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trine and the objection to it.--All our surface a general air of elegance; and more feeble impressions or ideas are the from the acuteness of his inind, detect copies of our more lively and immediate errors, inconsistencies, and abfurdities in impressions. The idea of cause is derived the popular opinions, as in his exquisite froin no tingle instance of the operation of dialogues, the sceptic, &c. yet that from bodies, but from a succession of them, the want of close and correct thought, or which produces a new impression of ac- not having the habit of attending minutely customed connection. And this impression to the meaning of words (which means is the parent of the idea of necessary con- the same) he was not able to write with nection--thus far Mr. Hume. But, says that precision and correctness which can Mr. Richter, acccustoined connection and satisfy the learned critic or the subtle dif. neceffary connection are essentially dif- putant. ferent; hence we have an idea which is Whilst then I allow that Mr. Richter not a copy of a previous impression. Now has in ftri&tness refuted Hume, I must though I am satisfied with this reasoning, I oppoie the spirit of his argument. For amn by no means contented with the general the assertion by Hume, that all our ideas inference which Mr. RICHTER forms; are copies of our impressions, is in fubfor he firit identifies Hume's theory with stance the same as the generally received the whole body of our national metaphy- notion that all our ideas are derived from ficks, and thence deterinines that as our the senses. Let us dismiss for the present own nation contains no “ reasonable and Hume's distinction between impressions confiitent theory” of the origin of ideas, and ideas, and adopt one that promises a we should have recourse to the system of clearelucidation.“Sensations, perceptions, a the famous German profellor Kant. and ideas, are the changes produced in When I conlider the general character of the interior organ by the impreßions on Kant's Philosophy, and that is expressly the exterior organ. Thele changes established on the notion of innate ideas * considered in themselves are called fenI am anxious to thew that we are not sations; when the interior organs perdriven to the necefkty of revising the ceives them, they are termed precepburied controverfies of the lait century, tions, and they are called ideas when the and that we need not raise the spirit of interior organ refers these changes to the antient metaphysics wbich the powerful objects producing themt." I have an wand of Locke has been thought to have idea of necessary connection at this mofor ever laid.

ment, that I am enquiring into the obGrossly and indiftin&tly examined, the ject that produced it. But when first ex. philosophy of Hume nearly resembles that cited, it was only a perception, that is, (as taughe in the school of Hartley, and the in propriety all ideas are) an involuntary modern French philosopers. But the change in my internal organ, produced character of his writings does not autho- by the transmission of a fentation by the rise their being the representative of the external to the internal organ, and there modern school. In felicity of definition, modified by all the associated previous in familiar illustration, and in perspicuity sensations which that organ had received. of narrative, we must in candou allow It is reasonable that the perception of the preference to our continental neigh- cause should not be generated by the firft bours; but their works are more specious instance of coexistence or succession of than profound, they rather state plausibly event; but by a repetition of such instances, than prove skilfully; and though they But Mr. Hume has unhappily accounted fatisfy the willing tudent, they are not for it. " There is nothing in a number rich in that variety and depth of proof of instances different from every single which the sceptic requires. "Hartley, on infiance which is fupposed to be exačily the contrary, with few exterior extractions, similar, except only that after a reseis at once profound and folid : he fur- tition, the mind by habit expects," nisbes an arinoury offensive and defensive, &c. Now in truth, every instance is and the minute detail of proof which he really different, in the same manner as displays, makes a permanent impression. if two persons are taken to a view which Of Hume, I fear, that in spite of his one of them has seen formerly, or in landpast renown, a levere analysis will dif- scape, his sensation simply in itself, though cover, that though, from the influence of complex in its causes, will be very dif. much taste, lie could diffuse over a broad ferent from that of him to whom the ob.

ject was altogether novel. If it is asked,

when, and in what manner, this percep* See Dr. Beddoes' very excellent citay on the Naturs Dencuffratite Ezidence.

#Systenic de la Nature.

tion

that term.

1799.)
The Origin of the Idea of Cause.

