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H. D. 1725.
For the Monthly Magazine.
of Mr. WILLIAM BELSHAM HALF-YEARLY RETROSPECT OF is not idle ; he has larely published Two
- DOMÉSTIC LITERATURE. Historical Dissertations, I. On the Causes of 11 T will be recollected, that lix months the Ministerial Secesion, A. D. 1717.
ago we gave our readers a general invi. 11. On the Treaty of Hangver, concluded tation to repeat their visit of inspection to
It is the object of the the National Library: we are now at lei- first of these dissertations to prove, that, sure to conduct them into the several apart. among the motives which influenced Sir ments; and shall be happy to point out Robert Walpole's, conduct, were many the acquisition which each has, of late, re
which had no relation to public affairs. In ceived.
the second, Mr. Beliham proves, clearly HISTORY.
proves, in contradiction to Mr. Coxe, Dr. SOMERVILLE is already known who asserts, that the interests of Hanover and respected as an historian of Charles II.“ were sacrificed to those of England, that James II. and William III. The repu- the reverse took place that the elector tation which his former work very justly king was no sooner seated on his throne, obtained him for accuracy and impartia
“ than he began to consider in what mode lity, will not be impaired by his recent la.
the power and riches of England might bours in the History of Great Britain during be made subservient to hi. views of exalthe Reign of Queen Anne. Dr. Somer. tation and aggrandisement as a prince of ville, by the laudable liberality of friends, the empire; that his obj.et was to add has been supplied with abundant new ma
Bremen and Verden to his German domiterials; among
sources of infor- nions, and, in short, that the interests of mation, are to be distinguished, as particu- England were completely sacrificed to larly valuable, several volumes of original Hanoverian politics. To these elaborate manuscripts collected by the duke of dissertations are prefixed some remarks, in Shrewsbury; various official records ; co- reply to the animadversions of Mr. Coxe pies of letters from Lord Godolphin, and in his Memoirs of Sir Robert Walpole. other persons of eminence, prelerved in the disgrace which Mr. Coxe laboured the library of the earl of Hardwicke; un
with so much folicitude to throw on Mri published observations of Sir John Clerk, Belsham seems to have recoiled on 'him &c. &c. &c. A selection of the most im- self: Mr. Coxe, with more precipitance portant of these papers, it was originally than judgment, accused the historian of the intention of our author to have pub- the Brunswic family of having committed lished in a separate volume, but, alas ! many errors of great magnitude: these While mailed Mars doth on his altar sit,
errors, it now appears, are most of them Steep'd to the ears in blood,
his own : some few and trivial mistakes
he has detected, which Mr. Belsham literature is almost of necessity neglected; frankly acknowledges, and leaves his anthe warrior tyrant robs her of the power tagonist in full poffeffion of the triumph to confer an adequate remuneration for he may choose to arrogate *. the offerings which her votaries would
Mr. present. Dr. Somerville was absolutely obliged to give up the plans which he had * It might be considered as a tacit and cowin contemplation to pursue, from the un
ardly acknowledgement of error, did we omit favourable' disposition to patronize literary dication of two paffag's in his works, (iec p.
this opportunity of noticing Mr. Beilham's vinproductiuns, which the times too evidently 182 of this yol.) on which we animadverted in display. He has contented himself, there
our last Retrospect in such a manner as to have fore, with publishing a few vouchers in the excited his resentment. Mr. B. probably has form of an appendix to his volume. not adverted to the circumstance, that our ReMONTHLY MAG. XLVII.
Mr. DUPPA's Journal of the most reo thor witnessed the entrance of the French markable Occurrences that took place in army into the capital of the ancient world; Rome upon obe Subversion of the Ecclefiafti. he witnessed the subjugated pontiff's hucal Government, in 1798, is an biftorical miliating abdication of his temporal power; memoir of considerable interest. The au. he witneffed the nominal investicure of
this power in the deluded people; and he trofpect must in great part be a compilation. was a witness, too, of those merciless Though many new books really pass through depredations which were committed by our hands, for the accounts of many we are in the republican army as a recompense for debted to the literary journals, from which we their time and trouble in the achievement. do not scruple to borrow what appears to us All accounts which have been given us of marked with intelligence. The censure on Mr.
