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1799.) Original Anecdotes of the French Revolution.

303 apartment; and compared it with the ments : It is, said Sausé, 10 proteal your face of the valet-du-chambre. "Pardieu!life, and your return." 'And, iy fact, 110 faid he, addressing himself to Louis XVI, less than ten thousand men acconipanied

it is inconceivable how much you re- his carriage. How it was posible in lo semble our worthy king !" then féepping fert a time to collect lo large a force in a up to the baronne's, “ do but look, ina- country where the villages, though of dam,” said he, s how much our excellent considerable size, are scattered at a great sovereign and your valet-ciu chambre are distance from one another, is a thing truly alike." The queen affected not to hear astonishing. him, and kept repeating every intant, At the moment the king was preparing “ come, come! let us go!"--Sanfé ex. to set off, Damas, Choiseul, and two claimed four times : “ how much they colonels of dragoons in full uniform are alike! do but look, madam, I beseech made their appearance, and were immeyou: Would not any one take him for the diately taken into custody. " To the king? It is the king,” said the queen, lantern with them! to the lantern, rewith a great deal of majefty; " I ain the founded on all fides !" It is well known, queen; and here are Monseig 12?:4r the that at that time such an outcry amounted dauphin, Madame Elizabeth, and Madame to little less than a fentence of death; Royale ! it will be your own fault if and they were accordingly about to be don't make your fortune ; you mut be maslicred, ivhen M. La Fayette's aid-dusen!ıble of the service you have it in your camp, and the commandant of the national power to render

and cannot doubt that guards of Verdun, clung so closely to our gratitude will be equally great." them that it was iinpoffible to kill one

“ The reward, moft grateful to me,' without killing the other; and in this answered Sausé, " is the honour of hav- manner conducted them to prison. ing his majelty in my house, and that of The coinmandant had five hundred paying my respect to him in my character men under his orders on whom he could of citizen ; but in my quality of magif- depend. Romeuf entreated him to guard trate, I am under the necessity of inform- the prisoners and save their lives., ing his majesty that it is impoflible for must endeavour, said he, to prove to the him to proceed ; that the people are un- national assembly, that the people are order arms to the amount of ten thousand derly, when properly managed; and we men; and that the duty of Louis XVI. is muft above all take care that not a drop to remain in the midst of a nation by of blood be Thed in this affair." The which he is adored, and to return to minds of these two men were congenialParis.”

both were full of honour, courage, and When the queen, who was thunder- humanity. struck by these words, recovered from her The municipality of Verdun, besides astonishment, he was highly incensed; sending the above five hundred men, rebut by dint of politeness, and soothing quested Frégeville, then lieutenant cololanguage, the procurator of the commune nel of the Iicond regiinent of dragoons, found means to appease her. The phrases and now a member of the council of ology, indeed, which that able magistrate five hundreid, to march with a picked deadopted, was so respectful, and to suited to tachment of regular troops. The honour the occasion, that it was imposlible for the of this service belonged by right to the king and queen to be offended. The oldest general in the town; but the muprincess Elizabeth, however, shewed strong nicipality thought proper not to ask for marks of anger :

"come, fir,” said me, any particular detachment, but merely to in a haughty tone, “ be civil at least, and name the officer whom they wished to see let us depart.

at its head. At this juncture, Romeuf, general The lieutenant colonel set off with a La Fayette's aid-du-cam) arrived. He hundred and fifty men, and with a fulldesignified to Louis XVI. that he had orders pendance upon all his officers, except to conduct him back to Paris, and at three captains, and one sub-lieutenant, length the king contented to set off. It whose patriotism was more than equivowas now five o'clock in the morning. As cal. . On his way, he was informed that he was coming out of the honfe of Sarfé, the king had just left Varennes, and after his atiention was called to fifteen thou. having proceeded about four hundred land men of the national guards of the yards, perceived in a height to his right, vicinity, armed with mulkets, scythes, the regiment of royal-allemand with two fpits and all kinds of offentive instru- or three general officers in uniforin. The