377 tion is excited, I answer, that the celerity afide; because it seems to imply a distinc. of all intellectual associations justifies our tion in nature ; whilst the definitions of supposing that it takes place very early the French philofopher establish distinctions in life, long before the term itself could which are purely relative, and founded on be made intelligible. A child, for instance, different views of the same subject; and kicks a ball, it rolls, he lays his hand do not clath in the least with BERKELEY : upon it, and it stops. An obscure per- and if this objection were not fatal, the ception of cause or necessary connection arrangement would be found imperfect, rises in his mind, and, like the gradual applying only to those ideas of fentation perception of objects at day break, his which may be faintly excited in the ab. organs are slowly quickened, till he sees fence of the original external object. But clearly and distinctly all around him. the impression of necessary connection have One of the great axioms of modern philo- ing arisen from an external cbject, similfophy is, that general terms are not ex- lated with a mind impregnated with certain pressive of any particular idea, but that previous impresions, it ever remains an. they are calculated to call up or excite in- impression, loting by reflection none of its differently many distinct ideas. In the original force and liveliness, and thereabstract we can have no idea of caule, but fore never becoming, in Mr. Hume's from our earliest infancy we have had sense, an idea. frequent experience of what is fignified by But Mr. Hume, though sometimes ac

The child is very loon made quainted with the law of association, desensible that he must stoop to pick up his nies that the external objects excite the toy, and that if he does not grasp his idea of cause. It would exceed the limits hand it will fall; this perception is fuf- of a paper to review his 7th section. Those ficiently explained by the law of associ- who examine it, will find, that he has ation, which establishes the connection in grossly confounded the perception of a idea between the end to be attained and connection in fact, between certain events, the means to be employed. This great as the sense of pain after blows : with a truth Mr. Hume has endeavoured to state, knowledge of that energy in nature by but with an inaccuracy which alone gave which the conection is preserved, such as his opponent a decided fuperiority. "We the occult principles of animal irritation “ then feel a new sentiment or impression, and fenfation, operating, through the to wit, a customary connection in the supposed agency of the nerves: a know“ thought;" and then observes, that ledge which is beyond the limits of huthis suggests the idea of necessary connec- man intellect. tion. Now, though it was a customary Left Mr. RICHTER should reply that connection in fact which produced the there is still a distinction between an uniconnection in thought, yet, in the mind of formly experienced connection and a necefthe child, the custom or habit of the con- sary connection ; I would remark, that nection formed 'ho part of the perception the necessity in future is suggested inor rather sensation. The idea that it did, cessantly to the child, by the frequent ccsupposes much superfluous and uncauled cation for renewed efforts in his little occureflection. The connection was at first per- pations, and in the obstacles attending his haps faint and unconscious, and as it grew, exertions. And, that when once necesreceived additional and supplemental cir- fity in individual cases is apparent, it .cumstances, such as the idea of the cause fuppofes no greater exertion of what is of its own existence. From the great popularly called aflive power, than all law of association, by which the ap- theories allow; to extend in thought such pearance of one object excites in the mind necellity to part events : and finally by a the idea of others connected with it, and train of simple and demonftrative reasonalso revives sensations (excited by those ing, to arrive at one of the most valuable objects) which are not by any one sup- truths in philosophy, the subjection of posed to be copies of any thing external, the intellectual as well as the inaterial have arisen all ideas of reflection; and it world to the irrelistible laws of necessity. has ultimately given birth, in a being It may seem that I have not reasoned, purely passive and mechanical, to that but rather afferted, in these remarks; but series of motions the vigour, rapidity, argument must in all cases termina te in and fortunate connections of which, pro- the assertion of facts, which those who duce the sublime energies of the POET hear them, will variously receive as they and the PHILOSOPHER.

agree with their own observation. He But however, Hume's distinction be- reasons best, who appeals to the facts molt ween impressions and ideas muit be t' rown generally admitted ; and on that ground MONTHLY MAG. NO. XLV.

