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thedral, and how you every thing that also is chosen annually by the subscribers is going forward in the city of Norwich; at large; so that each gentleman on the nor should it be an idle furvey; I should committee sits for two years ; he is not address you as my friend Monsieur le again eligible till after twelve months have Diable boiteux did his companion : “ il elapsed. The committee meets on the faux que vous le rende utile" said he ; evening of the second Monday of each “ et pour vous donner une parfaite con. month, when it takes into consideration noissance de la vie humaine, je veux the propriety of admitting into the library vous expliquer ce que font toutes ces per rejecting, such books as have been prosonnes que vous voyez. Je vais vous posed by any of the subscribers since its découvrir les motifs de leurs actions, et former fitting : the admission or rejection vous révéler jusqu'à leurs secrètes pen- of a book is decided by the majority of sées." But after all, perhaps, this might votes. There are about five hundred have been a very ungrateful task ; I should subscribers to this library; and confiderhave the ill will of my neighbours for ing how easy are the terms of admission exposing their follies, without being &c., it is wonderful that the number is thanked for displaying their virtues. So not greater : the price of tickets (all of 'tis all very well as it is : instead of point, which are transferable) is two guineas ing out to you, therefore, this miser and and a half, and the annual subscripthat spendthrift, this rogue and that fool, tion for supplying the library with books that is to say, instead of p;articulars, I and for defraying, all the expences of must deal in generals, in the following the institution is only eight shillings. For sketch of the state of the fociety in the the accommodation of officers princicity of Norwich.
pally; it was agreed, that from the first of It is now, I think, about fifteen years January, 1794, “ temporary residents be fince the establishment of a public library admitted to the use of the library, on subin this cityt: it contains a variety of va- scribing five shillings quarterly, and deluable books, which, in the catalogue of positing a guinea, which mall be refunded it, are well arranged under the following when the subfcription ceases, and the books heads: 1. Theology, Ecclefiaftical hif- are returned in good order to the library." tory, Morality. 2. Metaphysics, Logic, The effects which this library has Theory of Language, Criticism, Oratory. produced are striking, and will, 3. Education. 4. Law, Polity, Com- doubt, be permanent i it is obvious, that merce, and Art of War. 5. Natural Phi- antecedent to its institution there must lofopliy, Mathematics, Medicine, Agri- have been some taste for literature among culture, Chemistry. 6. Natural History; the citizens of Norwich, for if there bad Zoology, Botany, Mineralogy. 7. Fine not, the library would never have been Arts ;-Agriculture, Sculpture, Paint, instituted; but an easy unexpensive access ing, Music, Gardening, &c. 8. History, to useful and entertaining booke of every Biography, Heraldry, Chronology. 9. denomination has widely diffused a taste Geography, Topography, Voyages and for reading, and this again has had a faTravels. 10. Antiquities and Mytho- vorable influence on conversation, We logy. 11. Poetry and Dramatic works. have among us some feinale circles, where 12. Romances, Novels &c. 13. Greck it is more common to hear the merits of a and Latin books ; and Translations from new book canvaffects the truth of an authe Ancients. 14. French, Italian, &c. thor's theory or the folidity of his system, 15. Miscellaneous works ; Dictionaries, than the merits of a new fashion, the Reviews, &c.
elegance of a cap, or the gracefulness of It is evident from this sketch of its a gown. contents, that the Public Library is adapt Besides this public library, there are ed, not merely for the amusement of loun- several book-clubs among the respectable, gers and boarding school young ladies, tradesmen and shop-keepers, who find abut for the instruction of students and the musement for their leisure hours in perusreference of scholars. Its concerns are ing the publications of the day. We managed by a committee, consisting of a have also tome circulating libraries ; one president and vice-president, (both of is of considerable respectability, and from whom are annually elected,) and of twen- the circumitance of its procuring new ty-four other gentlemen, one half of whom books on their earliest appearance, and
occasionally of its procuring half a dozen + So long ago as the year 1608 was esta- copies of them, it meets with very liberat blished a city library, “ communi ftudioforum bono:"it has long since dwindled into infig- encouragement, Our Mops for second
hapd books are not numerous i but a nifica nee.