Marquis signal of

Marquis de Bouillé was at their head, After reaching the high road from VaAs the squadron of a hundred and fifty rennes to Clermont, Frégeville, in 1pite of men could not advance towards the bridge the impatience of the dragoons, thought of Varennes, which was still blocked up, proper to slacken his pace for about half without passing under the fire of that re- an hour, and to leave a distance of near giment; it was vecessary either to turn three quarters of a mile between his back, or to take the chance of fighting squadron and the column of infantry, in one against fix. Frégeville gave orders order that there might be a rear guard, to halt, and drew up his detachment in a ready to face Bouillé, should he present line, A single shot would have been the himself; and that the king's carriage

a inasacre ; and perhaps of a might ftill continue to advance during civil war.

the action, escorted by those who were Fortunately a woman came up to them; able to proceed the fastest on foot. and was asked by the lieutenant-colonel it As soon as the king had arrived at there was no other road that would take Clermont, the road from Varennes was him to the column that was marching blocked up with carts and casks, in such back with the king, besides that which a way that only a single man on horseback would oblige him to pass in front of 'could pass at a time. The lieutenant Bouillé's troops,

" Follow me,” said colonel, before he entered the city, gave the woman. is She then conducted the orders to halt, and thought it incumbent detachment through a morass, along a upon him to communicate to the directory path only two feet wide. Frégeville thus of the district the requisition by virtue of found himself quite unexpectedly in fo ad- which he had marched. He fent an offivantageous a position, that he had it in

cer upon the service ; entrusted to him his power to stop de Bouillé, had he been the original documents; and recommended inclined to follow the king. The latter to him particularly to request the dittrict would have been forced to defile through to furnish oats for the horses, and refreshthe morals, while Frégeville would al- ments for the men. Both the cattie and ready have had liis Iquadron drawn up in their riders were ready to faint from inorder of battle.

anition, having been kept on a full gal. When Frégeville had crossed the mo: lop, the greater part of the time from two rasi, he halted a moment to give up the o'clock in the morning to the very heat of command to an older officer than himself, the day. who came post-bafte from Verdun, very Clermont was in the greatest disorder ; discontented in appearance at the detach- the constituted authorities wished on one ment's setting off without his knowledge, hand to sew the greatest respect to the but in reality at the arrestation of the king ; on the other they were harrassed king. The ipeed with which they had hy twenty thousand men asking for bread marched furnished him with a pretence and wine. Every inhabitant spread befor giving vent to his choler : “ You fore his door all his provisions, and all the wanted, I suppose, said he, to kill the wine his cellar afforded; so that in a very horses.' The object of the two com- short time there twenty thousand men manders was very different-one wished were almost all intoxicated by the comto adyance with promptitude, the other as bined effect of the wine, and the excessive flowly as possible. The lieutenant colo. heat. nel, who had marched the first, felt no The officer sent on a mission to the disconcern about his justification, being pro- triệt not being able, in consequence of vided with a personal requisition from the their being fo fully occupied, to procure municipaļity of Verdun; nor would he their attention to his business, stopped to indeed have given up the command of the look at the king, instead of returning to detachment, if he had not been persuaded the lieutenant colonel. In the mean time that the dragoons would make the other the dragoons, who were dying of hunger officer get on in fpite of him. In effect, and thirst insisted upon marching forward; a few moments after, they insisted with but were stopped when they came to the loud cries upon joining the escort that ac- first barricade. Frégeville, who knew secompanied the king. They were accord- veral members of the district, resolved to ingly put in mction; the lieutenant colo- pass alone ; and cleared the second barrinel taking no other precaution, than that cade ; but a little farther he found a kind of informing the column that the troops of guard, consisting of about forty men, thty law on their left came from Verdun, all in a complete state of intoxication. w.ich was saying quite enough.

They rushed towards him some levelled

Original Letter of Archbishop Laud.

