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is said to float in a loose uncombined state. of this to 15 of the other, and this eviBut from no other experiment that I am dence must be something more than an acquainted with can it be proved that any addition of weight to any thing.

It fixed air necessarily exilts in the atınor- must be either actual acidiiy, or deplegisli. phere, and lime, and lime water, will ac cated air, otherwise there is no proof of the quire it in all situations. I am therefore inflammable air coming from the decompoinclined to think that this fixed air is com sition of water. This, however, has not posed of phlogiston imparted to the lime yet been done with respect to iron, or any from the fire to which it had been exposed, other substance by means of which inflamand the dephlogisticated air in the atmos- mable air is procured. phere; and I have always found that a

When water is procured by the portion of atmospherical air exposed tome burning of inflammable air in dephlogistitime to lime or liine water, is iensibly less cated air, the water must not only be free pure than before ; fome part of the de- from acidity, but there must be no prophlogisticated air of which it is computed duction of phlogisticated air in the process. having been taken from it by the lime; For by the decomposition of this air nitrous and it is never found again except as a acid

may be

procured. I am, dear Sir, component part of the fixed air which is

Northumberland, Yours sincerely, afterwards expelled from it.

Jan. 17, 1799.

J. PRIESTLEY. The fixed air which is expelled from the yellow calx of lead, which has been some time'exposed to the atmosphere, has, I doubt not, the fame fource. For when To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. it is heated prelently after it is made, lit SIR, tle or no air can be expelled from it, as it may some time afterwards. And I find that this substance allo exposed to a por

are defolating many other countion of atmospherical air, makes it less tries, it is not an unpleating contrast to pure than it was before, just as in the cale fee in our own, trade flourishing, and of quick lime.

towns, in consequence, springing up in io. That phlogisticated air is fome- places where before existed only a few times produced from the uniting of dephlo- scattered houses. I was led to this registicated air in the atmosphere, and phlo- fection by passing through a town very giston in the substances expoíed to it, I lately, in the midland parts of Wales, think I have sufficiently proved. I Mall, which t'venty years ago deserved scarcely however, just mention another experiment, the name of a village. As the means by which is easily repeated, and which I think which it has increased in numbers and demonstrates the same thing. It is well opulence cannot but be interesting, I known that het charcoal imbibes any kind send you this fort account of the cirof air, and I have observed that when it cumstance; and leave it to you, to insert is afterwards put into water it gives this it or not, as you think proper,


your air out again. But if the air be that of Monthiy Miscellany. the atmoiphere, it takes the dephlogisti The town I allude to is called Myrthercated part in preference to the other, tedvel, situated on the borders of Breconleaving the reinainder phiogisticated; and shire, next to the county of Glamorgan. the air

that it gives out after this in water, The ipot on which it stands, and the imis chiefly phlogisticated also. What then mediaie neighbourhood, was the fortubecomes of the dephlogisticated air that nate purchale of a gentleman, who does his disap eared ? Will it be said that it not teem fully aware of its value. It cost reinains in the charcoal which had im- him only eight hundred pounds; and, in bibed it? Whence then, came the purified ground-rents alone, he now lets it out for air which it gave ont; when, according inore than the yearly rent of one thouto the new theory, charcoal does not con sand pounds. tain any such principles. It is not found As the town is situated in a barren dirin the water into which it is put ; for trict, and supported folely by the iron this gives out air less pure than it did be- trade, which the owner deems precarious, fore ihe process.

he is averse to letting out any more on Before the new theory of chemistry can building leases; as it is only suffering, he be unexceptionably established, the follow- thinks, malons to lay stones and mortar ing things must be done. -- Whenever in- on his eltate, for him, in some future flammable air or hydrogen is procured, time to remove.

