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1799.]

381

Proceedings of the Nationol Institute. calculation of the experiment from theory,

Instead of the calculation of Edmontoniseemingly founded on the same principle. ensis, then, take the following more corBut, only half understanding the matter, rect one. partly through mistakes in principle, and First AB= 247 French feet = = 263,24 errors in calculation, he has inadvertently feet English. made a great number of blunders in his As V 16,2 : V 263.24:: 1": 4.046 fecalculations. First, he changes 263.433 conds nearly, time of fall. feet into 43.3 fathoms, inftead of 43.9 ; As i fec. : 15" :: 4.046 fec. : 60"3, the and this error runs through all the rest of angular motion at the equator. the work. Then he supposes LALANDE As I:co: 50° 42' (the lat.)::60"}: made the experiment at Paris; whereas 38."425=<C=_EDF at Boulogne. that author lays, he had the experiment As i: tim. 38."425:: DF=263.24 : from another person at Boulogne. Next EF=0.049 ft. = 0.588 inc. = 0.552 inc. he adds the height of the tower to the ra- French=6.6 lines, being very near the dius of the parallel of latitude, instead of fame as LALANDE makes it by theory. to the radius of the earth; thereby mak.. In the above are omitted the effečt of ing the direction of the tower to be in a the earth's annual motion, the unknown right line with the former radius, instead resistance of the air to the falling body, of with the latter. Lastly, he makes and poflibly, as W. S. observes, other 0.936 inches, English measure, equal to circumstances which may affect the me 8.77 French lines, instead of 10.524 lines, thematical accuracy of this conclufion. as it ought to be : thus making the quan- Edinburgh, Your's, &c. tity of deviation, by theory, more than

May, 7.

JAMES NORTH. double of what LALANDE makes it.

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Proceedings at large of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE of France, on the 4th of January, 1799, as published by the Secretaries.

(Continued from our last Number.)
Notice of the Labours of the Class of beautiful simplicity of the antique among

Literature and Fine Arts, by Citizen the Greeks, who, for two thousand years,
ANDRIEUX.

may claim the prerogative of being our CT e dale al letters which he wrote gination.

NITIZEN Selis has communicated matters and models in all the arts of imain the country, addressed to Citizen GAIL,

Horace framed a precept to this professor of Greek Literature in the Col

purlege of France, relative to the translation pole, in his time : of the Idylls of Theocritus which this

Vos exemplaria Græca,

Nocturnâ versate manu, verfate diurna. last has given to the public. Citizen Selis,

It is of Theocritus and of Virgil that after some reflections on the kind of wri.

BOILEAU has said :
ting called the Idyll, makes it his business
to investigate the manner peculiar to

Que leurs tendres ecrits, par les Graces dictés,
Theocritus, the most antient of the poets

Ne quittent point vos mains, jour et nuit feu. that we know in this kind; he highly

illetés. commends, the simple, natural, and even Citizen DUTHEIL has given an acrustic manner of that pastoral writer. He count to the class of the contents of a acknowledges that he prefers it to the no- manuscript Greek volume in the National ble and affecting, but rather studied graces Library, very important, not only for the of the Bucolics of Virgil; and if he quantity, but, also for the nature of the compares it for a moment with the ma- articles which are found in it. These ar. drigals of Fontenelle's Shepherds, it is tickes, most of them anecdotes, are to the only to censure, with a frank aversion and number of fixty-eight. Some app ar to a generous indignation, all the turns of be collections of letters or of bittorical fineffe and all the pursuit of witty points and oratorical pieces; others are treatiles which the French author has lavished in or poems, at present totally unknown. his pretended pastorals. Thus Citizen The most considerable of these different Selis would guard us against the dan tracts, are referable, it is true, to what are gerous mania of running after talle wit, called the middle ages, even to the latt cenand bring us back to nature, from which tury of the Lower Empire ; but they are we too often deviate.

not the less interesting on that account, as This letter will indicate to yonng ftu- all that period of the civil, political, and dents in literature the necessity of explor- literary history of the Greeks stands much ing the fountat.1- head, of itudying the in need of illukration,

