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of the first consequence, and which has At Defau, in Upper Saxony, there already made a great noise among the has been fornied for three years past an German literati, is a formidable attack on eftablishment for publishing Prints and Professor KANT, by no less a champion Engravings, denoininated the “ Chalcothan the celebrated HERDER. This wri- graphic Society." A vast capital is emter, no leis acute than Kant himself, and barked in this undertaking, which has far more learned, to a more fertile ima. already proved an excellent resource and gination joins all the graces of di&tion; encouragement to the Gerinan artists of in a word, a man, whoin his co-tempora- every description that cultivate design. On ries already style the Plato of Germany, the merits of the performances, which this has undertaken to shake the reputation of inftitution has produced, GOETHE has that Prushan idol, and bring it down to its given a very candid and ingenious critiqu', proper level, in a work entitled, “ J. G. in hisPropylaeon," a periodical work, of HERDER'S Metakritik zur Kritik der pei- which two numbers are already edited. nen Verminft. I. Theil, Versandund Er- Goethe's critiques poflefs this merit, fabrung. II. Theil Vernunft und Sprache. that they instruct, without wounding the Leipzig p. f. HARTKNOCK, 8vo. 1799." feelings of any individual artist. It there

WIELAND'S " Gesprache unter vier fore cannot fail of producing the moit Augen(an ingenious fatire against the solid and extentive advantages to the proFrench, and their unjustifiable conduct gress of the graphic art, in Germany, towards the Swiss), is now traullating at which boasts the original invention of tha Weimar, by Mr. MELLISH, an English art. gentleman, resident in that city. The Mr. GOESCHEN, of Leipzig, a gentle. fame gentleman is engaged upon Go. man of extentive information, and great ETHe's new and celebrated poen, entitled, liberality, and who ranks with our EENS6 Herrman und Dorethea, in blank LEYS and BULMERS (having carricd the verse.

art of printing in Germany to its highett Of WIELAND'S " Agathodæmon," the pitch of excellence), has nearly completed fecond and last volume has appeared. the fplendid edition of the new Tijtcment The venerable bard is said to look upon in Greek, with ingenious Froli gonilna, by this as his best prosaic work. It is cer- that eminent philologist

, Dr. Griestainly fraught with genuine wililom, and BACH. Our German correspondent ta will afford an exquilite mental repaft to whom we are indebted for thele notices, those who relish the manly beauties of and who has seen a specimen of this work, the Grecian and Roman writers. It con- lays, that no lover of facred criticilin, or tains the life of Apollonius of Tyana. amateur of fine typography, can behold Towards the close of this work is a feries it without admiration. Our readers may of molt curious and ingenious conjectures, expect a detailed account of this fplendid on the manner in which Christianity made edition of the new Testament in a future its way through fo considerable a part of number of the Monthiy Magazine, the globe.

FRANCE.

STATE OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS,

In May, 1799:

May. As the narrow limits to which we URING the eventful years which

are confined only allow of an outline, it is D have elapsed fince the commence

taken from the account of Juan Delry, ment of the French Revolution, democra

who can say with Æneas, tical rage has enacted some enormities at quæque ipse miserrima vidi, the mention of which humanity shudder's. Et quorum pars magna fui. Quis talia fando, But a masacre has lately been committed Myrmydonum, Dolopumve, aut duri miies in the vicinity of Rastadt which, for cru

Ulyflei, elty and breach of public faith, equals if Temperet à lacrymis ?". not exceeds, any event of modern history. Jean Debry, in his letter dated Straf

The assassination of the ministers of burg, the itt of May, ftates, that on the the French Republic at Raftadt, was an- 28th of April, at half past leven in the nounced by the French Directory to the evening, a captain of huslärs of Szeltzer, Council of the Ancients on the sth of stationed at Gegenboch, came ca che part

of

1799.]
State of Public Affairs.

