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wretchedness; and thus, by an accumu To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. lated weight of forrow, have been afflicted

SIR, , fpair, into a state, both of body and mind, local histories, comprelrending topotoo pitiable to be described; when the graphy, customs, manners, and comexertions of society, in only finding a suit- merce, might be made not only amusing, able occupation for them in the firit pref- but beneficial to society. For this reafure of their difficulties, might have ren son I read, with much pleasure, the acdered them happy and useful to the period count that was given in your Magazine, of mortality.

of last month, of Norwich ; and am enIt was at first intended to confine this couraged to attempt something similar address to the ladies, in favour of those of concerning Bristol. their own sex, who might be in deítitute The praise of science, whether it atcircumstances; wishing, that however ac taches to individuals or communities, ceptable the pecuniary aid and protection ranks among their highest honours. To of the men might be, females should have ' fay of any place, that its traders are the privilege of appeal to females; and rich ; that so many manufactures are thinking it highly desirable that affairs of established there ; and that its ports are so delicate and important a nature should crowded with the ships of various nations, be managed by a committee of females, founds indeed well on the Royal Exand not referred to the other sex, as thoug change; but will not give lasting cele-. women were not the most fit and compe- brity. Had it not been for the Academia tent to the application of their own cha- of Plato, and the Lyceum of Aristotle, rities to their own sex. There is every Athens, with its Piræeus, had long reason to believe that such an institution fince been consigned to oblivion. So, would flourish best beneath the kind and like Athens, when the alventitious cirfostering care of females; and that it cumstances of trade shall be forgotten, would, without suhjecting them to any Bristol will be mentioned with respect by inproprieties, fo acquaint them with the the future historians of literature and gereal condition of their sex, and to call forth nius; and “ Literis verbisque valuerunt,' the tender afsiduities congenial to their be the juft encomium palled on its inniatures, as to produce, in the end, benefits habitants. to society that are at present incalcula It has been remarked, that climate has ble.

great influence in the formation of the The immediate intention of this paper human mind. The region of Attica, we is, through the medium of your valuable are told, was a rocky barren foil, remagazine, to excite the public attention markable for the extreine purity of its to the subject on which it is written, by air-that of Baotia, low and fertile, engaging some of your readers in a cor- having an atmosphere laden with perpe. respondence on it: by which means a plan tual fogs: the Athenians, as might be may be struck out, that may be practic expected, were prightly, acute, and cable for carrying the design into effect. scientific; while the Beotians, like our The writer has been intentionally very Dutch neighbours, were fingular only for general in his propolal, left, immediately opposite endowments. This seems, in entering on the particulars of the plan, by part, to sanction the idea. And what is which no individual in the kingdom, who more natural to suppose, than that perwants fuitable employment, should be fons, born amid wild and romantic sceprecluded from it, the great principle nery, should possess grander conceptions, fiould be lost light of, in the first inttance, and be more alive to the fublime and before the mind should be duly impresied beautiful, than those who have spent all with it, and the attention be occupied in their days on a level, monotonous, and objections and difficulties which might uninteresting moor. If there is any truth arile about some lefser questions of parti- in this remark, few places are better calculars. The writer hopes he shall not be culated ingenuously to affect the mind, disappointed in his expectation of engag- and become the cunabulum of genius, than ing some gentleman or lady in the pro- Bristol. The rocks and woods in its poied correspondence ; and that no lady, neighbourhood exceed, in magnificence, who may acknowledge the importance of almost every thing of the kind in this it, will be discouraged froin presenting to country; while the lofty and extensive in public her sentiments on the subječt. downs of Leigh and Durdham, the difMenurile on Tyne,

tant prospect of the Severn and Wales Afri! 4; 1799.

beyond, with the nearer view of Weston,

Henbury,

E P.

367

1799.]