Citizen

Citizen LANGLES, after having laid gives us, however, some encouragement, before the public a Tatar- Manichou by shewing that all proper. mealures have grammar and dictionary, propoles to give been taken to prevent any misfortune; the explication in a series of notices, of all, except one, which would be very

fim. the Tatar-Mantchou works now in the ple, but very infallible, that of transportNational Library. Of these there are ing the national library to some other more than three hundred volumes.

edifice. This language is not only rich in the

Citizen BERENGER, an associate mem. productions of those who speak it, but ber, has tranimitted to the class, a canallo abounds with translations from Mog- tata, to set to music for the festival of the hol, Thibet, and Chinese works; it may foundation of the republic. fupply in a great mealure our defect of the Citizen LEBLANC has read a discourse kuowledge of the Chinese language, so in verse on the necessity of the dramatic, or famous for its difficulties. In fact, since of the pathetic, in all kinds of poejy. the year 1644, that a dynasty of Tatar- Citizen Ducis has read an epiftle, ad. Mantchou princes have reigned in China, dressed to Citizen LEGOUVE, on this Tube their language has been introduced into jest: we ought not to mingle the burrible the countıy, and the best or most famous and the agreeable in the arts. books of the Chinese have been translated. Citizen COLLIN HARLEVILLE has It is in the Tatar-Mantchou larguage, read an allegorical poein, in two cantos, that the emperor of China, Kien Long (the intitled, “ Melpomene and Tbalia.fame to whom Voltaire addressed an epistle Citizen GIBELIN, an aliociate mem. in verte, probably better written than her, has read a memoir on the antique those of his majesty), has composed poems statue, known by the name of Gladiator in which he makes himself a descendant of Burghese ;” a bronze of which is to be from a virgin who became pregnant by feen in the garden of the T'uileries. It is the favour of heaven, after having ate a pretty generally understood, at present, red fruit. In the National Library are that the name by which this antique figure also the poem of Mouk-Den and that of is designated, is not the properest one. Thé, works of the fame illustrious poet when it was discovered in the ruins of who' is perhaps yet alive. At least he Antium, the right arm was wanting. was so in the second and third years of Those who had it in charge to replace it, the republic, at the time of the embaffy of deceived by appearances, put the hilt of a Lord "Macartney: he was then 85 years fword into the hand of the arm which they

were restoring. This first mistake proCitizen RIBOUD, an associate member duced many others. Our fellow-member, of the Institute, has transinitted to the MONGEY, proved, in a differtation pubclass two inscriptions found at Bourg in lished but lately, that this pretended glathe department of Ain. He there found diator is really an athlete. "Citizen Gibethe ruins of a tomb erected by a disconso- lin admits this explication, and pushing it late widow, to her spoule, whom she had further, proposes this question: What is caused to be embalmed, in order to pre- this athlete doing? His conjecture is, ferve his precious remains. Our fellow- that he is playing at ball. This he founds member MONGEZ has proved that these on the circumstances of the statue's aspect infcriptions were tickets, notes, or titles being directed into the air, on the moveaffixed by an empiric to a balm which he ment of the left arm, on the attitude of rended, as a restorative for the eye-light. the body, but particularly on a fact which The analogy of these inscriptions, with first suggested this idea to him, and which many others already known and explained, struck him, as he expresses it, like a ray leaves little room to question the verity of of light. Thus he relates the matter ?hiş last conjecture. Citizen Mongez has himself. taken occasion to present us with fome ex- “ It is necessary (Citizen Gibelin is planatory remarks on the scarceness and speaking) that I recall to my memory the price of the real balın of Mecca, or balnı time of my studying at Rome; that time, of judea, which was the opobaljanium of the remembrance of which is always dear, the antients.

when the imagination, arouted by youthCitizen PEYRE has read a memoir on ful ardour, eagerly receives the imprefthe danger of conflagration, to which the sions which are to influence it during the national library is exposed by the vicinity rest of life.” of the treasury, and of the other buildings " Allow me to transport you for an which surround it; but especially by that instant into those places, inceisantly preof the theatre of arts. Qur fellow-member fcut to my memory, which nature seeins

of age:

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1799.]
Anecdotes of eminent Persons.

