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we

cannot

1799.]
On the Word Angel.

213 of in the passages above alluded to, yet, editors and selectors of Calmet's great in the English Bible it is translated, i Dictionary, now publishing by C. Taylor. think very properly, Lord; for it does A considerable portion of part third is not appear that the word JEHOVAH was appropriated to the different interpretaat that time used as a particular title of tions of ayynos, angels, or agents, mefdistinction, but afterwards, when God sengers, &c. but towards the close of renews his promise to deliver the Ifraelites this very interesting and entertaining from the Egyptian bondage, and to car- article, there is an opinion which might ry them into Canaan, he more fully de. have created no surprise in the last century clares his power, and by the name of when Calmet wrote, but which seems raJEHOVAH enters into a covenant with ther extraordinary to have crept into this them : here then is the first passage in modern edition at the end of the eighteenth which this word is used as a particular century. Angels are here represented title of distinction ; for in the other par. as sent from the throne of divine mercy in sages that great honour is not attached various services to mankind, “ in which to the name, which here seems to be im- they may be (and probably are) always plied, and therefore it was not necessary engaged, though invisible to 118; that it should be translated otherwise than may receive from them much good or by its common fignification; but where evil, without our being aware of any anthe Almighty so expressly afumes this gelic interference.” Upon reviewing the title to be a memorial of the covenant previous parts of this article, there does between him and the Ifraelites, then it not seem to be any part of the references appears as if it was to be considered as a from facred authorities, nor can I trace title of honour. M. R. seems to have any which lead to fo pofitive a conclusion, misunderstood my meaning, when he says, as of this continual ministration of angels. that I maintained that the word “shem”. The various dispensations and interpofignified “ a title of honour.” I did not fitions of divine providence, as well gesay that that word fignified “ a title of neral and particular, I am ready to adhonour," but that a particular title of di- mit, and any thinking man who acknowftinction was attached to the word Jeno- ledges a superintending cause, vah in that passage. It is well known well deny them ; but this ministration by that the Jews retain so great a veneration angels, over each individual, however for the word JEHOVAH that they are invisibly it may be effected, seems to be forbidden to pronounce it. In former fo poetical, and at the same time fo contimes it was only the high priest that tradictory to the divine declarations, might pronounce it, and that but once a which state that the leasons of God's viliyear, at the folemn benediction of the tations by miraculous agents is passed apeople in the feast of expiation. It ap way, that I must beg to enter my protest pears by the fragments which we have against the continuance, at this enlightened remaining of the Hexapla of Origen, that period, of any such doctrine. It has hitherhe wrote Adonai in all places where Jeho- to been the basis on which superstition has VAH was in the Hebrew ; and we do not built all her fearful terrors-upon which find that St. Jerome either makes use of the ignorant and the young have been led to this word in his translation of the bible, tear instead of loving the ways of religion ; or in his other works ; he follows the and sacred things have been wrapped in a ancient Greek interpreters, translating veil of alarm, which has shaker the most it, for the most part, Lord. I must, placid innocence, and disturbed the most however, confess that I am more inclin. peaceful mind! ed to favour bishop Warburton's expla To strengthen this doctrine, the editors nation of the paflage than M. R's ob- offer an instance from Job, where" Satan, jections against it, inasmuch as by his an evil “ angel is represented as producing explanation the passage seems to be ren- storms, &c. by his activity-though Job dered entirely free from that obscurity knew not that it was Satan.” It is rewhich your correspondent fupposes to ex- markable that this book of Job, which ift in it. Your's, &c.

most critical writers have long since settled December 18, 1798.