State of Manners, &cat Bristol. Henbury, Clevedon, and Stoke, constel- poem on Alfred ; in which Blackmore lated with villas, fill the mind with the , failed. The pen of the Poet Laureat is molt serene sensation of pleasure.

also employed on the same subject. I

hope one, at least, will be found to twire -neque enim pecori gratior ullo

a wreath worthy the brow of that imHerba loco eft: aptamque vides pastoribus mortal prince and scholar. umbram,

In the stricter walk of science, the To have such scenes presented to the names of Bowles and Smith, two proeye, is to read the faireft pages of the miling young furgeons of Bristol, delerve Book of Nature, and to experience the richly to be mentioned. Physicians, like mind insensibly opened to every thing the wise politician with respect to disorrefined and elevated. Such, at least, is ders of state, should bestow as much pains their effect on fouls of fine sensibility: on the preservation, as on the cure of difThe croud, immersed in sensuality, and eases. It is their duty to enlighten manblinded with the pursuits of avarice, see kind, an: guard the avenues of life froin these things with the same indifference as

the encroachments of every morbid foe. the oxen that ruminate in their meadows. This point, however, has not been much It was not with such discrimination they laboured by them; and the art of living were viewed by a Chatterton, a More, a judiciously and well, has been locked up Yeartley, or a Southey ; names sufficient among the arcana of medical science. of themselves to rescue Bristol from the Dr. BUCHAN was the first person of any charge of dullness and insipidity ; which respectability, who adopted a work of mecharacter, since the days of Savage, it dical instruction, to the comprehension of has been too much the custom to attri- the world at large. It has proved more bute to this city.

particularly beneficial, in having exThough I have mentioned a few names ploded the mischievous errors of nurses, who have done honour to the place of in the management of young children ; but their nativity, I would not wish to do has a tendency to make persons too much this to the exclusion of others. The their own physicians. Dr. WILLICH, humble name of Bryant should not be in his lectures lately published, has trodforgotten ; who, from a pipe-maker, be- den somewhat in the steps of BUCHAN; came a poet; and has written, if not in but his work posleffes this superior exthe first style of excellence, yet more cellence, that it is calculated more to 'meritoriously than could have been ex. teach the prevention, than cure of diseases. pected from a person of his birth and Every one who can read does himself ineducation. A young man, that is now justice not to péruse this work. Still, no more, of the name of Lovel, who, in however, local and vivâ voce instruction conjunction with Mr. Southey, publihed was wanting to further the spread of mea volume of poems, betrayed evident dical knowledge: and practitioners in marks of a poetical genius. Bristol, per- every town in England would do well to haps, can boast of one of the first Persic follow the example of the aforementioned scholars in the kingdom, in Mr. CHARLES gentlemen, Bowles and SMITH. They Fox, who is likewise an artist of con- have instituted anatomical, dietetic, and liderable eminence. An ardent defire of physiological lectures, to which they pubimprovement in his profesion of land- licly invite persons of either sex to, atscape-painting led him, in the early part tend. The most respectable ladies of of life, to vilit the romantic scenes of the city, waving every objection of falfe Norway and Denmark; through which delicacy and talte, have regularly visited countries he travelled alone and on foot, their lecture room ; where they learnt thé enriching his mind with every thing wor- structure of the human form ; the various thy of notice. This gentleman translated causes of infantine diseases, arising from the poems of Achmed Arbideili; a work the misinanagement of nurses ; and the which has experienced a favourable re- rational way to adapt food to their tenception from the public. In this enu

der organs of digestion. To the intemmeration it would not be proper to omit perate they pointed out, with more than mentioning the name of a printer of this pulpit eloquence, the fatal effects of their city, whose name is COTTLE. He has not indulgences, by presenting to their view only, by the many valuable works he has the scirrhous and disabled organs of the published, raised the reputation of the drunkard. They accurately described the Bristol press, but is himtelf a poet, and process of its effects from the gutta rosea, a considerable patron of men of genius, to gout, atrasarca, dropsy, and death : and, He is now engaged in writing an epic in many instances, by this striking elo

quence,

quence—this argumentum ad hominem— more modern, and built by a patriotic effected a reformation which nothing subscription of the inhabitants, is equally else would have been able to produce. Spacious with the other ; but the book's