Sketch of the State of Society in Norwich. 279 public library in such a town as this is " the Brunswick march to the armies of no good friend to booksellers ; ftill, how all tyrants” and “ our fovereign; the ever, they are supported; for Norwich majesty of the people", or whether they contains a great many literary and scien are « curse the council of five-hundreds tific characters; fo many indeed, that it and “ damn the Directory.” has been called-though in the language, We have some of these drunken quarJess of truth than flattery,--the Athens relfome fellows in this city; among them of England. We have a numerous body too are men who, froin their clevated Gof the established clergy, to a considerable tuation in life, their education, and portion of which, it would be highly il the company which we must suppose liberal not to ascribe a relich for the them to have kept, ought to know bet. luxuries of literature ; clerical gentlemen ter, and should let an example of temare men of leisure, and with the thepherd perance and moderation to others who Tityrus may exclaim “ Deus nobis hæc have not enjoyed their advantages; these otia fecit;" many of thein, however, gentlemen, however, serve as a warnenjoy their otium, cum dignitate, and ing, and though the alternative which with the erudition of a scholar unite the they make choice of is certainly discreurbanity and accomplishments of a gen- ditable to themfelves, it is perhaps not tleman. Among our diffenting minilters very important to the public, allo, are some few of genius and learning : We are far more tolerant in matters of but the Diflenters loft one of their bright. religion, than of politics : and certainly est ornaments in the death of Dr. Enfield. if perfect toleration is not to be allowed Dr. Enfield's literary character is known in both, subjects of a political nature are full well : bis domestic virtues, the be
more cognizable before a human tribunal nignity of his disposition, the mildness than those of a religious. of his manners, his sensibility, and in
It is an offence of the highest magnishort, the general excellence of his heart, tude, with a violent and profane hand to comparatively can be known to few : to
still the throbbings of devotion; it is im. those few who enjoyed his intimacy and pious and arrogant to prescribe to a fel. bis friendship.
low reptile what sacrifice he shall offer Ergo Quinctilium perpetuus sopor unto the throne of the Almighty, and to Urget ? cui pudor, et juftitiæ soror
say “thus only shalt thou worhip him': Incorrupta fides, nudaque veritas,
as well may we at once with an unhalQuando ullum invenient parem ?
lowed voice say to the creator 'thus only From the clerical order if we pass on to the medical, we shall remark with caluist can show the difference?
shall thy creatures worship 'thee', what pleasure a large proportion of its members,
In Norwich we have churchmen, and who are men of generał science : men whole profesfional knowledge, rich as it Quakers, Catholics, and Proteftants;
dissenters of various denominations: Jews, may be, confti.utes a small portion only each individual worships in his of their intellectual wealth.
Norwich, I suppose, like every other way, and from a fincere belief, it is to be place in the kingdom, contains foine few presumed, that “ in every nation he that
feareth God and worketh righteousness is political inebriates: vow if a man is happy, good-humoured, and inoffensive over his accepted with him,” there are few (if hilarity, and rather to sinile at his antics themselves. If it be true that,“ like the cups, one is disposed to participate his any) who think ill of their neighbours for
worshipping in a manner different from than frown at his folly ; but if he grows furious when he is drunk, if he breaks
roots of corn, the spirit of religion be
comes more productive by division*,” we the glasses, upsets the table, and, like
may here look forward to an abundant the young officer who Fielding tells us threw the decanter at Tom Jones's head produce of rich fruit, in order to point out to him the weakness also and a French church: both of which
In this ancient city are a Dutch church of his argument-puts every one who
were founded by those eminent philanopposes him in fear of his life, it becomes necessary to turn such a man out thropists, Philip the fecond of Spain, and of the room as a difturber of the company,
his illustrious general the Duke of Alva. without any regard to the nature of the Nay, sinile not; for it is strictly true. beverage which intoxicated him ; for in
It appears from Blomfieldt that in the my opinion it does not fignify one farthing year 1565, "the city being in much distress whether he got drunk with French wine or
* Aikin's Letters to his Son, xi.“ On relix with English, nor is it of any signification, gious Societies. that I know of, whether his toasts arç
History of Norfolk, vol. ii. p. 200.