fuccessful invasion of the French army, B.'s palliation of King William's conduct re
and fpecting the massacre of Glencoe, we, in fact,
we have had too many! unite in ex. took in subítance from the Critical Review, pofing the treacherous friendship of these vol. xxiii. and we believe we shall not be found republican missionaries: we oblerve that to have aggravated it. The second subject of the palaces are invariably pillaged, the Mr. B's complaint is, that we accused Mr. B. churches violated, and the people at once of " decisive hostility against Mr. Hastings at oppressed and laughed at.
Mr. Duppa, the time that gentleman was under trial.” We whose account of the subversion of the did fo: the accusation is cur own: we are re. papal government seems to be drawn up Iponsible for it, and feel no disposition to recant with much impartiality, in relating the one tittle. Mr. Belsham, in his vindication, has proceedings of the French at Rome, tells tion: he has only given us the private opinion us, that, in the opening of the scene, " all of Major Scott, which can ne more be admitted
was liberality and justice; in one and the as the justification of Mr. B. than the private same day all right of conquest was relinopinion of another individual would have been guished, and Rome declared a free and admitted as the establishment of a charge against independent government :
to exercise him. “ As to the period of publication,” says whose functions, the honefteft, the ableft, Mr. B. “ I can truly assert that it never entered and the best men that could be chosen out into my imagination to conceive, that after nine of the party were selected." But this funyears parliamentary investigation of the question, shine was of short duration, the people after pamphlets, speeches, and reports innumesable, had been circulated relative to it, that any succeeded! It was foon discovered that the
were lulled by it, and a terrible tempest thing I could say would in the slightest degree men who were made oftenfible to the Roinfluence the judicial decifion of the House of Peers : or that a rule of discretion adapted to
man people as provisionary governors had common cases could possibly be supposed to ap- only the lhadow of authority: at their ply to this.” We must take the liberty to say, peril, they were forced into obnoxious in self-defence, that this does not strike us as measures, the odium of which it was conbeing at all to the purpose; that other people ceived themselves would alone sustain.. circulated pamphlets in crimination of Mr. Haft- The obvious and almost immediate confeings, is certainly no excuse for Mr. B. even on
quence was, that all those persons who the injurious and derogatory fuppofition, that had any regard for their personal charachis historic work is not entitled to more general ters withdrew themselves, or by making and permanent attention than thofe hasty ephe opposition were compelled to retire. “The laited nine disgraceful years, gave him no right vacancies produced,” says Mr. Duppa, to look upon that as established which remained were now filled up by men of unfcruto bę proved. Mr. Fox, Mr. Burke, Mr. She- tinized characters, who, in this opportu. ridan, &c. might each be allowed his philippic, nity, boldly ftepped forward to recommend as a manager of the prosecution, but Mr. Belo themselves, through the interest of their fhan, notwithstanding he might not in any de- money, or other collateral means, and were gree influence the judicial decision of the House nominated, as those means seemed to beas of Péers, had certainly no claim to such an al- a proportion to their pretensions." lowance; he ought to have considered that Mr. Hattings food at the bar of the nation; that the witness, is a publication of a similar im
The Fall of Underwald, by an Eyeeyes of the people of Great Britain, were almost to a man directed on him; and that the opinion port to the preceding. which might be formed in the latter tribunal,
Sir FRANCIS D'IVERNOIS has pubmight be regarded perhaps with more solicitude by the prisoner, than the fentence which might fpect as those of Mr: Bellham; we utterly dirbe pronounced in the former,
claim the most diftant intention of attacking his We are sorry, truly sorry, to have given of. moral character, though we have differed and fence to a gentleman whose personal character, fill differ from him in our notions of historical and to an author wbuie writings we fo much re- proprietx with regard to the point in question.
Retrospect of Domestic Literature... Historj.
513 liled the first volume of An Hifiorical and an avowed compilation from Stuart, Gib.