407 of his Colonel, to declare verbally to Ba- the river. Every member of the diploron d'Alluni, that the French deputies matic corps made the greatest efforts to were to quit Rastadt; and afterwards break through the line of the assassins, and came with an order to quit that city to come to the aflistance of those to whom within twenty-four hours.-Already had allistance might yet be administered. But the husfars of Szeltzer taken poffeffion of it was not till one in the morning that the it, and occupied all the avenues. At wife of Roberjot could arrive at M. de eight o'clock the French ministers entered Jacobi's, the Prassian minister ; and the their carriages: when they arrived at the wife and daughters of Jean Debry at the gates of Rastadt, they found an order to house of the minister of Bremen and permit no person to enter or go out. An Hanover. Debry wandered about during hour was spent in parleys.-But at length the whole of that dreadful night, fearful the Austrian commandant gave an order of the day, which might expose him to for the departure of the French legation the Austrian patroles. About fix o'clock, only. They demanded an escort, but it however, he took the resolution of returnwas refused; and the commandant de- ing to Raftadt, and law on the road the clared that they should be as tafe as in naked bodies of his two colleagues. their own rooms. In consequence of this The Directory, on the oth of May, they proceeded on their journey; but were sent another message to the Council of not fifty paces from Raftadt, in company Five hundred, on the disparity of the rewith the Ligurian legation, when a de- venue to the public expences. It contachment wt nearly 60 husars of Szeltzler, cluded by oblerving, that nothing could in ambuth upon the canal of La Murg, be more urgent than to raise the receipts fell upon their carriages, and obliged them to the current expences of the year, by to stop.— Jean Debry's was the first; fix filling up the deficit, which was a subject men, armed with drawn sabres, tore him of the most serious alarm. Annexed :0 out with violence : he was searched and this message was a further report of the robbed of all that he had.' Another, who minister of finance, in which he justified, appeared to command this expedition, ar- by official statements, the financial report rived on horseback, and asked for the ini. which he made on the 25th of April. nifter, Jean Debry, who, fuppofing he The same council, on the uth of May, came to his rescue, answered, “I am Jean proceeded to the appel nominal upon the ten Debry.” Scarcely had he uttered the candidates for the Directory. The numwords, when with a labre he was cut ber of votes amounted to 420. The can. down to the ground. He was immedia didates, who appeared to have the greatately affailed on all sides by fresh blows. eft number of votes, were Citizens Sieyes, Tumbled into a ditch, he appeared to be Gohier, General Lefebvre, Duval, &c. dead: the banditti quitted him to pro- On the next day the president declared the ceed to the other carriages, and he avail. result of the scrutiny. Out of the 420 ed himself of this inftant, and escaped; votes, Lefebvre har 338 fuffrages ; Sieyes wounded in different places, and losing 236; Duval 216 ; these three were there. blood on all sides. Bonnier was assaulted fore returned as candidates. No other perin a similar manner, and killed; and Ro- fon having had a majority of votes, a berjot was massacred almost in the arins of second scrutiny was entered upon. The his wife, who was leven months, advanced number of votes present was 400 : Gohier in her pregnancy. The fame question obtained 232 votes ; Charles Delacroix was put to his il-fated colleagues as to 203 ; and no one else having the majority, him ;--Are you Bonnier ?.- Are you Ro- a third scrutiny was ordered for the fol. berjot? Their carriages were piilaged, lcwing day : when the council proceeded and every thing becaine the prey of the accordingly to nominate five other candi. brigands; the papers of the legation dates for the vacant office of director. (which probably were the main object According to the accounts from the with the asaillants) were carried off, Austrian army, dated Stokach, the zoth conveyed to the Auitrian commandant, of April, it appears, that, as the French and claimed in vain. The secretary of after having been driven from Schaffhau. legation threw himleif into a ditch, and fen and Peterlharsen, still occupied an by favour of the night, etcaped the blows advantageouis position in the small town of of the asasin; Jean Debry, in the mean Eglisau, on the right bank of the Rhine, time, crawled to an adjacent wood. His the Archduke liad directed Prince Scha private Secretary, Belin, was detained by wartzenberg to dislodge them from that dix men to witness these scenes of horror. poft ; that, in pursuance of these direc. His valet de chambre was thrown into cons, he approached the place, and sum.

