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still farther. A mixture somewhat simi In the use of all these, astonishing imJar, but with a diversity of the ingredi- provements have been made in the course ents, has been found by him, to be use of the present century. The last and fully applicable to utensils of copper and most important have taken place in regard cafl-iron. Copper is well known to be to the steam-engine. Nor is there realon subject to an oxidation amidst culinary for fearing, that this fort of insprovement uses, the consequences of which make it Mould itop here. That new knowledge not a little dangerous to human life. of the nature of air which we have derived Tinning is not always permanently effec- from the pneumatic chemiitry cannot but tual, to prevent thole mischiefs which are give rise to many more improvements in apt to ensue from the use of copper. the useful arts, than have, hitherto, been Mr. HICKLEY believes, that these may derived from it. be entirely prevented by the use of his Mr. MIDHURST's invention of a vitrifiable mixture, as a coating for copper WIND-ENGINE for which he has lately vessels. To all utensils of cast iron, the obtained a patent, is a natural result from same coating is equally adapted to give a the attention which has been paid to all beauty and a fitness for wholesome use, the phænomena of air. His invention by which they must be exceedingly im- is to be carried into effect in connexion proved.
with a wind-mill. By a pipe properly The objects of this patent, seem to be filled, it conducts a stream air from the of great importance. It is much to be fails of the wind-mill into a magazine wished, that the author of the invention, under-ground, in which that air undermay find it amply lucrative.
goes an excessive compression and condenMr. MIDHURST'S PATENT
A tation, diminishing its volume, and increafWIND-ENGINE.
ing its elasticity. From this magazine, The fuperiority of human reason, is the air thus condensed, is to be conducted perhaps, in nothing, more conspicuous, by a different pipe, to where it may perthan in its power to subject to our use, form, in its expansion, all the mighty me. the subtlest and most apparently uncon
chanical effects of water oi of steain. trolable elements of nature : water, fire,
The invention is ingenious, and cannot air, and all the gases, the great engines of fail to prove ujiful. We wish the inthe physical operations
the deity, fcem ventor, all reasonable honour and emolu, to conter a supernatural potency upon
ment from his patent. man whenever he is able to wield them.
STATE OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS
In April, 1799.
to the violence proposed to be used, to TI HIE present rystem of public instruc- the national Schools, he declared, that
force parents to send their children to tion in France has lately met an opponent in Boulay, of the council of nothing could be more repugnant io the five hundred. On the 7th of April, on
true fpirit of liberty than iuch a measure, the opening of the discussion
He did not deny that government should
that subject, he observed, that the system was
carefully fuperintend public instruction,
but contended that instruction mould be defective, as it only establimed one master in every chief place of a diftri&t, and be succeed in effe ting a peace, there was no
Shouli the government
completely free. did not think it pwobable that the young doubt but the people would find them. people of the country would neglect the felves at their eals, and that' arts and labour fo neceffary to their support, and
would fourith without walk leveral miles for the purpofe of the extraordinary mafies which were learning to read and write. It had been ftated in fayour of the measure, that the
now propolid to embarrass public in
ftruion. schools would be subject to a minute lui.
Since the declaration of war, several perintendance on the part of the magif. hard fought battles rave taken place*: irates; hut, such an authority, he thought only calculated to make the master ex
* For the more perfpicurus elucidation of clusively atteniive to the improvement of the late actions, as well as of the campaign the children of justices of the peace, and in general, we have annexed to the present other persons in power, With respect Number a hew
With respect Number a new map of the seat of war.
329 By intelligence from the Imperial head where they had taken their position, and quarters near Schüllennied, dated the 21st arranged his army for that purpose, he of March, it appears, that a French ad- himself led the middle colum.i. He suce jutant came to the Austrian campihe day ceeded in driving the enemy, after an obbefore, and enquired whether the expla- stinate resistance, from their station, and nations required from the Court of pursued them to the heights of PfullenVienna had arrived ; and as the Prince dorff. In this advantageous position, had received nothing to this effect, the the French again made a stand, their French officer pronounce the armistice to whole front being covered by a marby be at an end; and declared war in the valley; the Archduke drew the greatest name of the directory. He had scarcely part of his army towards the right fank retired when a violent attack was made of the French, in order to attack them on on the Imperial brigades This corps fell that fide, and in the rear, but this atback, as they had not expected an attack tack could not be made on the 21st on fo sudden; they, however, foon rallied, account of the night coming on; the and threw the enemy into disorder, made eneiny, however, did not chuse to wait several prisoners, and afterwards ad- for it, but retreated in the night to vanced.