Political Delineation of the Administration bon, and Coxe, although the writer has of the French Republic, during the Year himself been in Switzerland, and might 1797, and of the Causes which produced tbe have defcribed, and ought to have de. Revolution of September the 41b, wiib its scribed, from his own personal observation, Consequences. Sir Francis d'Ivernois is those things which he now describes from known to be a party writer: this circum. the observation of others. The only part
tance, however it may render caution ne- of the work which is new, is the history of cessary in giving credit to unattested facts, the Swiss revolution ; and this, like every and in paying attention to conjectures, history of a recent event which no man opinions, &c. does not in the smallest de can regard with complacency. but, on the gree invalidate the truth of statements contrary, which every one, till the effer: for which documents of sufficient authen- vescence of party spirit has fubfided, ticity are adduced. Those which Sir must, of neceffity, contemplate with the Francis refers to are the hate papers of eye either of rapture or abhorrence, is the republic, and the best printed accounts written with a degree of partiality, which, of the debates of the councils : we are sorry though hardly avoidable, must ever be that we do not feel ourlelves authorized to censured. That man, moreover, is far too object again them: for, even deducting credulous for an historian who can seri. what may be thought necessary for sup- ously refer to the romances of l'Abbé posed exaggeration in the author, the BARRUEL and Professor ROBISON for amount of misery which remains is so the caules of the French revolution : but great, that the contemplation of it is very such credulity has Mr. Wood evinced. painful. Perhaps the most amicting im It is with pleasure that we announce the preffion which the perulal of this work continuation of Mr. MAURICE's labours leaves on the mind, arises from the con- in exploring the antiquities of India. Mr. templation of the fall of inftitutions for Maurice has published the firft and second public charity : The hospital of Bordeaux, parts of the second volume of his History which required the annual support of of Hindoftan, its Arts and its Sciences, as 390,00p livres, actually received, it seems, connecled with the orber great Empires of bur 20,000 during eight months, terminat- Afia, during the most early Periods of the ing in November, 1797. The Lwo hospic World. It is well known that Mr.Maunce tals of Toulouse, containing near 3.000 in the former volume of this work argued, patients, by the sale of all their moveables that the Hindoo fcriptures were a corruphave not been able to supply one half of tion and mutilation of the Musaic: he their necessaries. If the statements of Sir enumerated several events, which, when Francis are correct, the loss of population stripped of the mythologic ornaments by the mortality of illegitimate children, which enveloped them, were easily to be for whose support there were many esta- identified as events which are recorded blishinents, is very serious and melancholy. with plain ness and simplicity by the HeOur author, in common with most persons, brew legiflator. Mr. M. examined with we believe, who have examined the bug. minuteness the chronology of the Brah-ness, is of opinion, that the immediate mins, and with much ability exposed its cause of the revolution in September, 1797, extravagance by a close investigation of was the dilapidation of the finances of the rules which directed their aftronomi. France *.
cal computations. A considerable portion An octavo volume has been published of this second volume is employed in deby Mr. John Wood, entitled, A gene- tailing the events of the Avatars, or ten ral View of the History of Switzerland, incarnations of Veelhnnu. I: is impossible with a particular Account of the Origin and for us to speak otherwise than in general. Accomplishment of the late Swiss Revolution, terms of this volume, which evinces the This work is divided into two parts, and fame indefatigable minuteness of research it is somewhat remarkable, that the first is which the author has repeatedly displayed
before: we may, however, add, that it is
qrirten with more than his usual attention * If our readers will trouble themselves to
10.correctness and fimplicity of style. refer to an article of foreign intelligence at
Mr. BiCHENO has published, with ad. page 324.of the present volumre
, they will have ditional nutes, and a poftfcript on the prereason to form a better opinion of the French sent movement in the East, a third edition government relative to the support of public cha. of his Glance at the Hiftory of Cbriftianity sitable inftitutions, than they are led to by the and of English Nonconformity. Statements of Sir Fraacis d'Ivernois.