moned actions there. He hated that a very se

treat.

moned the enemy to surrender; and that, Gortheiass and Bagration. After these upon an answer in the negative being re- dispositions, Field Marshal Otto sent a turned, he had attacked them with such second summons to the French commanimpetuolity that they were soon com- der, and a refusal having been returned, pelled to abandon their station, and re- the town was bombarded at fix o'clock in

the morning, and in the space of an hour It appears

from the account of General and a half, leveral cannon were dismountMelas, of the proceedings of the army of ed. This circumstance, together with the Italy, dated the 15th of April, that on approach of the battalion of Nadasty to the 14th, the whole Auftrian army cros- the gate of Peschiera, caused the French fed the Mincio, and encamped near Cam. to give way, and to retire with precipita. pagnola and Monté-Olivetano pushing tion into the citadel. The pioneers im · the advanced posts as far as Marcaria, on mediately forced the gate, and by the exthe Oglio, and Monté Chiæria, on the hortation of Field Marshal Kray, the inhaChiefe. Upon this, the French retreated bitants assembled upon the ramparts, and on the right, beyond the Oglio, and on lowered the drawbridge. The battalion the left, beyond the Chiele. General of Nadalty then entered the town. The Vickassouich instantly occupied Salo, by French kept up a continual fire from the which he established his communication, citadel, but without doing any mischief. with the army. On the 18th of April, This induced Field Marshal Kray to sumthe Austrian army encamped between Ca- mons de commander of the citadel, who priano and Caffelo. Mantua was then at first wishred to withdraw his troops unleft to its own means of defence ; it be- conditionally ; but, perceiving the prepacame blockaded at a certain distance; ration of the imperial and Russian troops and the Austrian patroles advanced to its to take the citadel by aflault, they levery gates. The Austrians took from folved to capitulate. By this capitulathe French at Cafel Magiore, a convoy of tion, the garrison, confiiting of one thouthirty-fix pontoons, dispersed the escort, fand men, was inade prisoners of war, and made near an hundred prisoners. Forty pieces of cannon, eighteen mortars, One of the Austrian detachments even a great quantity of ammunition and proentered Cremona, and the French retreat- visions of all kinds fell into the hands of ed to Lodi.

the Austrians. The town and fortress of Brescia

It appears that General Suwarrow, were taken on the 20th of April, by the after the taking of Brescia, proceeded to Austrians and Ruffians in conjun&tion, take possession of Bergamo, Leno, Tuzzo, of which the following are the particulars, and other places on the right banks of the The 20th, at midnight, Field Marshal Adda : at Bergamo, however, the French Otto, by orders from Field Marshal Kray, defended themielves with great bravery. who was charged with this enterprize, Thefe successes were following up on the quitted his camp, with his division in two

part

of the combined army with the greatcolumns. The battalion of Nadafty, eft energy ; and on the 27th of April, a posted in Rerato, advanced upon the high general action took place near Milan be. road by Euphemia, as far as the entrance tween the French under General Moreau, of the suburbs of Brescia. This bat. and che allied army under General Suwaytalion being joined by two others, directed row. In this bloody action, five thousand their attack against the gate of Torre are said to have fallen in the field on each Longo. The battalion-commanded by side, but the general relult is reported to Major General Kraus, marched on the have been favourable to the allies. Furhigh road of Cremona, by St. Zeno, ther particulars of this important battle against the gate of Alexander. This co- are deferred till our next. lumn was augmented by a corps of horse artillery, and all ne rest of the cavalry

By the last accounts from the United pushed forward as far as the high road to Cremona, to cover the left wing: This bad broken out in the western part of the

States, it appears another infurrection enterprize was fupported by tive hundred state of Philadelphia, which bore a more cossacks, one thousand foot chasseurs, and five hundred grenadiers, under the serious and formidable aspect than that of orders of the Ruffian general, the Princes Gallatin, and the other infurgents in the

mountains. Colonel Williams, who had * Brescia is the capital of Bresciano, and been in Northampton County, laid before a Biskop's lee, situated on the river Carza, 95 the president a detail of the recent transmiles west of Venice.

rious

AMERICA.