305 their muskets at him--others put their ORIGINAL. LETTER OF ARCHBISHOP bayonets to his breast. It was in vain

LAUD. that he endeavoured to reason with them; To my very loving friende Dr. Johnson, they wouid not listen to a word he said. Chaplaine to the Queen's Mat of At length he asked for the commandant of Bohemia att ge Haghe. the post, who fortunately proved to be an SIR,

25 Novemb, officer of the national guards, and a man I have receaved you lres of 5 Decemb. of a cool and courageous character. Fré- and I thanke you for them.--For ye ligeville acquainted him with his adven- bell wch you mention called Calvin's ture : “ The only way for you to save Life, I heard of itt from Hamborough yourself, said the officer, is to consent to

about two months since, and withall, be conducted like a criminal to the mu- that there was an intention to dedicate nicipality. I will accompany you there itt to mee, wch can have noe other ayme with four truity men.” On saying this than to abuse ye Church of England, he divided with him his tricoloured rib- and to blast mee, fo farre at least as such bon, and hung it, to his button-hole;

a penne may be able to doe itt. I did “ This" added he, " is the distinctive

ever since expect itt would be printed in mark of our troops : now put your arms yo low countreyes. But to pr’vent that across, and follow me."

Í did use all ye diligence I could, both It took three quarters of an hour to to Sr Willin Bofwell and otherwise. get to the town-house, and from thence to

And I pray doe you alsoe take ye best the king's carriage, round which the

care you can to hinder itt. And you members of the district and municipality have reason foe to doe; for in ye Epte were assembled. Frégeville was recog. Dedicatory to mec, you are fufficiently nized by one of them and immediately abused, and the wrong weh was done you enlarged.

att yo Haghe is rivetted in upon you faft The first use that he made of his liberty enough, if that bee true wch I heare. was to approach the king's carriage, The other passages of yos lies need noe in order to get a fight of him, and to ask answere yet I beleeve that Confiftory will his deliverer for provisions. At that bee much offended with ye Pr. of Orange, moment Louis XVI. fuddenly put his his proceedings and anys concerning ye head out of the coach door, and addressed players. As for Bamfort, you did very well himself to the constituted authorities :

to thinke of his remoave, but sinceliee re«Well!" said he, with the tone of im- fuses I know noe helpe for itt, till itt shalt patience, “ when am I to set off? Will please God to fent a better opportunity. there never be an end to all this?" A

For the Orientall bookes wch ye Di of member of the district answered very ci- Physic haih left behinde him att Leyden, vily that they were going to put the horses I would I had a catalogue of them, -For to, which was accordingly done, and the I have not foe much money to spare as to king set off.

buy them all, or to buy any double, wch The following sketch was taken of the I either have by mee, or have sent to personages in the carriage. The king y University already unlesse a confideralooked like a traveller whose journey is ble lumme of money might bee saved by tirelome to him; but his features had buying all together. I pray therefore, it fuffered no change s he appeared perfectly you can, fend mee a catalogue of ye bookes resigned to any fate that might attend him, with their leverall prices, and you shall The queen had lost her temper ; darted have ny present and what I can, or canangry looks around her; and said not a

not doe, and I will speake with St Willm word. The passions that agitated the Boswell before his returne to give mee his princess Elizabeth, were painted in her best affistance. face, which was suffused with crimfon.

You shall doe very well, since Henfius The two royal children were constantly and Salnatius are fallen apeeces to send looking out of the coach-door, smiled

mee word aboute what Philologicall upon every body, and seemed to be in the question it is; and why you thinke itt midst of their family. The dauphin will end in divinity, and what part it is complaining of a kind of handkerchief tied that each of them mayntaynes, for itt may round his head, which incommoded himbee I shall picke somewhat out of that.by reason of the heat, the princess Eliza. I must still give you caution to bee wary, beth took it off without turning round

among that people.--Soe to God's blessed her head, frożn fear of encountering the prote&tion I leave you, and rest eyes of the crowd, by whom they were Lambeth, Yor very loving Friende, surrounded,

December 13, 1639.