The editor of A complete View of the
3 U 2
Chinese Empire, boasts, not without some been written on the subject; but it would season, the superiority of his compilation be improper to omit the mention of two over other abridgements which have been anonymous productions, both of which have published of Sir George Staunton's work: confiderable merit; the one is entitled, the “Dissertation on the Antiquityof China” I boughts on Taxation ; in the Course of which is stated to have been communicated to the the Policy of a Tax on Income is impartially editor by a writer of celebrity, who has investigated; the other, Observutions on the paid more than ordinary attention to the Taxation of Properiy. Chinese history, and who will, in a short Mr. ADAM's Plan for raising the Taxes time, favour the world with the result of impartially, and almost free of Expence in his observations and enquiries. From His. Time if War, evinces that its author is by tory, we proceed, according to our wonted no means a novice in financial speculation : arrangement, to
he thus fpeaks of the national Debt ; FINANCE,
“ Great Britain is frequently represented The inequitable progression of Mr. by the figure of a lion : in allusion to that Pitt's assessment upon income is so ge- simile, the causes for apprehension strike nerally felt and acknowledged, that it is me in the following light : the invasion is hardly worth while to revive the subject: a scratch that must arouse the lion; the but in a retrospect of literature we cannot national debt is an internal gangrene, conavoid noticing Mr. Frend's Principles of tinually gnawing the vitals and must in Taxation, in which work the author has the end destroy the animal.” displayed this irregularity with peculiar Mr. Cooke's Tift of Taxation is a çlearness; it may be seen from the fol- pamphlet which thews some financial lowing view of it, where the upper line knowledge : the basis of taxation is here gives the annual incomes, and the under Aated to be the value of property in the line gives the scale of progression used in possession of individuals. To asceriain this the taxing of them :
value, property in general is divided into Ann. Inc. 60, 40, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 subject to casualties; and industry in la
two heads : namely, permanent property Prog. Tax. I, 2, 5, 15, 40, 50, 60, 70.
bour, trade, or commerce: it is evidently Thus, an income of £o. 70, pays double ; equitable that the larter should be more of £. ioc, five times; of £. 150, fifteen lightly taxed than the former. times, what an income of £.60 pays, and Mr. KINGSBURY, in his Address to the
The irregularity is most itriking People of Great Britain, on the Subje&t of in the three incomes of £. 150, £: 200, and Mr. Pitt's proposed Tax on Income, & c. f. 2;0, where the corresponding rates of betrays much violence: his reprobation of taxation are 15, 40, and 50. Thus," the unequal operation of the tax, however, says Mr. Frend,“ if an industrious man of must not be objected against. £.150 a year increases his income to £.200, So numerous are the plans which have he increases his tax in the proportion of 3 been offered, with very sanguine confi. to 8 : if an industrious man of £.200 a year dence, to the premier's consideration for increases his income to £.250, he increases liquidating the national debt, that one his tax only in the proportion of 4 to 5.” would think it a most easy achievement : The absurdity in this instance is obvious, Mr. HENRY MARTINS Bird, in the nor is it difficult to guess the reason why Proposals which he has published for pay, Mr. Pitt did not carry his scale higher; ing off the whole of the national debt, and that is to say, why he adopted a common for reducing taxes immediately, tells us progression for all incomes of above £•200 nothing more is requisite than to take a a year, and a peculiar progreffion for those twelfth of every man's property! Mr. Bird below it. “ Had he acted upon those is quite right in anticipating an immediate principles, which it would be ridiculous to reduction of taxes when this plan thall be suppose he did not entertain in his closet," adopted : take away the means of paying says Mr. F. “ the rich must have driven them, and taxes will soon be reduced. Mr. him headlong from his station.”
B. prognosticates many evils to the state if The Speeches are published of Lord his proposals fhall be rejected; the meaAUCKLAND and Sir JOHN SINCLAIR, sure of misery, however, will not be filled on the income bill: they are neither of up before a peace is concluded, and if the them to be distinguished for oratorical ex- minister were to take counsel from our cellence, or argumentative acuteness. author, the prelent generation, at least,
Much discussion has been excited by would have but little reason for appréhen. Mr. Pitt's Income Bill: we cannot enu- fion, for he very gravely hopes that Mr. merate the many pamphlets which havę Pitt will “ advise his Majesty and the na
Retrospect of Domestic Literature... Finance.