by the decay of the worsted manufacture, characters as those of Philip, and Duke which was now at fo low an ebb that Alva, vilified and insulted by the tame many were forced to leave their houses tender-hearted politicians of this day, and go into the country to get their Short-sighted beings ! do they not know bread,” the mayor, theriffs, &c, waited that almost all the European manufactories on the Duke of Norfolk then at his palate received a most extenlive diffusion from in the city, for the purpose of conlulting the measures which these very men, with him, how they might remove it. prompted, no doubt, by the keenelt wisdom They wisely resolved “ to invite divers and the noblest policy, pursued ? Philip strangers of the Low Countries which were inherited from his father, Charles the now come to London and Sandwich."--I Fifth, an implacable antipathy against am using the words of Blomfield" for re- the Lutherans; and to extirpate the fuge from the persecution then raised proteftant religion from his dominions against them by the power of the Duke was the object of his most ardent ambi of Alva, principal for the king of Spain; tion. But religion and its professors must which ftrangers had obtained licence from stand and fall together ; during the first the queen* to exercise the making of Flan- year only of Alva's vigorous, * juft, and ders commodities of wool in her ma, necessary” administration in the Netherjefty's dominions." The confequence of lands, upwards of a hundred thousand this application was, that letters patent persons relinquished their habitations, were granted, “ for the placing of 30 England, as it has been already observed, master workmen, each of them to have received many of the fugitive manufac10 fervants, being in all 330 Dutch and turers, under the fagacious auspices of Walloonst who came to Norwich and Elizabeth : hither they imported their set up the making of bayes, sayes, arras, fuperior skill and industry in the woolen mockades, and such like, which im. manufactories : those fine ones of Wiltmediately employed a great number of shire were erected on the ruins of the hands, so that," &c. “both city Spanish Netherlands, and the establishand country grew rich I; The Dutchment of these, now become unrivalled, congregation had the choir of the Fricts introduced various collateral branches preachers church assigned them for their
more or less connected with them*. If religious allemblies: they used it by Į were disposed to digress still farther leave till the year 1619 and then it was by enlarging on the beneficial consequences leased to them at fix shillings and eight- of what it is the fashion to call persecupence per annum. The Dutch con- tion, I could tell these timid politicians, gregation had a renewal of their lease on that when Louis the fourteenth revoked the the 15th of June 1713, for 200 years, en ediet of Nantz, about half a million of the same terms as before. The French subjects deserted France and carried their churcht, like the Dutch, was, till the ge arts and manufactories into various neral dissolution of monasteries by Henry countries swhich tave been enriched by the eighth, the property of a convent, them : England is indebted to the revo
The French congregation must, no cation of that ediet for its Spitalfields doubt, have encreased very confider
colony. ably, immediately after Louis XIV.
As it is with manufactories, so it is revoked the edi&t of Nantz; but notwith- with science; violent oppression is equally standing that memorable event is of favorable to the diffution of both : when modern date, the families which emigrated the Turks, under the command of Mahither are to completely anglicized that homet the second, reduced the city of the descent of them is only to be detected Constantinople and destroyed the Roman by their patronymics. Service is per- empire in the east, many of the learned formed in both these churches by the Greeks fought shelter under the auspices of fame gentleman.
Colmo de' Medici, and became professors I do hate, Mr. Editor, to hear such of that langnage in Florence. A spirit of
emulation was excited between them and *Elizabeth. ps. Norwich Roll.”
the Italian professors, and thus the efforts The strangers encreased so rapidly, that of each contributed to diffuse the sciencet. in the year 1571 the number of them in the Can there be any doubt but that the city was 3993, and in 1582 there were 4679. Blomfield, vol.ii. page 2 6 and 209.
