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to the account of the French Re- ment the rule of slavery ; but all volution. "Pity it was that that history, all experience, all know. tremendous concussion, which de- ledge of the human character is stroyed so much else, should have against him. Besides, is not indestroyed the delightful milkiness justice itself cruelty ? is not the of slavery, and infused gall into its seminal principle of slavery cruelty ? sweetness. But the French Revolu- if wounds, and stripes, and mutilation being every where obnoxious, tions, and tortures, and eventual may very adroitly be made to bear murders occurred but seldom, inthis odium, so as to shelter all slave- stead of occurring as they do conowners under legitimate govern- stantly, would there be no cruelty in ments, and especially the present making men mere beasts of burden, race, who have always.“one eternal chattels, agricultural implements, now" of exemption from reproach, things without rights, or privileges, being, for the time being, all that is or even a will of their own, and good and humane, till the next gene- subject to all the caprice and tyration finds that the glossy surface ranny of whoever chooses to offer contained a foul interior, and the im. the best price for them? Our au. maculate epoch is again post_dated. thor accounts nothing of a breaking But in truth this reference to the heart, if the skin be not lacerated : French Revolution is most unfair Negroes are “ happily,” he says, not and invidious, and seems intro. susceptible in matters of feeling : duced to cast a sidelong slur on the but even this degrading plea does abolitionists, as if they also wished not avail; for lacerated they are, “ to shake 'to the base all civil basely, barbarously, and often beorder, and to make wide havoc with yond endurance. . Those who have the religious and social affections of not seen a Mauritius field-whip, mankind.” However, we will very will start in their dreams the night frankly tell our author, that if West. after they have witnessed this Indian and Mauritius slavery is a horrible engine of infliction, this part of his code of “civil order," prime support of “civil order" and the abolitionists do wish and intend i religious and social affections." to subvert it ; and the downfal will But where is the community, be the more certain and effectual, asks our author, which has not as they are not like the atheists and been tainted with more or less madmen of the French Revolution, crime. Where indeed ? But this but men as much attached both to is no good reason for continuing to “ civil order" and to “ the religious promote it by means of a system of and social affections," as the best iniquity from which it is inseparable. slave. master in the Mauritius. Besides, there is this vast difference: There may be “ Sadducean politi- the annals of Newgate are the ancians," who take up the same cause; nals of the vilest and most profligate but the cause itself is not the of the community; the most deworse because it has been profane, graded self banished outcasts from ly touched. It is the cause of reli- the pale of virtuous society: they gion and of human nature ; and it stand at the bar of their country is asserted by all that is wise, and as criminals ; and Newgate is their holy, and enlightened among man- prison house, and the treadmill, kind. The people of Great Britain the hulks, or the gallows their porand Ireland, with their fellow-Chris- tion; but the perpetrators or abet. tians throughout the world, will for- tors of the cruelties which have give the sneer about the French Re been brought to light in the Mauvolution, and pursue their glorious ritius, and other slave colonies, are purpose as if nothing had happened. men and women who take rank in

One word more on the last ex. their community, often the high tract. The author makes cruelty castes of the place, and never of only the exception, and good treat necessity the customary tenants of

a gaol. Besides, these wrong-doers of food, and the ordinary rate of living of are not Aattered and encouraged in the working classes in Europe; he would

* not care if they were all emancipated totheir deeds : if England has a mis

morrow!” p. 37. creant she finds stocks and fetters to fit him, or perhaps, in her criminal The writer might well “ feel no severity, too hastily, rids herself of hesitation in expressing this conhim for ever. But in our slave co- viction.” We would express it of a lonies the community takes part with crew of pirates, or a troop of banthe culprit : he is a martyr to Eu- ditti, or a nest of coiners, thieves, ropean prejudices. While Esther or smugglers. The advocate for Hibner struggles into eternity at the smuggler, for instance, might Newgate, amidst the execrations say to the anti-smuggling society of an applauding mob, the Mosses of revenue cruizers, that he did not of a slave colony are caressed, and hesitate to express his opinion that feasted, and petitioned for “by all if the smuggler had only a fair com. the respectable people" of the place. pensation for the value of his boat Here then is the difference : it is not and cargo, with a promise of a guard “ insulated examples of crime," or round his house (this being, however, " the abuses of former years ;” but in both cases equally unnecessary), crime present, perpetual, and inevi- and a pledge that he shall gain as table ; crime not "insulated,” but much by honest silks and brandies, crime perpetrated or abetted by as by contraband, he would not care “the most respectable people," and if he ceased being a smuggler toforming the average staple of colo- morrow. But would the nation stinial morality. The Resident will, pulate to allow these terms, and of course, not allow this: well then, uphold him till he obtained them; as blot it out of the indictment ; and little, nay, less, will honest men con. we return to our position, that sla- cede the preposterous requisitions of very itself is a crime-an atrocious the Mauritius Resident. Be just first; and blood-stained crime; and this let the oppressed go free, or at least at least, we are confident, he cannot shew a disposition to do so. and disprove, if either justice, or huma- then it will be time enough to settle nity, or Christianity, is to be the the terms of the barter. We are umpire.