This is acting upon a evidence must be given of the production very narrow policy indeed, and may be of a due proportion of oxygen i about 85 the means of cramping the rising spirit of



Account of Myrther-tedvel.

the place. Not the present owner, nor mer days, and give a very romantic ap-
many generations after him, will see the pearance to the valley.
value of estates lessen in this neighbour Hardly any thing can be conceived
hood, since the firrounding hills are com more awfully grand than the defcent, on
pose i of little elle but coal and ore; and, a dark night, into the vale of Myrthet,
before any luch depreciation can take from any of the surrounding hills. On
place, must literally be removed. a sudden the traveller beholds numberless

The whole dittrict, where these minerals volcanos, breathing out their undulating abound, extends about eight miles in pillars of fame and finoke, while the furlength, and four in breadth. Two ranges naces below emit through every aperture of hilis bound this space, having a valley a vivid light; the whole country seems in betwixt them ; in which stands che town a'blaze-nor do the immenfe hammers, of Myrther.

the wheels, the rolling-mills, and the The first person who discovered mines water-works, uniting together their variin these parts, and determined to work ous sounds, add a little to the novelty them, was a Mr. BACON. A least of the and magnificence of the scene. When surrounding country, so far as the mines first I beheld it, I alınost fancied myself extended, was granted to hiin for the term approaching the Liparæa Taberna of of 99 years, at the yearly rent of two Vulcan ; described by Virgil fo beautihundred pounds. Having the command fully in the eighth book of his Æneid. of an extensive capital, he immediately Insula Sicanium juxta latus Æoliamque built forges, and began the manufacture Erigitur Lipara fumantibus ardua faxis : of iron. But it happened in this, as it Quam subter ípecus et Cyclopum'exesa caminis has in many great undertakings, that the

Antra Ætnæa tonant, validique incudibus first promoter reaped very little benefit

ictus from his new speculations. Mr. Bacon, Auditi referunt gemitum, ftriduntque caverwhether from mismanagement, or some

nis other unavoidable caute, fucceeded so ill, Stricture calybum et fornacibus ignis anhelat; that the works were for some time entirely Vulcani domus et Vulcania nomine tellus. stopped. It is likely the want of water-car To Mr. CRAWSHAY are the public inriage from Myrther to the distant fea ports, debted for thus reviving, in a degree, the enhanced so much the price of the goods, commercial consequence of this country, that they could not be brought cheap by a successful developement of its hidden enough to market to ensure any great de- treasures. The workmen belonging to mand. The advantage, however, of pur. him alone amount to between two and suing the undertaking appeared fo mani. three thousand men. An equal number feft, that it was not long before the heirs is supposed to be employed by the other of Mr. Bacon, who soon after his failure iron-matters. The whole population of died, let one part of the district to a Mr. the town is estimated at 10,000 persons. CRAWSHAY, of London, for the yearly Numberless are the benefits accruing to rent of five thousand pounds. This gentle- the surrounding parts from the re-estabman had a commanding capital of leventy lishment of this manufacture : the old thousand pounds to begin with ; but saw roads are improved and new ones formed ; clearly, that the most could not be made extentive markets are opened for every of the natural advantages of the place kind of produce; and cultivation is exwithout the benefit of water conveyance tended to the tops of the highest hills. for his goods. To form, however, a It is now in agitation to make a dramcanal in a mountainous country was no road from Myrther to Cardiff; a distance easy talk; yet, this difficulty was over of about twenty miles.

This kind of come by the persevering genius of Mr. road is an improvement on rail-roads, CRAWSHAY. In one initance, fortune which are pretty generally known. Its seemned to favour the scheme, by a discon- excellence chiefly consists in having a wide tinuity at the top of a lofty hill; without groove for the wheels to run in, by which which advantage the canal would never means the lateral friction is considerably have been undertaken.