* Millar on the English Government, B. ii. The Church of " St. Mary the Less, at ch. viii. the Monastery gates."
tRoscoe's Life of Lorenzo de' Medici.
1799] Sketch of the State of Society in Norwich. 281 French revolution has been the cause of and walls that would have stood the shock diffusing the French langage all over of many a deadly ball! This testimonial, Europe, and some part at lealt of Asia? I say, is unexceptionable : the people of Thanks to those worthy men, Orleans, Norwich are something like the ancient Robespierre, and Marat, cum multis aliis Germans—who by the bye had no cities quæ nunc prescribere longum est. at all--of whom we are told, that they
Norwich, from its vatt influx ot strangers regarded it as a badge of flavery to be in the fixteenth century, must have had, surrounded with walls'; to live in ignowne would think, a sort of polyglott minious and timid security. This goddialect for a long time, and it is probable like notion they nourished with so much that the French and Dutch languages solicitude, that when one of their tribes would become familiar to many of the had emancipated itself from Roman servi. citizens. But if the Norman conq ieror tude, their countrymen required as a was unable to uproot the language of testimony of their liberty that they should this country and transplant into it his demolish the walls which the Romans own, there would be no danger that a had erected. It appeared, however, in kwnbled set of refugees should discourage the tenth century, that the empire was the cultivation of an indigenous tongue, invaded by Hungarians and other barand be able to naturalize their own barous nations, and the prejudices of the exotics.
Germans were overcome by their fears, Norwich has been fcandalized as a for they secured their habitations with disloyal city. I am sure, Mr. Editor, walls and ramparts ! Now, Sir, it is you
will agree with me, that such Nander very true that the citizens of Norwich, in is very abominable.
Norwich a dif- 'common with their countrymen, were loyal city! Sir, every other man you only threatened with an invasion from the meet is decked in regimentals :
French : but when that threat was apjam litui ftrepunt;
parently on the point of being executed, Jam fulgor armorum fugaces
when the danger of incursion was most Terret equos, equitumque vultus.
imminent, fo cool and steady was the Videre magnos jam videor duces
courage of our Norwich heroes I do Non indecoro pulvere sordidos,
not mean the volunteers merely, and the Et cuncta terrarum subacta.
fencibles, the cavalry, the militia, &c. Formerly the young men and maidens &c. &c.—but of the citizens at large, that would rise betimes to usher in the first of to the best of my knowledge there was not May: Shakespeare tells us “ it was im. fo inuch as a motion made in either of possible to make the people fleep on May. those illustrious and fapient affemblies, the morning,” but now-a-days we trouble court of aldermen er the court of comnot ourselves about such childish festivals; mon-councilmen, for rebuilding the gates and if our 'prentice-lads rise an hour be or repairing the walls! Indeed, from the fore their usual time—it is on a field-day! known valour and high-fed fpirit of those It is difficult to conceive a snore com
two bodies, I question whether the conseplete metamorphosis than takes place quence would not have been fatal to the among some of these gentlemen : it would mover of luch an ignominious proposal . be scarcely possible to identify them;
as it happens, we have not a Tarpeian the hop-apron is indignantly thrown rock in the town, but I am sure that the behind the counter, when lo!--the thigh vile miscreant would have been instantly displays a cream-white buck-skin, and precipitated from the castle or cathedral the leg a jet-black boot; the sword' dan- lummit, as a well-merated punishment for ces valiantly by the lide, and the richly- his cowardice. clustered feathers if the wind
I have thought it no more than hand. high-wave tempestuously on the aspiring fome, Mr. Editor, to attempt this vindihead, like the awful plumage of Al cation of the calumniated character of my fonso’s fatal helmet in the gallery of fellow-citizens ; this repullion of an imOtranto,
puted crime-which has certainly no But the most unequivocal proof of that parallel in the decalogue—the crime of noble military ardour which has feized the disloyalty. If the corporation have any citizens of Norwich, is the circumstance sense of gratitude, they will, I think, of their having of late years suffered the present me with the freedom of the city gates of their city to be destroyed, and the in a gold box : but many of them, I walls to remain in ruins : gates that understand, have imbibed the Godwinean would have reliited many a fierce affault, philosophy, so that it would be imprudent
to indulge very ardent hopes of such a ther to commiserate than reproach there compliment for iny trouble.