513 tion to reject all overtures of peace till suceeeding year as long as the tax should Holland, Flanders, Switzerland, Italy, and exift. The obvious consequence of this Spain are restored to their liberties, and vaunted measure would be an unlimited the hideous monster of general disorga- and alarming emission of bank paper. nization is driven within the ancient Dr. Hunter, in his General View of a bounds of its own desolated territory.” Plan of universal and equal Taxation, pro
Tiffs of tbe National Wealth and Finances poses the exaction of eighteen pence out of Great Britain, in December, 1798 : one of every pound of clear rental, arising half of this pamphlet is taken up in repro- from freehold lands, and one thilling in bating the scheme for redeeming the land the pound from freehold houses, or the tax, and with the author's letter to Mr. levy of five shillings on every hundred Pitt, containing a plan for improving the pounds of the value of all estates. Mr. finances.
Pitt would hardly think it worth his The author of Confiderations on the A&t", while to collect so insignificant a contrifor the Redemption of tbe Land-Tux has bution. made an observation of great moment, An anonymous writer has published which escaped the notice of both houses A new Enquiry into the Principles and Policy of parliament: it is this, if a gentleman of Taxa'ion in the Political System of Great possessed of landed property should pur- Britain. As the author's ideas on the subchase the whole of the land-tax attached ject of taxation are very confused, it is to such property, would he not lose his not to be expected that he should comright to vote for that property? It ap- municate information to his reader. pears that he would ; for the act expres The author of Consolatory Thoughts on ly exonerates from all assessments of mo- Taxation, Sc. proposes that “ an act thould ney as land-tax, property, the land-tax of be passed to prevent the further increase of which shall have been redeemed by vir- the national debt, and the stock-holders be tue of that act. But for any man to be incorporated and bound to contribute, all entitled to vote, it must appear that the in their several proportions, according to property for which he tenders his vote is what the committee of proprietors might affessed to the land-tax : this act, there- be empowered to concede by a court of fore, in annulling the affessment, seems to proprietors.” This part of his scheme annul the right of voting which was at may be worth attention : but surely that tached to it. Did this consequence really part of it is unjust which would impose escape the eagle eye of Mr. Pitt, or is on the land-holders a perpetual rent-charge. this redemption act a Ny contrivance, a This pamphlet is well worth perusal. trick to undermine the power of country
George. Rose, Esq. has published A gentleman, and weaken ihe landed inter- brief Examination into ibe Increase of the eft? Men who are most clamorous against Revenue, Commerce, and Manufactures of innovation, do not on that account always Great Britain, from 1792 to 1799. On the fcruple to violate the integrity of the con first bluth of the business it seems a little ftitution, if such violation Thould suit their impolitic that ministers should call the atown purposes.
tention of the public to a subject which, Mr. FAIRMAN has published a third in the present state of affairs, it is their in. edition, with considerable improvements, terest tu screen from examination ; they of his useful work, entitled, The Stocks ex know very well, however, that a pomamined and compared, or a Guide to pur- pous parade of figures has a very impofçbase in ibe Public Funds.
ing appearance. The people at large, if Mr. SIMEON Pope has submitted to they lee any thing like an arithmetical
governors, &c. of the bank of England calculation, take for granted its correctwhat he calls, A Measure productive of sub. Dess, and of course give credit to the statea ftantial Benefits 10 Government and Coun. ment which it professes to establish : very try, the Public Funds, and Bank Stock. The few people ere qualified to detect inaccu. following is the measure which Mr. P. racies in such a work as this; and of those proposes : let the Bank of England (un- few, some are unwilling to take the trouder fanction of parliament) advance to ble, or devote the time. On the whole, government this year the sum of ten mil- therefore, this ministerial speculation is not lions, at an interest of 4 per cent, and a bad one. Mr. Rose, it must be confessed, payable in ren inftalments, on the security is a little unfortunate; for his examina!ron or credit of the general income tax for the has been examiued with a degree of dilia ensuing year 1800; then to be optional in 'gence and acuteness which it is very little the bank proprietors to extend or not the prepared to endure. We need scarcely Joan to the year 1800-and so on to every state the object of Mr. Rose's pamphlet :