I hare

3 C

I have little fear in submitting these stric. verle; round which the fun, moon, and tures to the disciples of Locke, Hartley, fars, annually revolved. This, said he, and Horne TOOKE.

as Mr. MARTIN in!ormed us, coincides

SINBORON. with the account Moses gives of the creaP. S. Excuse a sentence of egotism : the tion-with the pfalms of David also-and Anti-jacobin mif-states whilst he compliments with the interdiction, that Joshua laid on this signature by ascribing it to the author of the fun at Gibeon, and on the moon, in the valuable and intereiting “ History of the valley of Ajalon. English Wars."

Breakfast being over, we refolved to

become eye witnesses ourselves, of Mr. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

MARTIN's new diicoveries. Our vifi. SIR,

tors declared, they would not grudge a I

CANNOT help congratulating the second thilling a piece, to support the

world, through the medium of your cause of truth againit error, and would miscellany, on the probable overthrow of accompany us, therefore, immediately to that enormous ufurpation in science, Leiceiter-fields. which has so long prevailed, under the name of the Newtonian system of the uni- nation, we beheld, standing at the corner

Having reached the place of our destiVerle ; and by a cause, too, which one

of a street, a kind of herald of this new. could not fuppofe adequate to the effect. born icience ; with a placard, fastened to As I was breakfasting very lately with

a barber's pole *; amouncing to the puba friend, two reputable tradelmen of Lon- lic, in capital letters, the confutation of the don' were introduced into the room-a

Newtonian system of the universe ! This father and his son--both, as I was inform

at first startled me, for I could hardly ed, sensible, industrious, and wealthy: suppose to much fire could evaporate The old gentleman was the very picture of into linoke: and even the honest citizen urbane good nature, but better acquainted was forced to apologize for Mr. MARTIN, with the price of stocks and trade, than by saying, " that conscious ability and with philosophy. The ton bad made fonie inerit would sometimes bear down a few little progress in science; having bought scruples of modefty." an air-pump lately, and dabbled a little

We entered, impatiently, the apartment in chemistry: he seemed, however, as I of the aftronomer; in the middle of which, thought, to possess something of the pin- we beheld his famous epitome of the uni. gue ingenium, of the father.

verse.

As he took a kind of wand and « Tis all over !" cry?d the old gentle. prepared to give his lecture, my imagiman, as he entered.--" A discovery has nation pictured the shades of Galileo, been made, which brings to light strange Kepler, Copernicus, and Newton, tremthings indeed!

Many a reputation, bling for their immortality, and hovering which is now high, will soon be shaken!” about in all the agonies of exploded imMy friend and I thought fome dangerous pofition, and posthumous disgrace, plot againit the state had been discovered :

The earth, as had been described to us, --but he proceeded---“ Newton is con

was pointed out in the center of the unifuted by an ingenious, self-taught af- verfe ; moving on an axis perpendicular tronomer, whose name is Martin ! He to the plane of the equator. To preserve has, an exhibition in Leicester-fields; the inequality of day and night, the sun which I saw yefterday, or I could not

was ingeniously contrived to move in the have believed it. My, fon saw it too. plane of the ecliptic. The fixed stars, he --- Every thing is as plain, as that two

told us with Hibernian precision, moved and two make four!"

in circles, parallel to the plane of the We were very glad to find that our equator : the diameters, however, of their aların was groundless ;---and began to

orbits round the earth, being greater than persuade our visitors, that the mathematic that of the fun, no inconvenience took Cal demonstrations of Newton, on which place from this incongruity of motion. his system was founded, were not in such The fun and noon were reprefented as two great danger of being confuted, as they fatellites of the earth---the planets, as fupposed. It was all in vain; the idea satellites of the tun. In this lystem, the had taken too deep root in their minds to be easily eradicated. We then enquired * Mr. MARTIN was formerly a barber, but what were the distinguishing features of thinking it more casy to become a fyftemMr. MARTIN's fyftem ? the cld gentle. monger, than to shave hard beards, formed man answered, to the best of his recollection, at once, the bold resolution of attacking the that the earth was in the centre of the uni. Newtonian philosophy.

orbits

1799.] Attempt to refute the Newtonian System.