383 to have embellished to serve for'a model dying in the midst of these pastimes; they to the fine arts, among that people always were obferving the Itrongly inclined attigreat, although then in a state of sub- tude, the velocity, the beautiful display jection; and whole magnanimity, never of the muscles, the enchanting grace of totally ftified by despotisin, ftill manifetted this divine player. I heard them exclaim itself in its ceremonies, in its fpectacles, around me : ah! qu'il ejt beau ! qu'il est in its festivals, and even in its public superbe ! C'est le gladiateur, voila le glagames.”

diateur !" How beautiful! how fuperb! “ In the fine part of the season, the in- 'Tis the gladiator, see the gladiator! On habitants of Rome fometimes reforted to the return of each movement, which was the Vatican, or on the Quirinal, about repeated every time that he threw his ball a most extensive area ; here they enjoyed the first, they constantly re-echoed the a spectacle which its resemblance to those same acclamation." of the antient Romans ennobled to my “ This striking observation leads to a view. Select men, remarkable for their very simple reasoning: if the most natural beauty and gracefulness, hurled to a very attitude of a beautiful man, an excellent great distance a ball, which other players player, throwing the ball, resembles fo threw back with no less dexterity than perfectly the pretended Borghese gladiforce. But among those whom the favour ator, why not this figure represent a of the acclamations distinguished the most, player at ball ?" a beautiful man, a native of Pesaro, had New matter for conje&ture, new subjects by much the pre-eminence."

of exultation are preparing for the ama“The elegant proportion of his body was teurs of antiquity and of the fine arts; not concealed by his garments; he was they may rely, with coufidence, on the almost naked. The multitude, transported bravery of the army of Italy; and the at the vigorous and unexpected percussions King of Naples, by his raih aggression, of the Pelarese, made the air refound with seems to have intended himself, that the a cry of universal joy. The young elèves, antiquities of the museum at Portiçi my fellow-students in the arts, were stu- should follow to Paris those of the capitol.

CUSTINES.

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ANECDOTES OF EMINENT PERSONS. Interesting and Original Anecdotes of the remember those events will do justice to

French Revolution ; to be continued in a this assertion. regular series from its commencement to When the American war extended itthe present period, and including its secret -felf to France, Cuftines parted with his history.

regiment of cavalry, in order to cominand

a regiment of infantry on the other side W

AS Custines, who was condemned of the Atlantic. This exchange, which

and executed as a traitor, really excited forne furprise, was, in fa&, no 2 traitor ? Was he a culprit or a victim? great facrifice; and was attended by conThis is a question which still remains un- sequences that exhibited him in no very decided.

favourable point of view. He had the Descended from a rich and illustrious misfortune to wound the honour of an family, colonel of a regiment of dragoons, officer of small fortune, who was a capwhich bore his name, as it had before tain in his own regiment, and who de

borne his father's, he enjoyed fome de- manded satisfaction. Out of prudence, i gree of confideration before he had done or for some other reason, Custines had

any thing to deserve it ; the reputation the still greater misfortune to refuse it, of the father being, as it were, reflected or rather to promise it only on his return upon the son. What the one had done to France. The captain, in despair, Mot in Hanover, was, through ignorance, at- himself. The ruin of this officer, who tributed to the other, who was not then was much esteemed by his brethren in

old enough to perform any memorable arms, excited so much indignation in all i act. Nor was there much better foun- the officers of the regiment, that they

dation for the addition be made to his tore off the colonel's epaulettes upon the military reputation, by taking Spires, parade. The court thought proper to Worms, and Mentz ; cities which, as take no notice of this event; but it reevery one knows, were not defended, and mained a terrible stain upon the character before which it was only necessary for his of Cuftines. army to thew itself. The persons who Several years after, on his return to