Stockach, whither they were followed by On the 21st, the Archduke, on his the advanced guard of the Auftrians. side, made an attack on the French, which The Archduke lays in his account of the began at ten o'clock with a warm can movements made by his army on the 20th nonade and fire of musquetry, and ended and 21st near Ostrach, in the vicinity of at four o'clock. The result of this first Pfullendorff, that his loss in killed and engagement was somewhat favourable to
wouniled was not small, as the attack of the Austrians. The French, notwith- the strong position near Oftrach was exa standing their obstinate resistance, were tremely difficult; the loss of the enemy driven from their position, and obliged however, he says, must have been much to fall back to Pfullendorff. However more considerable. the main army under General Jourdan The Archduke fays, that on the 20th continued to advance, and drove back of March, the day on which he transthe weak posts of the Austrians on all ferred his head-qnarters to Schussenried, fides. The French commanders alledging the French attacked during the whole that this was not to be considered as a morning the chain of his advanceil posts commencement of hoftilities, but that all along from Ostrach ;, but notwiththey were obliged to take posseslion of standing the great numbers of their troops, certain polts according to orders which they did not lucceed in driving them back they had received. In this manner Joui in all points. On the 21st he attacked dan advanced with his army near to the French, who had assembled their prin. Oltrach, while on the left, General Ferino, cipal forces at Oktrach, and taken an who had been detached with his division advantageous politicn, which seemed to to the Lake of Constance, drove back the give a superiority to a fue who knew fa posts of Major - general Piazcheck to well how to profit by such a circumRavensburgh. In proportion as the stance ; yet the Austrians soon forced the French advanced, the Archduke made narrow defile of h, and chaled the more hasty marches, and on the 20th, enemy from their position. The Archreached the heights near Saulgau and duke instanıly passed Oltrach with his Althausen, and encamped with his main wliole army, and advanced with a part of body, in a position, but one day's march it the same day into the vicinity of Pfuta diltant from the main body of the French lendorff, leaving that city on the right. army. Ou the fame day that the Austrians Here his army encamped for the night; took this position, the French attacked it being his intention to attack on the their advanced guard, overpowered some 22d, the right Aank of the enemy which of the foremost detachments, and advanced had halted near Pfullendorff; but the even to Holtzkirchen and Klosterlussen. French did not think proper to wait for The detachments which had been driven him, but retired in the night to Stockach; back, however, had no sooner received his advanced guard pursued them : the reinforcements than they drove the French number of prisoners, the Archduke says, back to scine distance in their turn. As is inkown, but the loss of the eneiny in the Archduke had now advanced by killed and wounded, muit have been conforced marches, he had refolved to make fiderable. the attack upon the French near Oftrach, On the 22d of March, on the side of
This village is not laila un any of the Tyrol, General Oudinot attempted the maps of Germany whicia lave been pub to crochet batteries on a bejght in front of Hihed in England.
the left wing of the army under General Coire, the 16th of March, he declares, Hotze in his position near Feldkirch, but that in five days the soldiers under his was driven thence by a heavy cannonade command had made 10,000 Auftrian prifrom the Austrian trenches, while Gene- foners, taken 40 pices of cannon, a conral Jellachich carried the heights, sword liderable quantity of ordnance stores, comin band, taking many prisoners. Mal. pelleci the Austrians to evacuate the fena iu person, on the 22d, attacked the Grisons and taken a position in the Vowhole position of General Hotze with ralberg. He informed the executive di6000 grenadiers, and the brigade of Ge- rectory by dispatches, dated head quarters neral Dudinot; but General Jellachich at Rheinek, March 28th, that general defeated them after a battle, which latted Lecourbe in an attack upon Finiterminster, the whole day, with the loss of 3000 had made leven thousand prisoners, and men, and compelled them to pass over taken twenty seven pieces of cannon; and the Rhine. The loss of the Austrians in that Finstermintter, Nanders,and Glurentz this affair was stated at 800 killed, among were cccupied by the French troops. whom were three staff officers. The Im- About the same time the French appear perial troops immediately advanced, and to have been ficcessful alto in Italy, took a position near the Rhine. Massena General Berthier wrote from his head retired to the Grison country where he quarters at Foggia on the 19th of March entrenced himself, and detached General stating, that the army of la Pouille and Oudinot with a corps to Rheineck, to the Abbruze's, composed of galley flaves, cover, it was supposed, the country of St. and the populace of San Severo and its Gall, so important to General Jourdan, environs, making an asemblage of 10,000 or otherwise to give disturbance to Bre- men, had occupied a height covered with gentz,
olives. That upon gaining this inforThe next important battle was fought mation, and having made his difpofition, on the 25th of March between Yutlingen the French troops attacked them with the and Stockach. On that day, General quicknels of lightning; the retreat of Jourdan attacked the Archduke Charles these rebels was cut off, and the remainder and in the beginning of the action beat of the day was nothing more than an the advanced guard of the Austrians, after absolute inafiucre. It was concluded which the action became very warm, and only by the man mixing with the women laited till night, and though oppressed and children who had fied on the pricella by numbers, he did not lose ground, and ing day, and who were put forward to took 5000 prisoners. The Archduke's meet the fury of the French foldiers ; account of this action, however, aflirts these obje&ts, says the general, always that the French were certainly obliged respected in the eyes of Frenchmen, obto retreat, and regards it as a victory on tained for the rebels a degree of commi. the side of the Auftrians. Subtequent feration which they did not themselves events prove indeed that the claim of the deserve, and the French toldiers to terriAustrians is perfeally just. The French ble but one hour before, mildly reconducarmy has not since ventured to face that of ted thole groups of women and children the Austrians, but has continued to fall to their fortaken habitations." Berthier back, first upon the Black Forest, then in the first moments of resentment, had upon Offenburgh, and lastly to Kell; a (worn to burn San Severo as the focus of considerable portion of it is even laid to this general revolt; because the inhabihave crossed the Rhine at Strasburgh. tants had put to death all those who
It is agreeit on both sides, that the talked of a lurrender, and in their rage mutual Naughter was enormous, and it had impriloned, their bishop for having may probably be concluded from the in the name of the gospei, pre::ched peace circumstance of the head quarters of the and fubmiflion. But he was affuted by Austrian army remaining stationary at the miserable fate of a population of Stockach, that the victory, was dearly 20,000 louls; and ordered the plunder to bought even to the victors.
