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1799.) Personifications in Poetry.

371 A book that was both lign' and seal'd with There are several more lines of this deblood,

scription ; but enough has been quoted Wherein dark things were writ, liard to be

to give an example of that injudicious acunderstood.

F. 2. i. 10.

cumulation of emblems, by which a fi. This is religious Faith, The glory gure is rather overwhelmed than illufabout her head, her

trated. white

pure garments, and her mysterious book, are all symbols

LIBERTY has frequently received the derived from religion. The golden cup homage of poets, especially of British of wine and water, containing a wreathed

ones; but few have exercised their fancy serpent, is intended, I presume, as an em

in painting the object of their adoration. blem of the eucharilt.

She is generally represented as a goddess, Milton characterizes Faith by the epi- fair and majestic, but distinguished by thet of pure-eyed, when addressed by the scarcely any emblematical accompanyvirgin in Comus, as one of her guardian ments. Formerly she bore the wand and attendants.

cap, employed by the Romans as symbols The antient portraiture of Truth was

in the emancipation of flaves; but Thoma female figure, beautiful, plainly clad, fon, with propriety, rejects these tokens, but shining with peculiar fplendour. Ad

when he describes her as the guardian dison, in his ingenious allegory of “ True deity of Britain. and False Wit, adheres to this simple man- -Methought, the fair majestic power ner of painting: He chiefly distinguishes Of Liberty appear’d. Not, as of old, the Goddess of Truth by the “ bright Extended in her hand the cap and rod, light” effused from her, the effect of which Whose Nave-enlarging touch gave double life; was such, that the figure of falsehood gra

But her bright temples bound with British dually melted away to nothing in her

oak, presence.

And mural honours nodded on her brow. The same idea, expressed with more

Sublime of port ; loore' 'o'er her shoulder

flow'd brilliancy, constitutes the essence of Mr.

Her sea-green robe, with constellations gay. Mason's portraiture of Truth.

An illand-goddess nuw; and her high care So Truth proclaims. I hear the sacred found

The queen of ines, the mistress of the main. Burst from the center of her burning throne,

Liberty, i. 25. Where aye The fits with star-wreath'd lustre

This is a striking figure, but not fuf. crown'd;

ficiently dilcriminated; for in the island A bright sun clasps her adamantine throne. goddels, we lose the peculiar features of


Liberty. The learned Jonson, however, has not

A vision of Addison's likewise presents been contented with this simplicity of de. a sublime image of this personage, but an lineation ; for, in one of his masques, he indistint one. draws the following picture of Truth,

" I beheld the goddess sitting upon a throne. which, as a specimen of a particular man

She had nothing to enclose her, but the bounds ner, I think worth presenting.

of her own dominions; and nothing over her

head out the heavens. Every glance of her Upon her head she wears a crown of stars,

eye cast a tract of light where it fell, that Through which her orient hair waves to her

revived the spring, and made all things smile waist,

about her.”

Tailer, No. 161. By which, believing mortals hold her fast, And in those golden cords are carried even

He afterwards, with classical propriety, Till with her breath the blows them up to

marks out the genius of a commonwealib, heav'n.

by the cap and wand ; alluding, as well to She wears a robe enchas'd with cagles eyes, the most famous of all republics, as to the To lignify her fight in mysteries;

characteristic of democratical governUpon each shoulder fits a milk-white dove,

ments, the levelling of all distinctions of And at her feet do wily serpents move : rank. Her spacious arms do reach froni caft to west,

When Milton, in his L'Allegro, called And you may see her heart shine thro' her

Liberty " the mountain-nymph," he ra. breast : Herright hand holds a fun with burning rays: reitrained air and somewhat rustic fpirit

ther, I suppose, had in his mind, the unHer left a curious bunch of golden keys, With which heaven's gate the locketh and

of freedom, as respecting the intercourse displays

of society, than the tendency of moun. A crystal mirror hanging at her breast,

tainous situations to favour political By which mens' consciences are fearsh'd and liberty,

3. A. rack'd, &c.

(To be conti sued.)