anxious that not only justice, There is, as we have before re- but liberality should be exercised marked, a strange jumble of God (though we by no means admit that and mammon in this pamphlet. The the nation at large are bound very author professes to defend his fellow. seriously to make restitution, since colonists upon principle ; but in the they were deceived by the colonists. details self-interest is sure to disco- and were not interested abettors of ver itself. He will not yield slavery the crime); but then this justice or to religion or humanity; no, this liberality must be grounded on a would break “ civil order," and full prospect of emancipation, and violate “the religious and social not on those deceitful half measures affections :" the deposit is too sacred which sound well and mean nothing. to be touched for considerations We were closing the pamphlet like these; but money it seems will when our eye glanced on the name purchase the boon,- for he says of Dr. Philip, accompanied by a very gravely,

censure upon his unqualified lan«'The writer does not hesitate to ex

guage in speaking of the debasing press his conviction, that if the planter had a fair compensation for the value of effects of slavery upon the master his slaves, and a security for the continu as well as the slave. We thank the ánce of public tranquillity with such an Mauritius Resident for reminding us immense preponderance of the free Black

of the debt of gratitude due to that

of the population ; and that the liberated slaves would work for a reasonable remuneration, calculated from a comparison of the price vituperation that has assailed him

in the slave colonies is his highest crease of their number. He altained honour, next to that Divine ap- even more than he asked, and the proval which we doubt not has ac. blessings which he implored for companied his deed; a deed per- South Africa have been extended formed in the true character of a to all the crown colonies. Here is Christian missionary, the servant of ample encouragement for the friends Him who came to open the doors of of the despised slave ; only let them the prison to them that are bound. persevere firmly, unitedly, and withTyrants yet unborn will tremble out compromise, and the result is at the name of this firm uncompro certain. The Resident may rest asmising yet unpretending friend of sured that the nation is beginning the friendless. No art was left un- to be in earnest on the subject. tried to turn him from his purpose; They have been deluded and ca. but he persisted, and he attained joled too long ; but the voice of his high object, - an object second their brother's blood now cries from only to the actual liberation of the ground too loudly to admit of those already in slavery, and neces slumber, and they will not be desary to prevent the clandestine iu- luded much longer.

LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL INTELLIGENCE.

&c. &c.

GREAT BRITAIN.

corum apud Populum Auctoritas ;" NewWorks in the press, or preparing for pub- digate's prize, « The Suttees;” Dr. lication :- The Doctrine of Original Sin ; Ellerton's Theological prize, “ The Eviby a Layman ;British Zion's Watch. dence deduced from Prophecy in support Tower, in the Sardian Night, four Ser- of the Truth of Christianity." mons; by the Rev. H. Cole; -.Prayers, The Cambridge members' prizes are in easy Language ; by the Rev. J. Top- adjudged as follows:--Bachelors' prizes, ham ;-Visions of Solitude, intended to the first to E. H.Fitzherbert, and the second exhibit a contrast between the transient to T.J. Phillips, both of Trinity College. glories and pleasures of time, and im. Subject, “ Quantum momenti au studium mortal happiness;-Sir Isaac Newton and rei Theologicæ promovendum, babeat litethe Socinians foiled in their Attempt to rarum humaniorum cultus?” Undergraprove a Corruption of I Tim. iii. 16; by duates' prize to A. Chatfield of Trinity, E. Henderson ;-The Greek Testament, “Quæ sit forma Norsteidz ad Greciae rewith Notes in English ; by the Rev. E. nascentis statum optime accommodata ?” Burton, D.D. ;-Popular Lectures on the The Porson prize for a passage of Shaks. Prophecies, relative to the Jewish Nation; peare into Greek verse, is adjudged to by the Rev. Hugh M'Neile;-Sermons; C. R. Kennedy, of Trinity College. Sir W. by the Rev. M. Vincent.

Browne's gold medals : Greek Ode, J.