ORIGINAL LETTER OF THE LATE DR. particular, has he either read or under

WARING TO THE REV. DR. MÅSKE- Itood mine? I particularly ask this quef.

LYNE, ASTRONOMER-ROYAL, tion, because my enquiry will principally (The following interesting letter was written relate to them. by the late Dr. WARING, in reply to a

If he understood them, be has done paslage contained in LALANDE'S life of more than Mr. Condorcet, for CondorCONDORCET, which states, that in the cet, in a letter to me, acknowledges that he rear 1764, there was no first rate analyst did not understand them. in England. Had Lalande been as dis- I cannot but say, that this at first gave tinguished a mathematian as he is an

me no great opinion of Condorcet's atastronomer, he would not have thus under

tention or abilities as a inathematician, rated the merits of such eminent British for I never read any inathematical work, mathematicians as Lyons, Emerson, Lan

that I could not, with proper attention, den, and Waring, who all flourished at that period. Dr. Waring, who published

understand the subjects and the reasoning, his 4 Miscellanea Analytica" in 1762, and though I have sometimes been almoit his " Meditationes Algebraicæ" in 1770. obliged to decypher the language; but I was the author of some of the greatest dir- presume it probable, that Condorcet sov eries in algebra, algebraic curve lines, was at that time too inuch engaged in infinite series, increments, and fiuxions.] political to attend to deep mathematical DEAR SIR,

matters. Perhaps, this may be faid to be IT has been my misfortune to have owing to the obicurity of the expresions; had my writings attacked very early by of this, the readers must be the several persons ; but it hias been my good judges: I can only add in defence, that fortune to find that no errors in reasoning Mr. D’Alambert understood the first were detected, except two or three errata edition of the “Medit. Algeb. and Propr. of the press, and numerous others in my Algebr. Curv.” published in the year errata pages; add to this some general 1762 ; for he speaks highly of them in reflections which seem to betray both ig. the Paris acts. Mr. Le Grange unnorance and some envy, or malevolence of derstood them, for in speaking of my disposition; to these I gave no answer, Algebra in the Berlin acts, the only book untess once, when compelled to it by a of nine he was probably then in poro ftruggle for subsistence. My opinion is, session of; he recommends the consul.. that future a:es will ascribe to writerstation of it on the transformation of their just merits without partiality, and equations above all other books, and if they do not, it is totally immaterial mentions it as a work full of excellent and either to the writers then dead, or to interesting discoveries in Algebra. their readers.

Some of the firft mathematicians in It is my cordial win, that no party Germany and Italy urderstood it, for hould sublift in science; names should be they expresied their sentiments of it in mentioned and not nations, and both palt, letters to me; they elected me, without present, and future fraternited.

any solicitation on my part, into two of Mr. Lalande, ali astronomers acknow. the most respectable focieties in the :world lodge, to be endued witli the first rate Bononia and Gottingen: and leveral abilities and knowledge in. and the mathematicians of this country, though writer of the best system of astronomy; I cannot say, that I know any one who but of this you are the supreme judge. thought it worth while to read througla

Every person that conspares the works the whole, and, perhaps, not the half of different writers should have read and of it. understood them.

Some of the greatest mathematicians I will confidently affert, that every in- that ever existed, have paid fome regard telligent reader of the inventions and to the inventions contained in my books, writings of Harriot, Briggs, Napier, Wal- for they have published several of thein. lis, Halley, Brancker, Wren, Pell, Bar- In the year 1762 I published thefirst edirow, Mercator, Newton, De Moivre, Mac- tion of my Algebra, and fest a copy of it laurin, Cotes, Stirling, Taylor, Simp- to Mr. Euler at Petersburgh, containing fon, Emerson, Landen, and cthers, will the following resolution of equations, with contempt, reprobate the affertion (contained in your leiter) of Mr. Lalande. viz. x=av7VFVpat. V postA;

I must therefore ask Mr. Lalande, has Mr. Euler printed it in the Petersburgh he either understood, cr even read the acts for 1764, and Mr. BEZOUT lince irventions and writings of the above-men- printeri it with some examples; but more ticaed English mathematicians; and, in new examples have been given by me





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1799] Original Letter of the late Dr. Iaring.