379 orbits of the inferior planets, Venus and fides and angles? Here, I am sorry to say, Mercury, intersect the orbit of the sun our lecturer was quite at a lots; and round the earth ; 'but those of the superior though he could talk very fluently of eclipones, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and the tics, poles, and equators, he knew nothing Georgian Sidus, extend beyond. It was of trigonometry; nor consequently, of objected to this theory, that when the parallaxes. The honest citizen and his earth intervened between the sun and a tu. son shook their heads; nor did the high perior plonet, its greater attraction would polish of the brass circles, or the number deprive the fun of his attendant; and in and beauty of the wheels, attract any this manner all the superior planets, in longer their complacent regards. time, would become, like the sun himself, Our attention was now called to another satellites of the earth. Our lecturer ex. part of the room, where the flux and retricated himself froin this difficulty, by flux of the tides were explained. Unforthat felicity of invention, which is the tunate Aristotle, why didst thou not live true token of genius. In my system, says to see our days, and save thyself from the he, there is no attraction ; for in the various martyrdom of ignorance !-A glass sphere densities of ether, which surround 11s, was here exhibited, nearly filled with wa. every body finds its own level :---thus the ter, and inade to turn round on an axis, like earth, moon, and sun, have stationed them- the earth in the center of the universe ; felves; and as for the stars, they may be which it was meant to represent. If, in compared to cork or feathers, that Hoat the forementioned orrery, the works of on the surface of the universal Huid. I nature appeared intricate and confused; in thought the elucidation quite sufficient, this machine, by way of atonement, I but he proceeded, ---fire, air, and water, fuppose, they were beautifully fimplified. confirm my.doctrine !

Observe, said the lecturer, as he turned it Admirable conjecture ! said I to myself, round, how the water uniformly finks to revolving in my mind these lines the bottom, and retreats from the top !Ignea convexi vis, et fine pondere cæli

this is the whole theory of tides. An in

tination was thrown out, that as water Emicuit, fummaque locum fibi legit in arce. Proximus eft aër illi levitate, locoque.

thewed such a disposition to defcend, and Denfior his tellus, elementaque grandia traxit, the earth was equally devoid of a glass Et pressa est gravitate sui. Circumfuus humor cafe, as it was of attraction, there was Ultima poffedit, folidumque coercuit orbem. some danger on his plan, of the ocean's How great wits sometimes jump together! running of into infinite space, and inThis man certainly never read either San- undating the sun, moon, and stars. To choniathon, Trismegistus, or Ovid; yet this, our lecturer replied, that the ether he thinks like them! I am half inclined formed an impenetrable barrier round the to be a Pythagorean!

earth, which kept every thing in its proper He continued his lecture.--- Newton's place. This last fentence caught the philofophy teaches, that the equatorial ears of the already exasperated citizen; poles always point to the north and fouth and he exclaimed vociferously, “ Ether poles in the heavens : now if the earth impenetrable! How the duce then can moves in a position round the fun, vertical your fyltem move? Give me back my to the poles of the ecliptic, how is it pos. money---you are an impostor, I perceive, fible that the poles of the equator should and know no more of aitronomy, than the always point to the fame part of the hea- horse I ride.-My money, I say, or I'll vens? Here the old gentleman smiled. expote you to all the world.” It was asked in reply, if he considered the This was a fally of intemperate resentinfinite distance of those points in the hea- ment ; heightened it fee.ns, by shame and vens, which we called poles ; and the disappointment : and therefore not to be smallness therefore of the annual parallax justified, or excused. But to judge difof the earth's orbit? By his answer, it passionately -Mr. MARTIN, from his was conjectured, that infinite distances pertinacity in argument, his ingenuity in and minute parallaxes, had never entered fubterfuge, and his happy assurance, would into his concepticn. To put the matter be able to defend his lystem, more to the beyond a doubt, it was encuired, if he satisfaction of the world at large, than the knew the properties of a triangle? It was modest Sir Isaac Newton, hould he rise a three corn:red figure: fo is iny hat-but from the dead, as I at first thought there could you, said I, by having two sides of was fome danger of, could his. It is a triangle given, and one angle ; or two highly popular, and encumbered with angles and one side; find out the other neither problem, lemma, nor calculation. I have thus given you our morning's to be. He rightly adds, that this experi. history ; and can only say, 66 meritis ex

ment is very difficult to make, as indeed pendite causam.”