diminished, and the weight drawn easier Another part of the district let to along. Its cost is estimated at thirty Mr. HOMFRAY, for two thousand a year ; thoutand pounds. A canal for the same a third part was taken by Messrs. Lewis distance has already cost one huxldred and TATE ; and the fourth, and last, by thousand; and this the new projected road Mr. Hill. Each of these gentlemen em is meant to supercede. If upon trial it ploys leveral forges, which, in their struc- should be found to answer, might not such ture, look like the gloomy castles of for- roads be established all over the kingdom


and would not then the mail-coaches, and precarious. If you retort, that they deevery other, travel much more safely and ceive themselves respecting the benefits expeditiously? Future times may probably which they derive from a common, and see this improvement.

tell them that the hours which their wife Mr. CRAWSHAY is, perhaps, the great and children waste in wandering about for est commercial adventurer, and at the a few sticks or a bunch of furze, might be fame time the most successful, of any in more profitably employed at home, or if the kingdom. He prides himself in hav- you tell them, (as has been asserted in one ing begun life without a sixpence; yet, of the county reports for the board of by address and industry, raising a princely agriculture) that if one man tuns a coup fortune, ard becoming the first iron-mal- upon a common in the spring of the year ter in the world.

for nothing, and his neighbour gives It is rather remarkable, that the fa- eighteen pence a week to some farmer for mous WILKINSON thould have set off at keeping in his inclosure another cow of first under similar circumstances--in a equal value; that when both are driven to fimilar line and meet, at last, with near- market at Michaelmas, the difference of ly fimilar success. The plebeian metal price will more than reimburse the latter feems auspicious to plebeians.

for his expence, besides the additional
Every thing that Mr: CRAWSHAY un- quantity of milk which his cow will
destakes is carried on with a peculiar de- yield, in consequence of her better food,
gree of spirit. An overshot-wheel has they will laugh at your reasoning, deny
lately been constructed by him, beyond the truth of your statement, and, like many
compare, the largest in the world : 'it is wifer people, as they fancy themselves,
above fifty feet in diameter ; made entire- prefer living in their error to running :hé
ly of cast iron, and cost four thousand risk of being undeceived to their coft.
pounds. The water that turns it is For my own part, I have always
brought from a stream in the hills about thought it rather unfeeling to make argu-
five miles off, on a platform of wood, ments for other people, and afterwards
fupported chiefly by stone pillars : in one act upon them whether they admit their
part, however, where it crosses a bridge, validity or not: what folly it is to tell
it has supporters of wood ;. here, for the those poor creatures that the benefits they
space of three hundred yards, it is ele- derive from a common are merely ideal,
vated eighty feet above the bed of the and therefore 'not worth attending to?
river. This forms a very singular and and what cruelty it is on this account to
fublime appearance. It is hardly worth make them relinquish their imaginary
mentioning, but as a trait of a remark- benefits, and force our own on them in ex-
able charaéter, that Mr. CRAWSHAY change! who is prepared to state the pre-
lately attempted to establish a porpoise cise difference between a real and imagi-
fishery in the river Severn; but his usual pary benefit? In short, what imaginary
fucceis did not attend this undertaking. benefit is not real to him who enjoys it?
The fish were found too large to be taken. See the blind beggar dance, the cripple sing,
in a net, and too small to be harpooned; The sot a hero, lunatic a king.
in a short time, therefore, and after The starving chemift in his golden views
some triding expence, this scheme was Supremely blest, the poet in his muse.

From what fountain flows the stream
I am, Sir, &c. A.B. of happiness more copiously than imagi-

nation? But I am wandering I know not To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

whither. What I mean to observe is,

that we ought to give the poor cottagers SIR,

something more fubftantial in exchange OU Y

dice amongst the lower classes of real or imaginary, which they derive from people against the inclosure of commons their common, than the hope of particiis very powerful and is almost universal. pating with the mass of society in the I: is idle to talk to such persons about general advantage which will result from the general advantages to society which the inclosure, That I am not fingular must necessarily retuit from converting an in this opinion, is evident from the uncultivated heath into an arable farm; clauses which have been inserted in various they tell you that their portion of those private inclosure bills for the extra proviadvantages will be imperceptibly finall, lion of finall proprietors: these are of that a bisd in the hand is worth two in the different natures, according to circumbuit; that they relinquish a certain and im- ftances and situations. Being myself at unedrate good for one that is diftant and present concerned in the inclosure of a


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On Inclosure of Corrmons.