I should not forget to notice also a lite- are disposed of in a different manner ; rary surgeon, who has lately published a there being no lateral projections. A galwork of acknowledged utility. It is a lery surrounds all the upper part of treatise on those phagedenic ulcers which the room, except on the side where the are so apt to affect the legs of aged per- windows stand." The books here, which fons; particularly if they have been in, are more modern than those in the first temperate. The cure of these had, ac room, are suffered to be taken out by subcording to the old practice, been tedious fcribers. A committee meet once a month and uncertain ; but the method of treat to regulate the business of the institution. ment recommended in this work, is at The chief librarian, who is the Rev. Mr. once effectual and expeditious. Its au- Johns, has a falary of feventy pounds a thor's name is BAYNTON.

year, and a good house for his residence. The lectures of Bowles and SMITH The sub-librarian is the well known and received the countenance of the celebrated eccentric Mr. GEORGE CATCOTT, who Dr. Bepdoes ; who, though not indige- was remarkable in his younger days for nous to Bristol, ought to be mentioned riding over five inch bridges, clambering as a residentiary ornament, and a promoter steeples, and exploring fubterranean caof every laudable undertaking. It is cer. verns ; since then his name has made a tainly no argument of the want of public conspicuous figure in the diffentions that fpirit in this place, that 12001. have been have taken place among the learned, refubscribed to build a chymical school, over specting the authenticity of Rowley's powhich this father of pneumatic medicine ems. Here, contrary to the practice of is to preside. In this he is assisted by a very his early days, he has taken his stand on ingenious young man of the name of Davy, the terra firma et lata of common sense; who is already known to the public as and, in opposition to the high encomiaftic an author in chymistry. Dr. BEDDOES is flights of poets, and deep researches of engaged also in another confiderable plan, antiquaries, pronounces Chatterton not for erecting a kind of pneumatic hospital the author of these contested poems, but for the cure of pulmonary and other com. merely a transcriber of them. Yet, in plaints. Toward this scheme eighteen spite of his obtufe discernment on this hundred pounds have been subscribed. point, CATCOTT is a inan of singular taThree thousand are necessary to bring it lents. For local memory, and powers of to completion ; neither will it be entered speaking and acting, (wherein he displays upon till that sum is ensured. A work as strong a conception as Garrick perhaps entitled, “ Contributions to Physical and could himself) he is justly admired among Medical Knowledge,” is lately published his friends. As a tribute of repect to by the Doctor ; it is meant to be conti. this last-mentioned excellence of his, the nued as often as fufficient materials can manager of the Bristol theatre gives him be collected ; and bids fair to become a free admission to the rehearsal and play, very useful repository of medical facts, whenever he chooses.

The literary taste of Bristol is not a Perhaps there is no place in England little promoted by the establishment of a where public and social amusements are public library ; conducted, perhaps, on so little attended to as here. From this as liberal a plan as any in the kingdom : circumstance, the inhabitants have been books on either side of every question, ftigmatized with a want of taste, and dewhether of religion or politics, being fcribed as the sordid devotees of Plutus. freely admitted. A subscriber, at first, Another, and more plausible reason may pays five guineas for a ticket, which is be alledged for this fingularity: no place transferable, and a guinea a year after- contains, in proportion to its inhabitants, wards. It consists of two spacious rooms. so many difsenters. These retain much The first is divided on each side into com of the puritanical way of thinking, which partments, by means of screens that pro- prevailed in the days of the first Charles. ject from the sides, leaving an open space Toattend theatrical representations, balls, in the middle, in the manner of the Bod- card or music parties, is to them worse lean at Oxford. This room contains a than vanity: it is a vice. These common valuable collection of ancient authors, centers of attraction destroyed, others are left by the original founder. These are wanting to supply their place, and to connot suffered to be taken out by the sub- verge the scattered rays of society. Union Scribers. The interior room, which is in abftract ideas of religion, is too weak

a bond

1799.]
State of Manners, &c. at Bristol.