Hildyard, Christ College ; Latin Ode, C. The Oxford prizes have been decided R. Kennedy ; Epigrams, W. Fitzherbert, as follows:-Latin Essay : “Utrum apud Queen's College. Græcos an apud Romanos magis exculta The Bishop of Salisbury has procured fuerit civilis scientia :" A. Grant, Fellow a fac-simile of the text on the heavenly of New College.-English Essay: “The witnesses, 1 John v. 7, as it stands in the Character of Socrates:" H. Merivale, Fel. Vatican, Cod. Ottobon. 289. Mr. Wiselow of Balliol.-Latin Verse: “ Tyrus:" man of the English College at Rome, W. Palmer, of Magdalen.-English Verse who transcribed it for his lordship, says, (Newdigate): “ The African Desert :” “ The MS. is a very small quarto, on G. K. Rickards, of Trinity.

vellum, ex Codd. Joannis Angeli Ducis The following are the subjects for 1831: ab Altaemps. It bears the title Acta Latin Verse, “Numantia ;" English Essay, Apostolorum et Epistolæ B. Pauli et “ The Use and Abuse of Theory;" Latin aliorum.' Each page contains two Essay, “Quænam fuerit Oratorum Atti- columns; the Latin on the left, and the

Geeek on the right. The Latin is in The committee state, that they have on 'square or Gothic characters, and the MS. no occasion manifested any desire to exagmay belong to the age in which Scholz gerate the evils attending the practice of has placed it. It seems not to have been sweeping chimneys by children, and they finished; for, at the beginning of one or have been blamed for not sufficiently intwo of the Epistles, the space for the first sisting on those evils in their appeals to large letter is left blank, as well as the top the public. But they have been deterred line, shewing that the writer intended to from this, by a feeling of respect to the fill it up at leisure in a more ornamental public, whom it would almost insult, to style, as is the case in the other books. suppose unconscious of sufferings, coming He has not even put a title to the book, under their daily observation. « Every the one quoted above being the modern housekeeper," they remark,“ muse, or at title. Our verse (1 John v. 7), occurs fol. least might have known that little beings, 105 verso. Scholz, if I remember right, of the same age, frame, and texture, as does not give the first words of the Greek those who are the happy inmates of his text (if we remember right, he does give nursery, were during the last winter exthem),nor the Latin text.... The ink is faded. posed to its utmost severity, and turned In some letters it is completely scaled off, so out into the street at three or four o'clock that it was with the greatest difficulty that in the morning, screaming for hours at his I could catch the traces of several letters. door, and only admitted to endure the As the important discussion of this verse still greater misery of being driven up has always engaged my most lively inter- some dark and narrow flue; their aching est, I should feel great pleasure if my and benumbed limbs, being made instru. residence in Rome could be made ser mental in the removal of its accumulated viceable to its favourable termination. soot. Of this detail of daily suffering no Professor Scholz has been so kind as to housekeeper can be uninformed, and the forward to me the printed parts of his new committee hoped that with this knowledge, critical edition of the N.T. They consist all that could be wanted, would be to sug. of more than 100 pages of Prolegomena gest a sufficient substitute for this painful and the text to St. Luke. I should think process.” They have done this, and it the whole is now printed. I have com. remains with the public to remedy the pared it with Griesbach on one or two evil; and we trust, after this affecting appassages, as, the conclusion of St. Mark, peal, there is sufficient humanity in the and think it very satisfactory. But, of nation speedily to do so. course, he has not disclosed his intentions The conductors of one of our journals. regarding the three witnesses."

which undertakes to enlighten the world The Society for superseding the Neces- on religion as well as literature, in giving sity of Climbing Boys, and improving their an account of a sermon recently preached condition, state, in the Report read at their in London by Dr. Chalmers, gravely relast meeting, the Bishop of Winchester in marks, “ It seems to us the distinguishing the chair, that they should have brought merit of his preaching, that with a most in a bill before this into parliament to ef- uncompromising spirit of godliness, he fect their object, but that government have joins an ardent feeling of the moral beauty thought further opportunity should be af- of human nature, and a due recognition of forded for proving the efficiency of ma- its unassisted capabilities for good; putchinery, as a perfect and universal substi. ting away with horror the humiliating tute for infant labour : and the committee notion of a natural depravity; yet ever considered' it prudent to acquiesce in the keeping in view the necessity of religious delay, rather than risk the failure of the faith.” Such preaching the journalist bill. The committee urge the presentation considers eminently calculated to do good of petitions to parliament on the subject. among the young men under education for The committee announce a considerable the ministry in Scotland. How any writer increase in the number of auxiliary socie- could blunder into such a total misconcepties, and the number of places in which tion of Dr. Chalmers's meaning, is passing the machine has been introduced amounts strange. The virtue and good qualities to 129. It is adopted in 122 public build which he admires in Scotland have been ings, including the principal fire insurance raised on a far different basis ; on the basis

The cent of the society are pers of the very doctrines which he recoils at sons unconnected with the trade, it being

“ with borror;" nor is there any solid found that the regular sweeps are opposed

morality that is built on any other. to the machine, and bring discredit on it. Dr. Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopædia, in Christ. OBSERV. No 312.