359 common, I will state the mode which we of their opposition was all that could be have adopted, as it may possibly be of use expected. It happened that one of the to others who are interested in a similar most valuable portions of our common business.

was completely detached from the rest; it By one of the clauses in our bill, it is was suggested that if this common were left enacted, that the commissioners are requir- uninclosed and allotted as a pasture.ground ed to divide, fet out, and allot, the com under certain necessary regulations, for mons and waste lands in the parish of occupiers not exceeding five pounds a

unto and among all and every the year, that every objection against the proprietors of messuages, farms, tene- inclosure bill from this quarter, would in ments, lands, &c. &c. within the parish, a great measure be obviated. It was in such shares and proportions as in the therefore enacted, in the spirit of conciliajudgment of the commissioners shall be a tion, that the commissioners fhould be just and reasonable compensation, share, authorised and required to set out such a and allotment, in proportion to the real proportionable part of this detached poryearly value of the said messuages, farms, tion of the common, as should in their tenements, lands, &c.; except to such judgment be equal in value to double the owners and proprietors, whole property allotments which owners and occupiers of hall be above the annual value of five lands and tenements, not exceeding five pounds and under the annual value of ten pounds per annum, would be entitled to pounds, whose allotments the commission under the intended inclosure; and that ers shall increase in such proportion as the lands thus allotted, should be vested in they shall think just and reasonable, not the lord of the manor for the time being, exceeding the proportion in value which the rector of the parish, the church-warhall be allotted to any other proprietor dens and overleers of the poor, and their whose property shall amount to the an- respective fucceffors for ever, in trust and nual value of ten pounds.

for the use of all such poor inhabitants at This last restričtion is of obvious ne- present residing, or that may hereafter recessity, as the proprietor of lands or tene- fide in any of the cottages now standing or ments of the value of ten or twelve pounds hereafter to be built in lieu of them, as a year would naturally bę discontented shall not occupy in tenements, or in lands and feel himself used with particular in- and tenements jointly, (and not in lands justice, if the commissioners were to award only) above the value of five pounds per a less valuable allotment for his share, annum. than for the share of his neighbour whole As this clause, however, would exclude annual property might not be of more every proprietor, the annual value of whole than five, lix, or leven pounds value. property did not exceed five pounds, The spirit of this clause, therefore, ap- from having any portion of the common pears to be first, that every proprietor enclosed for him, and as it was conceived whose property is above the annual value that some few of these small proprietors of five pounds and under the annual value might prefer fome portion for their priof ten, shall have an extra allotment; and vate occupation, a clause was added, by secondly, that the value in this extra allot- which any owners or proprietors of this ment Thall, as nearly as possible, be in- defcription who should at the first or verfely proportionate to the property to second meeting of the commissioners give which it is attached; the commissioners, notice in writing of their delire of having consequently, taking care that in no in an allotment in lieu of this right of palstance the allotment to the smaller pro- ture, are entitled to a part of the remainperty Mall exceed in value the allotnient der of the commons and waste-grounds in to the larger.

the parish, proportionable with the owners It must have been remarked before this of property of a greater annual value than tine, that nothing has been said concern- ' five pounds. It having also been coning the proprietors, the annual value of ceived, that some few proprietors of this whose property is under five pounds, and latter description, that is to say, of proit will naturally be enquired, what provi- prietors, the annual value of whole prohon is secured for these? When the lib. perty exceeds five pounds, but does not ject of inclosure was first agitated, the exceed ten, might be desirous of relin{mall proprietors universally opposed it quishing their allotments, and adding with no little acrimony and earneltness: them to the land set out as common paiit was a very desirable thing to secure the ture, a further clause was enacted, allowapprobation of all parties; this, however, ing them to relinquish such allotinent, after was impossible, and to foften the rancour having delivered in at the first or second