S. E. to be an allegorical or epic poem, should

liave been selected for an instance or proof To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. of the doctrine advanced ; but if this SIR,

did not shake it, enough is said in the HROUGH the channel of your very next sentence to overthrow any re: address a few lines to the present judicious ferred it all to the good pleasure of God,

acting by natural causes." Now Job is into which they have thus plunged, they here made to act like a natural and ration- go the length of supposing, that when they al being. There was no fimilitude to the have done any thing wrong, they muś other cases of Abraham, Manoah, &c. needs have two guardian angels, one whofe angels, having performed their leading them into good, and the other pullmessage, made themselves known by fome ing them to evil; and thus, between them visible sign. There was a feet of the both, they destroy their own accountableancient Jews, and there are many people ness, give up the justice of God, and anong noderns, fo fuperftitions as to defert all the doctrines of the very religion believe that each person has his peculiar they profess! fpirit or angel watching over their steps ;

Nov. 1798.

H. A. and to help themselves on in the depth

PROCEEDINGS at large of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE of France, on

the 4th of July, 1798, as published by the Secretaries. Notice of the Labours of the Class of

The class of Moral and Political SciMoral and Political Sciences, during the

ences had also to adjudge a prize upon tast quarterly Sitting, by Citizen La- this question : cuée.

« For what objects and on what con. [Year VI. of the French Republic-riyth Tri- ditions is it expedient for a republican flate mastre, 10 Thermidor.]

10 open public loans ??? *HE class of Moral and Political As the authors of the memoirs sent to the THE

Sciences bad proposed, as a subject concurrence, or concours, do not appear to for one of the prizes to be distributed by have attained the end of the question, the che Institute, the solution of the following class proposes the same subject afresh. question :

In a leparate program, which appeared " What are the most froper inflitutions to in the Monthly Magazine for January, found the morals of a people ? :

the following question in social science The class has received fifteen memoirs was proposed : on this subject : three of them appear to

How far ought the power of a father merit a distinct noti because their an- of a family to extend, and what limits thors have approached to the end pro- mould be prescribed to it in a well-conffituted poled in the question; but not judging republic ?" that has attained it, the prize will not

Although this last question involves any be distributed.

very interesting matter, and especially at The works of which the class has a period when the legislative body is about thought fit to make a particular mention to be employed in digeking a civil code, are, that which was deposited on the third the class probably entertained the first idea day, at the office of the secretary of the In- of it from a very extensive discussion which Aitute, and which bears for epigrapk these took place at one of its own fittings, on verfes of Horace :

paternal authority. The class had been

invited to this discussion by two memoirs « Si forte neceffe eft figere, non exaudita of our fellow-member DESALLES, and by Comringet dabiturque licentia jumpia pudenter." a menoir in two parts of our fellowThat which was inscribed under num. member R&DERER ; all three relating to ber 6, and which has for its epigraph this the rainciples of government in China. paffage of Cicero: Nec enim ulla res In his first memoir, entitled “ On the vehementiu's rempublicam coatinet quam infiucnce which despotism in China, and the filles." That which was inscribed under morals which accompany it, have produced number 10, bears for epigraph 'these on the foriy centuries of its stable auration," words, taken from the memoir itself: Citizen DESALLEH, after combating « On n'bopore point la vértu, on la re RAYNAL, who thought he had discovered Spelte."

principles of republicanilin in the governThe class has thought proper to pra

ident of China, draws a conclufion, from pose the faine question afresh: it was also a comparative examen of all the histories conlilered, at the same time, that the ele- grounded upon the Chinese writers, and mentary questions of the general question from the different voyages of embassy, require to be indicated in a new program. that China, during the term of its twentyThis program will be published in the two dynasties, has never admitted into its kitting oi tlie i sth Vendemiaire next.

government

2799.) Proceedings of the National Inftitute, 4th July, 1798. 219 gorernment any other than the most anti- gether, twenty thousand fathers of famirepublican forms.