TOUR OF ENGLAND. deed all the buildings, are quite modern (Continued from page 291.)

in appearance: and 'the rigging of the

vefels looks like a wood behind the town. Journal of a 'Tour through almost every county - Many of the streets of this town ‘are

in England, and part of Wales, by Mr.JOHN Housman, of Corby, near Carline; who very narrow, which is the more remarkwas engaged to make the Tour by a gentle. able, as they are mostly of a modern date. man of distinction, for the purpose of col. There likewile seems to have been very lecting authentic'information relative to little regularity in the planning of the the state of the poor. The Journal com- town.--- Near the exchange, however, and prises an account of the general appearance in the higher parts of the town, there are of the country, of the soil, surface, build- fome plealant and airy streets.---Most of ings, &c. with observations agricultural, the buildings are very good : the warecommercial, &c.

houses near the water fide are supposed to COVEMBER 26, Chester, to the be the highest in England.---An account Thire, eighteen miles.-A level country, ping, of Liverpool, would require almost and a strong foil : roads very bad, parti- a volume, as well as a long residence on cularly in wet weather. I observed no the spot. Suffice it is to say, that it now commons in this district; the inclosures ranks as the second commercial port in seem old ; farms and fields small; the the kingdom, and it possesses a large share average rent of land abont 255. per acre ; of the West India, and almost the whole and the size of farms, mostly between 201. of the African trade. and 100l. a year. The land is almost November 30, 1 returned from Liver. wholly in grass, and applied to the pur- pool to Warrington in Lancashire, eighposes of dairying:--A few trees appear in teen miles.---This is Warrington iair hedges. I passed some rocky hills on the day, or rather the first day of the fair, as right; much red freestone rock on the it lasts several days, and draws here a road; yet the buildings are mostly of great concourse of people. The fhew of brick, and thatched; but tolerably good. cattle was great, and the animals very From this road I had a view of the river good : they were of the Lancashire breed, Mersey, which, towards Liverpool is very a species of cattle, which I think is not broad, and divides Cheshire and Lanca- exceeded, if cqualled, in England, except fhire. The Duke of Bridgwater's canal in Leicestershire. Warrington is a great passes close by the village of High Wal- thoroughfare, and contains 8790 inhabi. ton; near which place an aqueduct tants. Sail cloth is much manufactured conveys the water and its contents, over here. The town stands on a level fertile the road. This canal goes between Man- plair, by the side of the Mersey, but most chester and Liverpool, and is said to be a of the streets are very narrow and dirty. very lucrative one.-Cheshire is much December 1. Warrington to Mannoted for its fine cheese, which is sent to chester, 18, miles.---A level country, and all parts of the kingdom ; its pastures a pretty good foil : the fields small, and are very luxuriant and cattle good. I did mott of the lands in pasturage for cows. not see many sheep in this county; and I observed a few small pieces of woodthose I saw were of the small forts.--. It land, chiefly oak: the road excellent. is wholly a farming county; and here that on the left hand side a peat moss was in character, the farm monopolist, so much view for 6 or 7 miles : it is now, I uncomplained of in the south, is scarcely to derstand, under the hands of the drainer, be heard of.

and is expected to be made very profitable Nov. 27, went from High Walton to ground, of the success of which I have Liverpool in Lancashire, by way of War- no doubt. Peat moss is susceptible of rington, 23 miles.---The road very fine; greater improvements than any other fpecountry low, and quite level ; fields finall; cies of soil --- The cotton manufacture much grass land ; a few trees on hedges; employs thousands of people along this buildings pretty good, and population road : cottages and manufacturing vilgreat. The farmers here make much lages are numerous.-Manchester stands cheese.—Liverpool stands low, and close on a little rising ground, in a fine open to an arm of the sea, which comes up the country: a few of the streets are narrow Mersey, across which one fees fome high and dirty, but the town in general is open, ground on the west corner of Cheshire. airy, clean, and remarkably well built; From this road a traveller has a good it seems also to have been formed on a prospect of the town, at the distance of much more regular plan than Liverpool. about half a mile : the churches, and in. The populaticu is increasing amazingly


Horifman's Tour continued.