It may,

meeting of the commissioners, a written their heads, but as all of them have not notice of their request, and authorizing what I call a shelter for their heads, this, and directing the commissioners to add to it seems, is an unnecessary luxury; they the common pasture, for their use, and must, however, have foune hole or other, fubject to the fame regulation as the rest, in which to creep with their wives and so much land as the allotment of the per- children of a night; and so long as landfou or persons thus giving notice would lords are aware of this necessity, it is not have amounted to, in cale he, the, or very probable that they will, many of they, had not relinquished it.

thein, lower their rents, merely because It will not excite much surprise, per- the common is deducted from the cottage. haps, that no one of the proprietors, of But how was this evil to be avoided ? between five and ten pounds a year, was

Whatever advantage might have been desirous of relinquishing his or her por- held out to the cottager, must evidently tion of the enclosure for an allotment on have fallen on his landlord ; for he would the pasture ground: it would obviously probably have felt much less reluctance to have been a loting game, such person not raise, than to lower, his rent. Suppose being entitled to an inch more land upon any portion of land had been vested in the common than he would have allotted trustees, the profits of which should be to him within a fence of his own; and he scrupulously appropriated to the poor and his heirs being for ever restricted, tenants of the pari

« it needs no ghost (without a new act of parliament) from to tell us, " that the tenant must pay his breaking up the land, or using it other- landlord the precise value which the forwife than as a rated common.

mer derives from inhabiting the cottage however, excite tome surprise, that among of the latter. the

many proprietors, under five pounds I know of but one fcheme which would, a year, almost all of whom very clamour- in any degree, have compensated the teoutly opposed the enclosure ; every one, bant for the loss of his coinmon; and that with the exception of two individuals, is to have set apart a certain portion of gave notice of his desire to have a private land, two or three acres, and to have built allotment in preference to an allotment on thereon a number of folid, convenient, the pasture-ground; although by this and airy, cottages. This land, and these preference they must have relinquiíhed a cottages might have been in the hands of valuable portion of land ; for they would the same trustees, in whose hands is vested have had a double portion for their allut- the common pasture of those two forlorn ment on the pasture-ground, and, accord- and solitary individuals who declined the ing to the ipirit of the act, it appears acceptance of a private allotment. The that, although all indeed will have an rents of these lands and cottages would, extra portion, not one tan have a double of course, have belonged to the parish at portion.

large, on whom the expence of building Such are the provisions which we have and repairs would have fallen. This plan made to conciliate the poor landlords : it did not occur when the bill was first is much to be wished that something also framed; and, if it had occurred, might, could have been done for their ftill poorer possibly, have been rejected. I am of

The former, I think, might opinion, however, that it would have been unquestionably be benefited by the en- ultimately, if not immediately, profitclosure; but I am sorry to be of opinion able: and, on this account, the parish, that the latter cannot : 'for they will now by niaking themselves landlords, would be no longer enabled to keep the geese or have checked the general exorbitance of turkeys, which have hitherto contributed rent. It would have been their interest to pay their house-rent. But it will be to have let thefe cottages low: to say nosaid, as the cuitages are intrinsically of thing of the better chance they would less value now than they were before the have of a regular payment, by letting enclosure of the common, the landlords them low, they would have assisted the mult lower their rent. Who is to make tenant in obtaining his livelihood, and by them? What business have we with ano this means prevent the necessity, perhaps ther man's property ? In short, should we o: his calling on them for relief. But it in their circumstances, do so ourselves ? is obvious, that if the parish let their Cottages are scarce ; most lamentably houses low, every other landlord must do fcarce; and, from the prevalence of a de- the same, or he would never get a tenant testable and unfeeling policy, are likely till the cottages belonging to the parish to be still more so. But labourers mult were all occupied; and, if every other hiver I was going to say a shelter for landlord were to do the same, it is ob


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