The two ar ceale and pardoned them. In this affair, mies are now understood 10 be recruiting more than 3000 rebels perished among their Itrength and preparing for more whom were discovered several Neapolitan decisive a&tion.
officers. It appears by the official details of
The army under general Scherer atgeneral Massena, that the French Repuh. tacked on the 26th of March, the Auflican troops have on the whole been luc- trians posted betvreen the lake of Garda cessful in the Grison country. In a and the Adige; and two divisions marchpublic proclamation to bis army, dated ed againit Verona, after four hours of a
337 most bloody action, the generals Delmas fion. Mourad-Bey had three beys killed, and Gernier beat the enemy from all their two wounded, and 400 of the flower of politions, pursued them incessantly, and his troops killed on the spot : the French obtained posseflion of the two bridges had 36 men killed and as many wounded. on the Adige ; twelve pieces of cannon, “ Here, says the general, as well as at the swo ftandards, and about 4,000 prisoners, battle of the Pyramids, the foldiers made were the result of this day. The Auf a confiderable booty, There was not a trians (according to the French account) Mameluke on whom there was not found left 3000 dead on the field of battle.
4 or 500 louis.” In a subsequent action Since these tranfactions, it appears that Mourad-Bey himself appears to have been a general action had taken place near killed. Verona on the 5th April, in which gene The Primary Assemblies throughout ral Scherer aliited by general Moreau the French Republic have finished their commanded the French. Scherer Itates elections, and the returns for the legislathat in the beginning of the engagement tive councils, have been in favour of he tock 2000 Austrians prisoners, and 7 Republican principles in general ; but, in pieces of cannon, but admits that he was many places, contrary to the moderate obliged eventually to retreat with the or reigning party. At Perigueues, the lots of three thousand men and four pieces municipal officers leposed by the Directory of artillery. The battle was most obiti were reinstated. Throughout the whole nate, and lasted from eleven till five department of Dordogne, the electors reo'clock, General Moreau had been fent turned some of those persons to the legii, from Paris to assist general Scherer in lative body whom the Directory had rehis operation.
jected last year. At Bourdeaux, the Oficial dispatches from general Buona- inembers of the central bureau, lately difparte, have lately been published by the placed by the Directory, were nominated directory; they are dated head quarters at electory. At Toulouse, the anarchists, Cairo, October 17th, and contain the as they were called, met with no resistance; details of several actions which had taken and in several Cantons of the Lower Seine place at different times and places with they were equally triumphant.