IRELAND.

1799:]
State of Public Affairs.

409 rious opposition to the laws had for some April, when counsel were heard at the time manifested itself in the rebellious bar in behalf of Matthew Scott of Carrick. couny of Northampion, and it became on-Suir, Esq. against it, as tending to necessary for the marihal to affert the au- nullity his action for falfe imprisonment, thority of government. He accordingly againit T. Judkin Fitzgerald, Elų. late proceeded to the scene of inturrection, and High Shesitf of the county of Tipperary. arreited twenty-three persons for fundry The prime ferjeant (poke in reply to the acts of resistance to the operation of the arguments of the counsel : he laid it was law, impoting a tax upon houses. In argued as if this bill infringed the law as it the house of representatives, on the ed of formerly itood, and repeated the former March, a warm discutiion took place on act of indemnity: He contended that the the bill for vesting the power of retalia- prefent bill did neither. It only carried tion, in certain cases, in the President of into execution with more effect the provithe United States ; and the question for lions of the indemnity act; namely, that postponing the confideration of it until when numbers were engaged in putting the next Tesfion was negatived by 35 to down a dangerous rebellion, and were 32 votes. After foine amendment, the obliged, in many instances, to act in opbill was passed by 56 to 34. On the Sun- polition to established law, those persons day following, the house met, when the having acted from a laudable and useful prendent informed them and the fenate, motive, lliould be protected from the pethat he had approved and figned the dif- nalties of the law. But, if any man were ferent acts which had passed both houles. to act under such a prerext, in a way in A vote of thanks to the speaker having which no reasonable man could be lippassed, he adjourned the house line die. posed to at for the public safety, then he

law no reason why the party should not

meet with due punishment; the comThe principal subjects which have mission of the injury would niake a primà lately engaged the attention of the Irish facie case for the plaintiff; nor could legislature, have been the regency and the there be any good reason why the defenindemnity bills. The commons having dant should not be cait if he could not formed themselves into a committee, on mew probable caute, nor why the jury the former of these bills, on the 11th of should not find true ground upon which April, the speaker commenced a speech of they could find a verdict for the plaintiff. great length and animation, complaining The danger of juries finding popular verof the manner in which his political con- dicts against parties charged with offence, duet, respecting the adjustment of 1782, which they had been led into from a rehad been represented by the British mi- gard they had to preserve the public trannister. He stated, that when he had de- quility, afforded also a good argument clared in 1785, that “ things could not why the jndges should be invested with that remain as they were,” he was fpeaking controuling power over the verdict which merely of commerce, and it was certainly this bill gave them. Indeed they already a great want of candour to represent him possessed this power to a certain degree; as talking of the constitution. Near the for it was the common practice of the end of his speech he made an impressive courts to set aside verdicts which were apostrophe to the Irish nation, calling upon had against the direction of the judges. them, without any regard to their diffe- With respect to the argument, that makrence of their religious opinions, to unite ing the jury find express malice wherever in preserving the liberties of their country, they found for the plaintiff, would, in a and not to make a cor.ceflion of their con- great measure, frustrate the plaintiff's ftitution, which could never be retracted action ;--that was the very object of the but by an appeal to arms. LordCastlereagh bill. It went to protect the loyalist spoke very ably in reply. Sir B. Roche, against the paying damages, in cales Sir J. Blaquiere, Mr. Coote, Mr. Monck where he had acted from a good motive, Mason, Mr. Alexander, and Col. M’Do. It was also an object of the bill to leave nald followed on the fame fide against the nothing in obscurity ; but to make the biil. It was supported by Mr. Pontonby, jury itate, in their verdict, the grounds on Sir J. Parnell, Mr. Fitzgerald, and Mr. which it was found. The Hon. Mr. Arthur Moore. The bill passed the com- Yelverton replied to the prime lerjeant. mittee, and the report was ordered to be He contended, that under this bill, a received on the 13th.