369 a bond for the young and gay. And even press. He keeps a very conliderable acathey, who in the first effervescence of reli- demy in the vicinity of Bristol. gious zeal, find themselves delighted with

Within these few years many large Society, who reflectiback the sentiments additions have been made to the city : of their minds ; by continued collision, but, since the war began, the building discover that nothing new can be struck mania has ceased. Its squares exceed in out;-uniformity at length tires ;-fo- beauty and extent any in the kingdom, cial feeling grows languid ;--and at last out of London : and even there it would they retire, each within his own domestic be difficult to find one equal in beauty circle, into a state of contemplative and to Portland square. solitary enjoyment.

But these are the abodes of the rich and In this place is a large and respectable voluptuous. They are cheerful, airy, academy for dissenters, where young men and 1pacious. What a contrast should are educated for the ministry. It was we behold, by turning our eyes to the jail established at first under Dr. Gifford, who of Bristol ! where light and air struggle was the last dissenter in this country, who almost in vain to get admittance. Those fuffered imprisonment for his religious who are deprived of liberty, should still tenets. Many able tutors have presided enjoy the common benefits of nature. over it fir.ce his time ; among whom was the Rev. Mr. Newton, who was the anta

Nec solem proprium natura, nec aëra fecit. gonist of Harwood, known for his tran The abuses in the internal policy of Nation of the New Testament, and a trea- prisons, and errors in their construction, tise on the various editions of the classics. have been lionestly exposed in a work called, Mr. Newton was as much a dissenter from Complaints of the poor," by Mr. G. principle as any man of his time : large Dyer. He has entered into a minute invettiovertures having been made him to gation of the subject; and those who do not enter into the church, which he conscien- admire his political sentiments, may at least tioully rejected. He was remarkable for applaud his benevolent labours, & miti. mildness of manners, liberality of senti- gate by his hints, the sufferings of unforment, and foundness of judgment, and did tunate delinquency. Mr. Howard indeed, honour to human nature. At this academy has gone more at large into this subject; is an excellent library, enriched by the but I doubt in many instances the wisdom donations of many benefactors; among of his regulations, though not the benevowhom Dr. Lewellin is the chief. He leit lence of his intentions. also two exhibitions to the University of The same objections apply to the hor. Aberdeen. The library of Mr. Newton pital for the poor, as to the jail. The was bequeathed to this institution. Here building is upon too narrow a scale for is beside, a large philosophical apparatus, the numbers that reside there. Many a with a good observatory, and a collection Norfolk barn is larger : yet fifteen thouof fossils and coins, well worth the infpec. fand pounds are annually collected from tion of the virtuoso. Among the curio- the inhabitants of the city, for its supfities of this library, a miniature picture port. The coarse woollen manufactory of Oliver Cromwell should not be forgot- has lately been introduced ; which answers ten, done by Cooper :--for this it is laid two good purposes, that of lessening the the late Empress of Russia offered five poor rates, and giving employment to the hundred pounds. The present master of idle. the academy is Dr. RYLAND, a man of The public charities of the place are respectable talents, and for fimplicity of very numerous, and speak much the libermanners, and urbanity of disposition, uni- ality of its inhabitants. Those of Colversally beloved.

ston are truly princely, and furnish the In Bristol is to be found every religious counting-houles of the merchants with sect, from the foler quaker, to the visi. their heit clerks. One I believe is unique onary enthusiast of Swedenborg. Their of its kind; it teaches blind persons to places of worship exceed in number even work at trades, which require no other the churches of the establishment. Some sense for their management, but that of of them are rather fuperb, particularly touch-such as knitting, basket-making, that belonging to the presbyterians, where and netting. By these means, those unthe Rev. Mr. Estlin preaches. To a fortunate beings are enabled to pass manly, piety' this gentleman unites deep through life, free from that painful vaerudition; and has thus qualified himself cuity which the privation of sight must to become an able defender of the Christian otherwise neceffarily produce. It is to be religion, both from the pulpit and the wished, that such a truly benevolent inMONTHLY MAG. NO XLV.