They the Mamelukes, fome tribes of Arabs, failed, however, in most parts of the deand the inhabitants of some diftri&ts in partments of the Moselle and Lower revolt. The first of these skirmishes, was Loire. During the elections there were on the 6th of August, between a battalion tumults in several of the primary af. of French troops under general Fugieres, semblies. and the natives and Arabs at the village The united Russian and Turkish forces of Reinerie, which refused him a passage made an attack on the 1st of March, on to Mehalleel-Kehin the capital of Gar- the island in the port of Corfu, called La bia, the resiilt was, that the French drove Scoglio di Vido; after a very brisk fire of their opponents into the village, killed about two hours and a half from the ships 200 of them and then took poslession of of war, the troops were landed, and the the place. Another skirmish took place island was captured. On the next mornon the 28th of September, between the ing a flag of truce was sent off by the republicans and some Arabs who had French conmander of the garrison of intetted the Nile with their piratical expe- Corfu, to the Russian vice admiral, of. ditions at Mit-Kamar, when about 200 fering to capitulate. The capitulation of these miserable creatures were killed or was foon agreed to, and the town and drowned. But the principal engagement forts of Corfu were given up to the Turkhappened at Sediman on the 7th of Sep. ish and Russian commissaries. The Letember, between the French and the army ander, a fhip taken from the English, by of Mourad-Bey consisting of near óvoa the French, was in the port, and included cavalry, chiefly Arabs, and a corps of in the surrender. infantry, which guarded the works of Sediman, on which tour pieces of cannon It appears from Rastadt, that M. Von were mounted. The Mamelukes charged Hugel, the Austrian commissary at the with horrible cries, and fougiit with great diet at. Ratisbon, on the 10th of March, bravery, but were foon repulsed; the went to Citizen Bacher, charge d'affaires French then marched towards Sediman, from the French Republic to the diet, and and notwithstanding the fire of the cannon, communicated to hiin an order from the the Pas de charge was like lightning, and Archduke Charles, importing that an the entrenciunent, the cannon and the officer was ready to escort the charge baggage were in a moment in their polifo d'affaires to the French posts. To this,
citizen Bacher answered, that his stay at States appertains to the judiciary departRatisbon, was in consequence of a refolu ment:- and whereas, the assumption of tion of the diet, which had received the that right is unwarrantable and has a imperial ratification, and that he would direct tendency to deftroy the indepen. not depart unless compelled. Notwith- dence of the general government.--And standing this declaration, however, only whereas, this house disclaims the power twenty-four hours were allowed him to which is asumed in and by the resoprepare for his journey. Upon receiving lutions of the respective legislatures of this intelligence the French ministers at the states of Kentucky, and Virginia, on Rastadt, denounce to the deputation of the 16th of November, and 24th of Dethe empire “ this violation of every princi. cember last, of questioning in a legislative “ple of right” of which, they added, they capacity, either the expediency or constiwould immediately inform their govern- tutionality of the several acts therein
The president of the United An imperial manifesto was published States informed the fenate, on the 25th of at Vienna, on the 13th of March, im- February “that a fresh negociation, for porting that the military preparation of the purpose of adjusting differences had the French, together with the requisition been agreed upon, between the French of 200,oco men in France, and the forced Republic, and the United States ;---that levy of troops in Switzerland &c. could for this important mission, he had nominot but excite fears that peace could not nated Oliver Elsworth, efq. chief justice of be long preserved ; that his Majesty, the United States; Patrick Henry, efq. therefore, in order to enlarge his measures late governor of Virginia, and William of security, in proportion to the aggression Vans Murray, the American minister at of the French, ordered his troops to take the Hague, to be envoy extraordinary, luch pofition as circumstances might and ministers plenipotentiary to the French require.
Republic, with full power's to discuss and A diplomatic note was by the same au- féttle by treaty, all controversies between thority distributed in Germany, purport- the United States and France.” These ing “ that the French Directory continued appointments are considered as an indicato advance the most exaggerated preten- tion of the rising ascendancy of the antifions : that the Iimperial court would not federal party, in opposition to the wishes fuffer itself to be degraded by Republicans of the federal cr government party. whole object was to humble all princes.
Twenty-four millions of faithful devoted The speaker of the House of Comsubjects, the best army in Europe, and mons appeared at the bar of the House of immenfe resources of all kinds, would not Lords on the 25th of March, on presentfuffer him to be di&tated to ;---that the ing the Bills of Supply of this session to cause of kings, when united, could no his excellency the lord lieutenant for the longer be doubtful, but if they remain royal assent, made a speech of confiderdivided, their reign must be foon at an able force and energy purporting, “ That end, and Eorope be exposed to dreadful the fupplies which he then presented were calamities.”
larger even than those of last year, by al
molt a million of money; and that their Much difference of opinion seems still great amount was sufficient to Mew the to prevail in the United States, between determined sentiments of Ireland to de. the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists, tend it against the dangerous spirit of derelative to the late negociation with mocratic innovation, which had convulsed France; and the agitation of political and delolated a great part of Europe, questions in many places, are carried to &c.” On returning to the Commons a height which indicates that neither party the speaker received the thanks of that will be induced 10 abandon the point for Houte. which it contends. The resolutions of On the 29th of March, a Bill for prethe States of Kentucky and Verginia venting persons who had taken the oath continue to be discussed with much of united Irishmen from voting for memwarmth. These resolutions have been bers to serve in parliament, was read a fedebated in the house of asembly of New cond time. On the question for its comYork, which came to the following deci- mittal it was opposed by Sir H. Langrillie 1101), after a divifion of 50 to 43. “Where- on the ground, that it would be to all inas it appears to this house, that the right tents and purposes an ex post facto law; of deciding on the confitutionality of all that it would militate against the general laws palled by the Congrels of the United pardon granted by the proclamation of