I will venture one it must be, from the very delicate nature hint, on the supposition of the venerable of it. We must suppose that it was often Newton's being ihorn of his honours by repeated, and that the 8{ lines is a medium this bold tontor, and conclude.-Mira- among all the refults. It is to be withed, beau was placed in the pantheon of wor- however, that the duration of the fall had thies, at Paris; but afterwards, on the also been accurately taken, and given us, discovery of demerit, removed, to make along with the other nuinber in the experoom for Marat :-hould not the statue riment. of Sir Ifaac be removed allo from West- Then comes your other correfpondent, minster Abbey, and that of his rival be T.P. from Bath (Number for Feb. p. 26), substituted in its place, with this infcrip- who quite mistakes the nature of the extion underneath?

periment, and thence fets down a collecGod said, let Martin be, ond all was tion of crude and erroneous affertions, light! I am, Sir, &c.

quite beside the purpose. If the earth S. A. have a rotation, on its axis from west to

east, then the body must fall to the eastTo the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

ward of the foot of the tower, not to the

west, as he fancies; and it by experiment SIR,

the body is found to fall eastward from N account would very much oblige, the tower, this will prove the motion of ladelphia, or the correspondent who com

must revolve from west to east ; supposing municated his letter, of the POTASH the body not fenfibly impeded in its fall cakes there mentioned, and the manner of by the resistance of the air. For, the body making them.

can only fall straight down in the perpenNone of the contaĉts of MERCURY, in dicular direction, when the earth has no passing over the sun's DISK, were observ- diurnal rotation. When the earth has a ed here on the 7th, on account of the al. motion, then ihe body is a&ted on by two must continual cloudiness of the sky. He forces; that of gravity, in the perpendiwas observed occasionally, during very cular directiori, and that of the earth's short intervals of a clear íky, from about motion, in a horizontal direction from the the middle of the TRANSIT to near the top of the tower ; in which case it is well end. I remain

known, that the real path of the body is I roston, near Bury, Your's &c. in an oblique direction; from whence it 17 May, 1799.

CATEL LOFFT. happens, that the body would fall just at Instead of “ necessary,” in my former let- the foot of the tower, if the tower moved ter, (p. 267) be so good to read “s unnecessary.” with a parallel mo

B

tion, from A B to To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine,

DE; but, by reason

A

of the circular rotaSIR,

ET

tion, the top of the OUR correspondents, in several num- tower moves fafter

A

D

lany, have very commendabiy employed former having retheinselves in amuling and edifying the volved through ED, publicon the curious ipeculation itartedby while the latter moves the astrononer LALANDE (in the Num- only through AF, ber for Nov. p. 328), concerning the fall and the tower having come into the posiof heavy bodies from great heights; but tion DF, when the body falls at the foine of them have much mistaken the na- point E, by the distance EF before, or ture of the experiment, and the calcula- eastward, of the tower. ţion from theoryLALANDE mentions Next, in the Number for March, p. 96. the result of the experiment, as communi- W. S. of Derby, with a proper idea of cated by his correipondent at Boulogne, the experiment, very neatly and nicely in Picardy: He says the body was diop- explains the nature of it; and in a ped from the top of a tower, of 247 feet few words corrects the crude ideas of in height; that the body fell lines to T. P. the eastward of the tower's bottoin, or of Lastly, in the Number for May, p. 272, the plumb line; and that theory gives Edmontoniensis, seeming to be inuch pleafed only 5 lines for the quantity that ought with the explanation of W. S. institutes a

calculation

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