373 as well as buildings. Manchester is con- in all its branches. The population in nected with molt parts of the kingdom this neighbourhood is very much won by means of canals : at the commence- the increase. --Farms are finall; frura ment of the present war, it seems to have 541. to 301. a year, and rent of land, 155. had more inhabitants than Liverpool. In to 41. ios. per acre, the average about 1791, it was calculated to contain about

305. 66,000 people; of whom 20,000 were December 8. Went from Bury to Prefemployed in preparing warp and weft cot- ton in Lancashire, 27 miles.-The road, ton: this calculation includes the parish for the most part, very bad: the surface of Salford, which kands on the'west side of generally level, but not without some exthe river, and is connected with Manches- ceptions; the soil inferior to the other ter by good bridges. However, the po- parts of Lancashire I have seen ; the counpulation is now greatly decreased, by the try rather naked, and few trees appear. failure of trade, and the very great num- I pailed several tracts of poor common, ber of men, who enlisted into the army.- and observed some districts apparently in. The manufacturers earn very high wages; closed not long ago.—This road crolles but are teldoon provident enough to lay up the new canal different times ; the people a sufficient stock for old age. There is often leem to make a very flow progress in cutone great inconveniency attending the large ting it; which, report says, is occafioned manufacturing towns, whose population by a went of money. In this day's jourhas increased rapidly: the quantity of bu- ney, I passed through Bolton and Chorley, rying grounds foon becomes too small for both of which are pleasant towns, and the mortality of the place, and renders it carry on the cotton manufactory to a necessary to open the earth before it ought great extent: indeed the country all along to be dug up. This has been the case at iwarms with houses and people.-Pretton Manchester; a grave is made pretty deep, stands pleasantly, is exceedingly well built, and one corpse is laid above another till: most of the houles modern ; many of the it is sufficiently full, and then covered up. streets, and especially the market place, But even that method being found not to are wide and clean ; in short, I have not make room enough in the church yard, seen many towns in the kingdom so agreeanother parcel of ground, a little distance ahle, taken altogether, as this. It confrom the town, was procured for the pur: tains about 7000 inhabitants, two thirds pose of interring the dead: the manner of of whom are employed in spinning, weavdepositing the bodies in this receptacle is, ing, printing cottons, mullins, &c. The however, kill more shocking. A large rent of land in this neighbourhood is square hole is dug, and one coffin laid about 21. to 4.1. per itatute acre; and size upon and beside another, till it is full, of farins, 151. to gol. a year : the land is and then covered with fand: a few boards mostly in patturage, and cows kept thereon. are fastened over this hole during the night December 10. Preston to Lancatter, and part of the day, till the time of the 22 miles.---The country is level in genefunerals, when they are again removed ; ral; pals fome tracts of common; the but I have been told, such is the carelefi- fields are small, and much in grass. The ness of the fextons, that the pigs have road better than in my last day's journey. sometimes uncovered the coffins. The Some parts of this district produces furze land in this neighbourhood is rather hea- plentifully, which is suffered to remain, vy and strong, and lets for about 41. per and thews that manufacture is more attendffatute acre. -Upon the whole, this town, ed to than agriculture.—The population in my opinion, affords as desirable a reli- all along is Itill very great, but rather dence as any large manufacturing town decreases toward Lancaster.