3 B

ftitution

Com. 225.

ftitution were established in every large Spenser's other portraiture of this being town in the kingdom *.

is designed with more fancy and elegance. The commerce of Bristol is said to be on the decline : this is attributed by some

With him [Fecr] went Hope in rank, a to the difficult and circuitous naviga. Of cheerful look, and lovely to behold;

handsome maid, tion of its rivers—the exorbitancy of the In filken famite ihe was light array'd, town dues — and the decay of enter And her fair locks were woven up in gold : prising fpirit in its inhabitants. But She alway smil'd, and in her hand did hold perhaps the war is a better solution of this

An holy-water sprinkle, dipt in dew. question. Formerly it had the Turkey,

F. Q. iii. 12. the Greenland, and African flave trade to support its commercial consequence :

Mr. Spence instances this emblem of the two former have long since cealed, the the aspergoire, or sprinkler, as one of lait, I am happy to say, is just expiring : fuficient distinctness. It is not, indeed,

those which are cenfurable for want of but, like some fabulous riverthat I forget, it clifappears in one place, only to.rile in perfectly obvious; but, I think, not void another: Liverpool has gained what Brif- of propriety; for Hope may juftly be retol loft. The West India trade ftill presented as thedding that divine influence flourishes here. Several improvements in

on the mind, which enables it to repel the

attacks of misfortune, and the suggestions the arts take their origin from Bristol: the patent thot--the rolling machine for of despair. It is to be noted, that such a paper--and the method for facilitating symbol was formerly much more likely to the rotation of an axis by means of sub

be understood, than at present, fidiary wheels. I cannot dismiss this

A figure of Hope is Iketched by Milton imperfect accoun: without condemning in his Comus, extremely elegant, but the barbarous custom of using fledges in scarcely distinguished from the other afthe public streets for the conveyance of

fections friendly to inan. goods, which are continually endangering

-white handed Hope, the limbs, both of men and cattle. One Thou hovering angel girt with golden wings. would suppose that at Bristol they had not mechanics enough to cart a licgshead of sugar.

Yet the epithet hovering has peculiar I am, &c.

A. B. force in denoting the close and unremit

ting guardianship of this celestial atten

dant. For the Monthly Magazine. ON PERSONIFICATIONS IN POETRY.

Collins, in his pasions, though he seems ( Continued from page 293.)

to dwell with peculiar pleasure on the

mnpic of Hope, has added nothing to her H COPE,that benignant affection, which,

portrait. according to the mythologists, was

Cowley has two pieces, highly wrought, the gift of heaven, to compensate for the in his peculiar manner, entitled, “ for numerous ills fent on the human race, has and against Hope ;" in which every

line not often been represented by the poets displays a new image, or figure of comunder a material form. Spenser has two

parison, which is just started, and then figures of Hope. One is that of a virgin relinquished. Some of these are picturesque, clad in blue, and chiefly distinguished by but are too flight and transient for a dithe anchor on which me leans. This is

ftinét personification. the established fymbol by which Hope is

Faith is, by Spenser, called the elder rarked out in painting ; and may be in fister of Hope ; and is thus described : terpreted as referring to that property

of this affection, by which it enables the soul

-the eldest, that Fidelia hight, to relist all the forms of adversity, and Like funny beams threw from her crystal face, preferves it írora the hipwreck of despair. That could have daz’d the rafh beholder's As usually pictured, however, it is liable fight, to objections. A great anchor is an awk. And round about her head did thine like

heaven's light. ward thing for a delicate female to carry about with her; nor is it at all an instru

She was arrayed all in lily white, ment for leaning upon. She ought to bear And in her right hand bore a cup of gold, it as a miniature ornament, or to have its With wine and water fill'd up to the height, figure embroidered on her robe.

In which a serpent did himself enfold,

That horror made to all that did behold; * There is a similar institution at Liverpool. But the no whit did change her constant mood; Edit,

And in her other hand the fast did hold

A book

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