307 from it, i.e. more new equations have Mr. Condorcet afrimes a for the been resolved than by any other person. In chance of a persons voting truly, b for the said edition of 1762 was given a rule the chance of his voting falfely, and o for finding impossible roots of a given tor the chance of his not voting at all, equation from an equation, of which the and from thence deiluces ia tinilar conroots are the squares of the roots of a clufion---More of thele numbers may be given equation; a similar rule has been added together, and more decisions inince published in the Petersburgh acts; Atituted, and their probabilities made = another rule for finding impoflible roots , }, &c. or in any given ratio, &c. to was also given from finding an equation each other i lome intances have been of which the roots are the squares of the given by De Moivre, &c. in the general differences of the roots of the given equa- reatoning, but very many on trials by tion, hy which, from the change of ligns Mi. Condorcet, but to me it appears are always discovered when the roots of very doubtful: 1. when the chance of any the given equation are all possible or not ; two perlons voting truly can be assumed and from the last term of the resulting equal; or the chance of any one person equation, being either affirmative or voting truly can be given : and therefore negative, is discovered whether the num- what weight such calculations can have. ber of impossible roots is either 2, 6, 10, In my tranllation of algebraical quan&c. or 0, 4, 3, &c.; this was published tities into probable relations, an elegant in the firft edition of the Algebra, 1762, theorem is given, viz. atb.afb-* and in the philosophical transactions for the year 1764, and has been lince published by t5-2x...atiei fome of the greatest mathemnaticians.

In the same paper contained in the * tna. :-*.. -2 x X 64*. philofophical transactions for the year 1764, was introduced a new principle .a.d-x.c~-2x..,3x.6.5x+ for finding whether the area of an algebraical curve can be expreft in finite al. &c=2..-6.6-2*—-——-- 1x +. gebraical terins, by affuming an alge- +P.a. 2-x. ax. b.b.x. baix... braical equation, which neceffarily expresses the algebraical relation between the area and the abfciss, when they can

b-- na-in.- - x + .. &c. he exprest in finite terms; and afterwards Let a and i cenote the number of things cf I published, in the Med. Analyt. therelo. different kinds, A and B contained in an lution of a more general problein on urn or which may denoie the same thing, the saine principle : Mr. Condorcet fince the number of chances that an event happens did the same for some inore algebraical or rails ; and every time that a is drann equations on the same principle above · out of the urn, let the number of A's le mentioned first discovered by me.

diminished by x, and every time that b Mr. Condorcet did me the honour to is drawn out of the urn, let the number send me his book on the probabilities of B’s be diminished by *; then will tle of juries differently instituted; it contains munber of chances of A's happening or many very sensible reflections on political, being drawn (m+1) tiines and B’s being as well as mathematical matters; I have drawn 1-m-1 times in n trials will be not the book in my poffeffior, and I only

b. speak from a faint memory; it contains principally the application of the binomial + atb ato or trinomial series

- 9 mm 2x a+b=atana benă a 5+2** 64&c.=1...+

+ 5-1 -1 2. ра

b7b." a+b+c=a+20 x Date Every thing that can be deduced on the + &c. to the above mentioned decilions, former supposition that the probabilities fome other problems on decisions are ad- e, and b, &:c. remain the same from the bided: Mr. De Moivre and others introiused nomiad, trinon.ial, &c. may with equal the binomial for similar purpoles ; they facility on the latter fupposition be deassume a and b for the probabilities of an duced from this theorem. event happening, and for its failing re- In the year 1762, a rule was given for spectively, and conclude that the chance

our two algebraical equations of n and m of its happening nếm times, and failing dimensions, containing two unknown m times in a trials will be Pan-m Brn


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quantities x and y, of finding the dinnen(576) lions of the quantity t, when the two



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