The new I have seen, and the employ it affords, is canal proceeds very slowly, either for want in general lucrative; but the business, as of hands or money.---Lancaster, or a part in other manufactures, is subject to great of it, stands on a noping ground by the fluctuation.

river Loyne: it is well built, and gene. December 6. Manchester to Bury in rally clean; but most of the streets are Lancashire., 9 miles.--This district is narrow, and want regularity. Tlie church something like the last I passed : It is le- and caitle, or goal, ttand together, on a vel; the fields small, and mostly in grass ; hill at the west end of the town; the latter and the country extremely populous in cote has lately undergone a thorough repair. ton manufacturers. Bury is a small, but from this place, an extensive prospect is peat and pleasant manufacturing town, had, particularly to the northward, over containing about 2000 souls. They ma- the Lancaster, Milthrop, and Ulverstone nufacture fonie cloth, but chiefly cotton, lands, Small vessels come up she Logne

PERMIT me to correct

to this town, from the Lee ; but most of article “ hat," in various Encyclopædias, the heavy thips stop a few miles below, as suggested by your correspondent, and fend up their goods in lighter craft. W.H. in your Magazine for Jan. 1799, This town carries on a considerable trade p. 27, I couid not help remarking the very with the West Indies: the manufactures great difference between the accounts, as are trifling; a little tail cloth is made, exhibited in those publications, and also in and something done in cotton printing: the Universal Magazine, for 1750, and the a good many thips are built here, and process of that manufactory at present: I fome excellent cabinet work done. Lan- with any of your correspondents, who are caster contains about soov louis. This hat makers, would give us a regular acwas the last place in my tour, where I count of that business ; for, I inay say proposed continuing the political erquiry, with truth, that the contributors of that and therefore felt Tome inortification on article, in the above publications, have, being denied access to the parish regii comparatively speaking, known nothing of ters, for the first time.

the businefs they took upon them to lay before ( To be continued.)

the public. I find the same account is co

pied, or nearly so, by Priscilla Wakefield, To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. in the 94th and following pages of her SIR,

" Mentol Recreations," 2d edition. The

an error, friend, whose manufactory I went to see, which unintentionally crept into my in confequence of my enquiries, informed letter of February lait, on the antivene- me, that Dr. Aikin, in his “ History of real qualities of the nitrous acid;" wherein I Manchesler,” in the 162d page, of the ttated, that this remedy was recommend- edition of 1795, whilst he is giving an ed to our notice by Mr. William Scott of account of the hat making there, uses this Bombay, whereas, I meant to have said, expression (after informing us, that the Helenas Scott; and I have to acknow- hats are bowed and basoned), he says, ledge my obligations to a lady in Scot- that they are boiled in “ common aftrinland, who has kindly informed me, in gents of native growth.My friend oba letter from Dundee, dated May 1st, that ierved, tirat he did not understand that there is no surgeon, on the Bengal esta- fentence; but it might perhaps be exblishment, of the name of William Scott. plained to him by some of your corresponHatton Gardex Yours, &c.

dents. Pray, Sir, can you inform me, if May 16th, :799. CHARLES Brown.

there be any engines constructed for cutting the fur' from hair, rabbit, or beaver

skins ? To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. Newcastle, I am, Sir, your's, &c.

May 9, 1799.


HE subject of hat making by

engines, Mr. Editor, not being To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. yet noticed by any of your other corre- SIR,

I wish, through medium of your Magazine, to give an answer to one of the queries propoled in the 355th page Itudy of practical, or economical botany, of your

6th volume. In that letter, i alk I have long cherished the design of pubyour correspondents, “ if any engines for lishing a felection of those untranslated that pui pole had been elected ?? I find papers from the Amanitates Academicæ," in the course of my enquiries fince that, which are either connected with, or illusthat at leatt two are at present at work; one

trative of, this interesting department of belonging to Mesrs. COOPER, BIBBY, botanical science. While I was arrangand DoWNAT, al Lea Wood, near Crom- ing the plan of my work, and preparing ford, in Derbyshire ; and the second, the to translate the papers which I had selecta property of Mellis. WELLS and Cha- ed for the purpose, a prospectus appeared TERTON, Brenchly, in Kent; what the from “ a inember of the University of plans are of either of these, or how far they Oxford,” stating his intention of publishgo in the process, I could with to be in- ing a translation * (with modern discoformed through the medium of your mis- veries and improvements,) of the Genera cellany :-it is said, that Mr. Saxton, and Species Plantarum, of Linnæus, which No. 45, Queen Street, Southwark, was to be followed by a supplementary has alio a concern in one; he will, no doubt, oblige some of your correspondents,

* Notice of this work likewise appeared in by his information. Looking over the

the Monthly Magazine, Vol. iii. p. 59.