France,

France, he was guilty of an action which When Cuftines had succeeded to Luk. favoured at once of cruelty and military ner, in the command of the army of the despotilin.-- In the vicinity of Treves is Rhine, he advanced as far as Mentz, an abbey of Metloch, the presentation to driving before him a handful of Austrians. which became at that time an object of dif- The magistrates of that city, alarmed at pute. By right, and immemorial usage, his appearance, opened their gates to it belonged to the bishop; but some in- him, and these conquests, as easy as rapid, trigans, who wished to create a place for were followed by the entrance of the a favourite, persuaded the court of France French into Frankfort. to arrogate to itself the nomination of the The King of Prussia had not yet made abbot; and troops were sent to live at peace. He was indeed disposed to do so, free quarters upon the monks. Custines, by the representation of the Duke of who had received no orders, repaired Brunswick, by the ruin of his army on thither, and brought back, in irons, the the frontiers of Champaign ; and, above bailiff of Bouzonville, whom the German all, hy his hatred against the House of abbot had taken for his defender. Besides Austria, and his views of aggrandizethe injultice of this conduct, there was ment on the side of Poland. But Frank. much inhumanity, in bringing into the fort and Mentz, in the hands of the midst of his family, in to ignominious a French, inspired him with well-founded manner, a worthy man, who had grown alarm; and he took measures for the reold in an honourable employment, and covery of those two cities. It is no more who was the father of two Cheyaliers de than justice to Custines, to say, that he Saint Louis. This action appeared fo had provided some of the means requisité abominable to the Count de Broglie, for his maintaining himself in Mentz, commandant of the city of Mentz, that, particularly by adding to the fortificaafter having put Custines under an arrest, tions of a city already strong by nature, he accompanied the bailiff of Bouzonville and capable of sustaining a long fiege. to Versailles, where he assisted him in ob- He took a pleasure in calling it the tomb taining justice.

of the Germans; and from that place it The authenticity of these two facts was that, in imitation of Dumourier, he may be depended on. They do very addressed to the legislative body a number little honour to the moral character of of letters, which were far from being Cusțines : they discover a haughtiness of honourable to the general's modesty. In mind, and an asperity of dispolition; and like manner, Dumourier, after the defeat ferve, in fome degree, as an explanation of the Prussian and Austrian armies, of his political life.

wrote to the Convention, that in a short When the command of the army of the time he would go and beat the enemy, Rhine was given to Lukner, Custines re- and drive him out of Flanders. ceived orders to take possession of the de- Perhaps this rage for writing, comfiles of Porentrui, in order to keep out mon to the two generals, proceeded no less the Austrians, who might from thence from policy than from the natural vanity have over-run Alsace and Franche-Comté. of their disposition. It may at least be Cultines followed the example of Du- faid, that it raised the spirits of a people mourier, who had just refuted to obey who had been menaced upon all their La Fayette's orders, under the pretence frontiers ; and, by increasing our hopes, of patriotism. Whatever his motive probably increased the means of realizing might be, he paid no attention to those them. But both of them, after a shortof Lukner.

lived blaze, saw the glory disappear by The consequence of this disobedience which they had been environed; one of was in both instances the same. The two them losing himself in the crowd of those mutineers were ordered to supersede those who have conspired against their country, whose commands they had not chosen to and the other, though perhaps not cul

Cultines, indeed, did not per- pable, perishing as if he had done the severe in his refuial: he took poffellion fame. of the defiles without meeting with any

The firft affront that Custines' fortune opposition; but it was not till after he had met with was the fource of twenty others, received repeated orders from Paris. An which tarnihed the glory of his ‘arms, opportunity will occur more than once, of and led hiin to the block. It was at making a comparison between these two Frankfort his disasters began; and, unmen, both of whom made so great a fortunately for his reputation, it appears figure in the early part of the revolu- that he was neither wife enough to foretion.

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1799.)
Anecdotes of. Custines.