monster, who had committed enormous The cominons went into a committee cruelties, under the pretence of keeping on the indemnity bill, on the 224 of the public peace, would often escape with MONTHLY MAG. NO. XLV.

impunity,

3 G

impunity, and especially if the suffering These acted, he faid, in a manner repugobject was a stranger; for against him nant to all the ancient habits of the Bri. it would be said, the defendant could tish constitution ; and to suppress these, have no malice, when, at the same time, the most energetic measures hould be the want of it was supplied by much worse adopted, that did not trench on the conmotives. With respect to Mr. Fitzge- ftitutional liberties of the people. In adrald, it was said, he acted from no bad dition to this, he said he meant to propose intention :--if fo, then the present law a measure of amnesty; and after this merwould indemnify him ; but if he had ciful warning, if any tranfgreffed, then acted from other motives than a regard to they should be subject to a lummary puthe peace

of the country, surely the legi- nishment-a pecuniary fine to be recollature would not sereen such a man from vered by a magistrate, before whom they punishment. Though he was sure that the were brought and convicted. This, he judges who filled the benches at prelent had no doubt, from the description of were incapable of abusing any power persons concerned in the conspiracy, which might be given them, he could not would have a most salutary effedt. In agree to a clause which gave the judges a point of moral guilt, the cominittee would controul over the verdicts of juries ; for perceive that heavy punishment was alone we might again see a Jefferies preside in commensurate to the crime; therefore, a court of justice. General Hutchinson in dealing thus leniently with the general spoke against the bill; and contended that herd, it was his intention to apportion the Mr. Fitzgerald's conduct was not such punishment to the crimes of the ringas entitled him to the protection or in- leaders, and making certain offences liable terference of parliament. The report on to transportation for seven years, or such this bill was received on the 30th of other punishment by fine or imprisonment, April, and several arguments of counsel as a court of criminal judicature should were l'e-produced against the clauses, pro- think fit to inflict. He then adverted to the viding that juries should find the malici- punishment of publicans and others, who ous motives, and that judges might cer- hould permit political societies to aflemtify against the quantum of damages. ble. Reipecting debaiing societies, he said,

that if suffered at all, they ought to be

licensed, and under the controul of the The Chancellor of the Exchequer, on magistrate. Where such meetings were the 19th of April, introduced two bills held, contrary to the act, the house should into the house of commons, which tend be indicted as a diforderly house. to put further restraints upon the press, The next subject to which he called the and the liberty of association. When the attention of the house, was the press. The house had resolved itself into a committee, liberty of the press, he said, was either a to consider of the report of the secret com

great blessing or a great evil to a country. mittee, to take into consideration the trai. In future he withed to make it criminal terous correspondence carried on between to have any hand-bills publidhed without this country and Ireland, Mr. Pitt said the name of the printer ; and he thought his first object was, agreeably to his ma- it necessary, that every manufacturer of jesty's message, relating to the removal of types, and presses, should deliver in an state prisoners from Ireland to Scotland, account of the persons to whom they fold to enable the exccutive government the same ; and that those in whole postransfer pris ners to any part of the coun- session private presses were, should, under try which it might think proper. His certain penalties, be obliged to deliver in next ohject was, by measures of precau- an account of the faire to be publicly tion, to destroy those secret focieties which registered. To remedy the objects in were linked togeth:s, concerting means view, he proposed to bring in two bills, of to detroy the eltablished government, and which, what had been taid was the outline. in doing so, the committee would agree He concluded with moving for leave to with him, that, as it was the characteristic bring in a bill to explain and continue of jacobinism to assume various fhapes, for a time to be limited the bill for fufaccording to the circumstances of the 'pending the habeas corpus act, and also for time , lo mould new means be adopted to leave to bring in a bill for the more efmeet its machinations. The focieties to fectually suppressing political focieties, which he alluded were distinguished by Mr. Tierney in a very forcible speech, the names of the London correlponding fo- combated all the arguments which the cieties ; the society of united Irishmen; the Chancellor of the Exchequer had urged united Scotchmen; and the united Britons. in favour of throwing further restraints on

the

GREAT BRITAIN.

to

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