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3799.) Intended Translation of Amænitates Academicæ. 375 work, explanatory of the properties and places with the other treatises, and peruses of plants, and forming a compre- haps mature consideration might have inhensive system of practical botany; in con- duced me to have gone upon a timilar plan sequence of which latter design, I thought with some of the papers in the above list, proper to suspend my own work till i more particularly in the one intituled, could gain such fatisfa&ory intelligence Plante Officinales, which is barely a litt respecting the other, as would enable me of officinal plants, and mult necessarily, to judge how far our respective under- without some additional observations, takings might clash with each other. As prove extremely uninteresting. As I by a considerable time has elapled since the no means wish to interfere with the design publication of that prospectus, and no of another person, and prior, perhaps, to inaterial progress having been made, as my own, I ain particularly desirous of far as I can learn, in the work, I am at gaining intelligence, both with regard to a loss to conceive whether it has been re- the precise nature of, and progress that linquished from want of patronage and has been made in the work, so long since support, which is too often the case with announced for publication, by a member works of any magnitude and importance; of the University of Oxford, that I may or whether it has been retarded by any have an opportunity of judging whether other accidental or unforeseen circum- it would be expedient to resume my plan, stances. I Thall be obliged, therefore, to or entirely relinquish it. the author, should this letter fall under I was much gratified by observing a his observation, to acquaint me whether translation of Gmelin's edition of the he is still occupied on this undertaking; Syftema Nature, with the subsequent disand, in particular, whether he abides in coveries, announced in your lalt Magahis original intention of publishing a syf- zine, p. 319, and am happy a work of tem of practical botany. That he may this importance has fallen into fuch able form a judgment of the nature and extent hands. As the relpectable author of this of my work, I fubjoin a list of the trea- translation proposes to include the diftises which I had proposed to translate, coveries made since the publication of the previously remarking, that in order to original work, which are both numerous render the work as complete and authen- and interesting, I hope he will, at the tic as possible, each dissertation would have same time, pay particular attention in been enlarged by various additions and correcting the multifarious errors with annotations, illustrative of the discoveries which Gmelin's work, more particularly that have been made since the publication in the botanical departinent, abounds. of the Amanitates Academicæ.

There is likewise an improvement I

would recommend in the translation of Sec. I. MEDICINAL.

this work, and which will not be attend. Vires Plantarum. Plantæ officinales.

ed with much trouble; that is, the sepaMedicamenta purgantia.

ration of the two classes, Icosandria and graveolentia.

Polyandria, which have been so unsysinebrientia.

tematically united by Gmelin. Other Sec. II. ALIMENTARY.

occasional improvements will doubtless Plantze esculentz.

occur to the trantlator in the progress of Macellum olitorium.

his undertaking. Wishing him success Fructus esculenti.

in the execution of it, I remain,

Yours, &c.
Flora economica.

May 10th, 1799.

R. H.C.
Plantæ tinctoriæ.

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

SIR, This, as far as I had arranged it, is the plan upon which I had designed to pro

HAVE long expected that some of I

your metaphysical correspondents ceed. But as there are other papers on would notice Mr. Richters very subtle thele subjects in the valuable collection attack upon Hume's Account of the from which the above are selected, which Origin of our Ideas.(See Monthly Mawould not answer so well in a translation, gazine, vol. iv. p. 533). Not that the and which would likewise increase the literary reputation of Hume, great as it work to a greater extent than I wished, has been, is of vast moment; but that the it struck me as by no means an ineligible enquiry involves the most important topics plan, to have incorporated the informa- in the theory of mind. The following is gion they contained in their respective a very coinprelled statement of Hume's doc


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