385 fee, nor to prevent them. When the premeditated treachery, The defection gates of that city were opened to him, he of Dumourier had laid all Belgium open placed there a garrison of three thousand to the enemy ; several of the frontier towns men; and, no doubt, they would have were taken or belieged; the Prussians adfufficed to defend that advanced polt, vanced towards Mentz with a powerful which covered Mentz, if he had taken army; and all the other frontiers were the precaution necefsary for their safety. menaced. What was to be done in these But, instead of doing so, he abandoned critical circumstances ? The Convention the arsenal and the police to the magif- thought it advisable to give no entertaintrates; so that his troops rather resembled ment to the fufpicions of which he was foreigners, whio received municipal hos- the object; either because it did not think pitality, than military force, whose eye them well. founded, or because it rtally and arm ought constantly to watch over thought Custines a inan capable of saving and protect the general safety:

the republic. After those ill-contrived precautions,

Cuitines, foon after, wrote a second he returned to Mentz, and employed him- letter to that affembly, more positive than self solely in rendering the fortifications, the first. He complained, that he had more formidable ; but he neglected to been obliged to abatidon Mentz, and take victual it; and did not even know that refuge in the lines of Weitsemburg; his fifty thousand Pruslans were advancing army, he said, having narrowly escaped upon Frankfort ; the garrison of which being destroyed in its i'etreat. The cause was surprised, and cut to pieces almost of this he attributed to general Legnebefore his face : for, the report of their ville, who had left the back of the Volges Sudden march having at length reached destitute of defence. And whence did his ears, he had hastened with a handful this enormous fault proceed ? He ascribed of men to the foot of the ramparts, whence it to the minister of war ; to that Bourhe could hear the cries of the unfortunate nonville, laid he, of whose military for, Frenchmen who were massacred within. tune I was the maker. This disastrous event, the eternal oppro- Custines, while speaking thus, had bium of Custines, bears a striking re

no reason to fear that Bournonville should semblance to the ruin of the troops in can- repel the charge ; for, moit assuredly, he tonments upon the Roer, when Dumou- was not ignorant of Duinourier's having rier, stationary in the Batavian moraíses, given up that minister to Prince Cobourg; was ignorant, or feigned to be ignorant, nor of that jocular expreilion so often reof the rapid iarch of the enemy's arıny peated since : Water for the Commissincrs upon a part of his own, which was trid of the Convention ; bilt let my frieni Bour. down and cut to pieces, while he was non ville have wine. What could be hastening to its support. Failing in this, Cuitines' view in complaining so bitterly he endeavoured to corrupt it. Let us now of a man, who was then deprived of all see what Custines did in an occasion ex- means of defence? What other, than the actly limilar.

justifying by this pretence his evacuation On his return to Mentz, he wrote to of Mentz, where, however, he had left, he the Convention, that the suspicions which faid, a respectable force ? Another mis. had been raised against him, no longer fortune to excuse was his having been beat permitted him to reconcile the services he in his retreat, as he had been before under owed to the republic with what was due the walls of Frankfort. to bis own honour ; but, that, still de- Whatever were the motives that acvoted to the cause he had embraced, he tuated Custines he perfifted in pressing his would serve it in any other place in relignation more strongly than ever. which the Convention might think pro- the same time, he continued to offer his per to enıploy his zeal. His letter pro- services to the Republic, and the Conven. duced in the Assembly the effect he had tion; leaving them to chuse the manner doubtless foreseen-a request that he would in which they would employ him, either despise the suspicions of which he com- as Dictator, or under any other name that plained.

might appear suitable. The critical situation of France at that Scandalous, as was this title, endea. time, on the side of Belgium, did not vours were used to make the ears of the permit the Convention to accept Cultines' Convention familiar with it. This tiine, tefignation ; either because it feared him, however, more violent suspicions arofe in or did not yet perceive his secret views, many minds; but the Convention still or his want of capacity, which was at- fut its eyes; and as Men'z app'aled tefted by the loss of Frankfort; supposing likely to stop the Prullians for several that difater not to liave been the effct of months, Cultines was appointed to the MONTHLY MAC, NO, XLV.

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