3 D

the interesting work on Cities, gives the Flaxman the sculptor is quoted, in the following account of the origin of the see Lives of Painters and Sculptors, in the of Canterbury :-Augustine, the Roman Family Library, as remarking of the Elgin missionary, made his arrival known to Marbles,-"We possess, in England, the Ethelbert, and requested an audience. most precious examples of Grecian power. The king of Kent, though not altogether The horses of the frieze in the Elgin col. ignorant of the nature of his queen's reli- lection appear to live and move, to roll gion, nor unfavourably disposed towards their eyes, to gallop, prance, and curvetit, was yet afraid of that miraculous power the veins of their faces and legs seem diswhich the Romish clergy were then be tended with circulation ; in them are dislieved to possess, and which they were tinguished the hardness and decision of not backward at claiming for themselves. bony forms, from the elasticity of tendon For this reason he would not receive them and the softness of flesh. The beholder within the walls of his royal city of Can- is charmed with the deer-like lightness terbury, nor under a roof; but went into and elegance of their make, and although the island with his nobles, and took his the relief is not above an inch from the seat to await them in the open air ; imagin- back ground, and they are so much smaller ing that thus he should be secure from than nature, we can scarcely suffer reason the influence of their spells or incanta. to persuade us they are not alive.” Flaxtions. They approached in procession, man began life with making models for bearing a silver crucifix, and a portrait of Wedgewood pottery. They consisted our Saviour upon a banner adorned with chiefly of small groups in very low relief, gold, and chanting the Litany. The king and the subjects were from ancient verse welcomed them courteously, and ordered and history. Many are equal in beauty them to be seated, after which Augustine and simplicity to his designs for marble. stood up, and, through an interpreter The good taste and persevering spirit of whom he had brought from France, de- the Wedgewoods, and the genius and inlivered the purport of his mission in a dustry of Flaxman, produced a great imbrief but well ordered and impressive dis- provement in every description of pottery, course. “He was come to the king, and whether for use or ornament. Before his to that kingdom (he said), for their eternal time the porcelain of England had little to good, a messenger of good tidings; offering recommend it. The Etruscan vases and to their acceptance perpetual happiness the architectural ornaments of Greece here and hereafter, if they would accept supplied the finest shapes, which the arhis words. The Creator and Redeemer tist embellished with his own inventions. had opened the kingdom of heaven to the No complicated story, remarks the work human race ; for God so loved the world just quoted, can be related in marble. that he had sent into it his only Son, as When a basis for Chantry's statue of that Son himself testified, to become a man Grattan was under discussion, one of the among the children of men, and suffer orator's friends said, “ Pedestal! the best death upon the cross as an atonement for pedestal for him is the Rock of the Contheir sins.” To this address, which was stitution-carve that and put him upon protracted to some length, the king re- it.”. “A good notion," answered another turned a doubtful but gracious answer: of his countrymen ; “ but how are we to his conversion shortly after followed. He know the Rock of the Constitution from gave up his palace to the missionaries, and any other rock ?" Augustine obtained a bull from the pope

NETHERLANDS. to found the see of Canterbury. From Saardam was the residence of Peter the this period it was regarded with the high. Great, of Russia, when he worked as a est veneration; but in the invasions of the common ship-carpenter, to make himself Danes both the church and city suffered acquainted with naval architecture. The the most grievous ruin, and no less than hut in which he dwelt has been covered eight thousand persons are said to have with a brick building by the princess of perished at one time in the desolated town. Orange, sister to the emperor Alexander.

The same work mentions that Bath The furniture used by him is carefully presented to the Romans the best coun- preserved, consisting of an oak table and terpart of their own Italy which the three chairs ; a recess with folding doors uncultivated land afforded, and that ac- serving him as a bedstead. Over the cordingly it shortly became the favourite chimney-piece is the following inscription, residence of the Roman governors, and “ Petro Magno, Alexander ;' and on an sometimes of the emperors.

oval table is another in Dutch and Russian,

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