emaciated and inactive wanderers ; empty It
is time, Sir, that we should speak louins, uninhabited houses, and unwantabont the amulements of Norwich; buted work-rooms would have given hin sufshey are so limilar, no doubt, to those ficient information*. which prevail in all other parts of the A stranger would experience from the kingdom, that the subject admits but of upper clafles of our society much kindlittle enlargement. I fall say nothing neis and hospitality: if he cultivated a about the playing at toldiers, becaule female acquaintance, after having tired that very fashionable game has already himself with listening to the vacant pratbeen noticed : I mention it pro forma. tle of fone of the fair daughters of fashion, We have a theatre which is so much fre- he might turn for relief to a circle of laquented, that, according to the new leafe dies in whose conversation are united sense, for fourteen years which has just been vivacity, and acuteness. The manners granted of it, and which is not to come of our females are, in general, easy and saence for more than a twelve-month from familiar. I do not, however, know that this time, the manager is to pay double they have formed among themselves any the old rent and fipk a considerable sum of society corresponding to one which Mr. money (1000l.) on the building : we look Gibbon, in his posthumous works, relates forward with no little expectation to a to have existed in Switzerland. coinpany of comedians, whose exertions focieté du eins,” so denominated from and talents will secure to the new manager the vernal ages of its members, was a so? perpetual succession of full houses. ciety which Mr. G. frequented, confifting
A talte for music is very prevalent of about twenty unmarried ladies, of ealy here: this may be readily accounted for. but not splendid fortunes; they met at Among our professional performers are to each other's houses, alınost every day, be distinguished fome few, to whose fine without the control or even the presence execution and rich tones, he must be dull of any elder matron: they received visits indeed who is insensible. During the from a number of young men of every nawinter season, therefore, in addition to tion of Europe, and their own prudence the periodical public concerts, we have was their only restraint. They laughed, frequently domestic music-parties, which they danced, they acted, and they lang i are much indebted to the vocal and in " but in the midst of this careless gaiety,' strumental aflítance of several private la- says Mr. Gibbon, “they respected themdies and gentlemen. To cheer the long felves and were respected by the men : the evenings too, " when icicles hang by the invisible line between liberty and licentiwall”, we often join in the dance as well ousness was never transgressed by a gesture, as the song, and, upon the whole, I sup- a word, or a look, and their virgin chastity pose, live as merrily as our neighbours. was never fullied by the breath of scandal Our modes of visiting are various : we or suspicion. A tingular institution, exhave dinner parties, fupper parties, sand- pressive of the innocent fimplicity of Swiss wich parties, conversation parties, routs manners." and routettes-hurricanes, tempefts and A stranger would remark that the ladies tornadoes !
of Norwich, as well as the gentlemen, What sort of a character would be speak their provincial dialect, many of drawn of us by a stranger I cannot lay: them, no doubt, are insensible that the I think he would remark of the common purity of their colloquial language is thus people that they are peaceable and sober ; tainted: and such are the force of early the right of many of them sunning them- habit and the influence of imitation, that felves in the market-place and lounging others, aware of the vulgarity of proa out the streets, would not, indeed, afford vincialism, and, of course, eager to avoid him a very favourable opinion of their in- it, are not at all times able to succeed : dustry; but if he were a sensible man he the stream of conversation will occafiontvould not form a haîty judgment: he ally be impregnated with the soil through would enquire before he condemned thele which it flows. There may be some few poor fellows for idlenefs--whether they could get any éployment ? he would enquire into the state of our manufactory of Norwich manufactures” I refer my reader.
* For a very able sketch of “the history in particular, and into the state of our
to a coinniunication in your Monthly Magabusiness in general: the result of his zine Vol. vi. pagę 413. enquiries would probably lead him, ra