we may consider limited constitutional monarchy, to which them more moderate than could have been their colleagues are cordially attached. M. expected. The most doubtful we think Guizot, the minister for the Home Departto be, that which annuls all the peerages, ment, is a Protestant, and the translator ninety in number, conferred by the late of Gibbon's Decline and Fall, with notes king. Those peerages were legally con- to counteract the scepticism of that work. ferred, though to serve a bad purpose, to The Duke de Broglie is well known to promote papal and political tyranny; and our readers for his zealous efforts in every
cause of enlightened benevolence and these matters, except to maintain with humanity, especially for his unwearied the actual government those relations of Jabours to exterminate the French illegal peace and good-will which are for the slave-trade ; that dire blot upon France, mutual benefit of both nations. The conand which, in defiance of promises and stitution which they now possess greatly treaties, the late government refused to resembles our own, and we wish them all extirpate. His office, we trust, will en possible happiness and prosperity under able him to do much to promote publicit ; but most earnestly do we deprecate education ; and the Protestant ladies of the inflammatory proceedings of some Paris will continue to find in his pious among ourselves, who are holding out the and accomplished duchess, the sister of example of our neighbours, as if we also the late lamented Baron de Stael, a at home needed a revolution to put us zealous patron and coadjutor in those upon a level with them ; whereas we have plans of Christian wisdom and benevo. enjoyed for many generations, more than lence, especially Bible, Missionary, Tract, any other nation, all that secures national and Education Societies, which have of peace, prosperity, and freedom. The late so hopefully sprung up among them. comparison is as utterly misplaced, in all (See her excellent paper on Female Bible its parts, as it is factious. Associations, in our vol. for 1824, p. 297 ; We had intended to notice some other and her account of the Paris Female foreign matters, but must now postpone Missionary Association, Christ. Observer, them. Rumours are abroad of tumults 1827, p. 789).
in Spain, and other places-likely enough We have been struck, throughout all to take place before long, but probably these transactions with the blessings which premature. We cannot but see in the result from a constitutional government new revolution in France a just retribution and parliamentary representation, such as for the falsehood, perfidy, and injustice we ourselves enjoy, or even under less which marked the late invasion of Spain. auspicious forms. The Chamber of De- The Bourbons put down the constitution puries has been mainly the means of sav. in that country, only to feel the recoil of ing France from the protracted horrors of their arms upon their own throne. Where her first revolution. It was a known, ac- these affairs may ultimately end is known knowledged body, the emanation of the only to Him who sees and knows all things public feeling and intelligence; and it at from the beginning. May He, in his inonce stepped in, assumed for a moment finite mercy, avert whatever evils may the helm, steered between contending threaten, and turn all to his own glory, parties-between clamorous republicans and the best welfare of his weak and sinand imperious ultra-royalists, papal de- ful creatures ! votees and avowed infidels and atheists
DOMESTIC. and anchored the vessel of the state, if With a few exceptions, the elections not in moorings wholly untroubled by po- have proceeded with comparatively small litical agitation, at least more safe and excitement. The general result is contranquil than could have been hoped for. sidered to be unfavourable to the views On the union and moderation of this body of the present administration : but if a depend much of the future hopes of cabinet will honestly consult the public France. The elements are still troubled; interests, it has little to fear from the factions are rife ; Jesuits, democrats, and expression of public opinion; and if it non-jurors are anxious to destroy the new does not, we do not regret to see weakened fabric; there is a young pretender, who that miserable system of interested clancalls himself the lawful king; and cir- ship and party voting which is too comcumstances may arise in which, at some mon in all our public bodies, and by no future day, his name may be used by means rare in our legislature. Among the powers at war with France to excite se- more remarkable incidents may be menditions; while some opposite faction may tioned Mr. Hume's coming in without possibly plead for the excluded dynasty of opposition for Middlesex : Mr. R. Grant Napoleon ; even in both chambers, espe. being returned for Norwich : Lord Russel cially among the peers, many individuals and Dr. Lushington being thrown outhave refused to take the new oaths : so the one for Bedford, and the other for that wisdom, caution, good faith, and be- Reading-in consequence, among other neficial measures, are necessary to main causes, of Lord J. Russel's having offended tain the existing order of affairs. If these the Wesleyan Methodists, and Dr. Lushare exhibited, we shall rejoice to witnessington the Dissenters; though, in both them; and if not, there still is no reason cases, there seems to have been some that Great Britain should interfere to rec- misapprehension : the Bristol election, tify the matter. We have nothing to do in which Mr. Protheroe, on account of with the internal affairs of France: we his honourable anti-slavery protest, was have granted, as hospitality required, a thrown out, after an arduous struggle, by temporary asylum for the late king, in his the powerful influence and weighty purse private capacity, with his family and suite; of the West-India party, who determined but it is not for us to take any part in to retain Mr. Baillie, as a pro-slavery ad