lies are to be governed; in China; where In his second memoir, intitled: A ne te the patriarchal system is adopted, where enquiry into the despotism of right and ef- ever there are a hundred thousand frictisential fact in the Government of China, viduals, the government has only to taks Citizen DESALLES, after having sewn charge of two thousand persons, from that despotilin is the concentration in ono vich difference must result the double single person of all the powers which the advantage of rendering a great people social compact requires to be essentially more ealy to govern, and yet more dittadivided and communicated, proves, that cult to oppress. In effect, wherever a in China, the three powers are referred thousand heads of families can arm at by the law to the hereditary lovereign : least fifty thousand individnals, there must he proves afterwards, that there, as every either be frequent and terrible corrmotions where else, this hereditary sovereign has against power, or great management on almost always abuted it, lo that if we di. the part of thole who exercile power tovide the forty centuries of the duration wards the subjects." of the Chinelé einpire into tlwee parts, it 'The labolli, of which we have just would appear that about 1500 years have given an account, having obliged our heen consecrated to the nullity (nullite) colleague to beltow his l'esearches for a of their monarchs, 1500 years to their long time on the language and writing of crimes and unprincipled oppressions, and the Chinese, this has led him, in another scarcely rooo to philanthropic tolerance, meinoir, to compare the advantages and happiness and virtue.

inconveniences of the two systems of writCitizen REDERER, Itruck with the ing adopted in all civilized nations ; fym. great phenomenon which the Chinese na bolical writing, or the representative of tion presents, viz, the stability of its go- ideas, which is that of the Chinese ; and vernment, in fpite of its immense pop!- alphabetical writing, or the representative lation and territory, thinks, on the other of founds, which is that of the Europeans; hand, that the honour of it does not per- and, on this occasion, he draws a parallel tain to despotilin, but to institutions betwæn the Chinese and the French writreally republican, which, under appear- ing. Whichever of those may

be entitled ances of oppression and even of fervitude, to pre-eminence, much may be gained, in China, lur.mount the powers of def- according to the author, by studying the potism. These institutiuns are that of the principles of the Chinete language at a choice of magiftrates, and that of the pà- time when all men's minds are turned ta, triarchal authority, which last is very wards perfecting the means of commuuidifferent from paternal authority. The cation hetween paticns. He thinks that author makes it appear, that in China all writing, like articulated language, and magistracies are really elective, that all the language of action invented by Luthe Chinese are equally free to arrive at PEE and SICARD, may become a réal inthe most eminent, that no one obtains strument of analysis, and that it may be them unless by gradual promotions from poflille to establish between these three college to college, the result of public means of communication, such an accordexaminations, in which the emperor bras ance, that one may serve as a supplement no concern; that the Mandarins, who or controul to the other. The relearches have all been educated in the fame of Citizen REDERER have likewise often common schools, all instructed in one and given him occafion to furnith observations the same doctrine, all drawn without din proper to mark the influence of signs upon ftinction of origin, from the body of the ideas, and to set in a clear light the full nation, all armed, by the usages of the importance of the question proposed on country, with many means of relifting this fubject, by the National Institute. oppression, mult necessarily be, and are Citizen VILLETERQUE, agreeing with all' in reality, interelted to fupport the Citizen REDERER 23 ta the influence of people against delpotisin, and not to serve figns upon ideas, and perfuaded that it is as an intrument of despotism against the only by diminishing the too frequent ap. people,

proximations in language, by means of The organization of families appears to better conceived definitions, that we can our colleague to be a second barrier against add to the evidence of such approximathe abuses of every species of public tions as are deligned to maintain the anapower. “In Europe,” says he, “where logy of ideas with the faculty of generathe paternal system is adopted, wherever lizing, has endeavoured, in a memoir ena hundred thousand heads are united to- tilei, On Philosophical Experiénce, to seize

and

and trace the differences which exist be. has for its title, An Ejay on the Numistween philosophic experience and the phi- matic History of the Roman Legislation, our lofophic fpirit.

colleague describes a medal Itruck in hoCitizen' FLEURIEU has read a new nour of Marcus Porcius Læca, a tribune fragment of his relation of the voyage of the people, whr, in spite of the oppofiround the world, made in 1790, 1791, tion of the confuls, deprived them by a and 1792, by Captain STEPHEN MAR: law of the right of fcourging a Roman CHAND, of Marseilles.

citizen with rods. A victory like this This fragment offers a description of gained over arbitrary power, a victory the island of Tinian, one of the Marian which Cicero celebrated with the enthusiislands, such as Commodore Anson found asm which the exhilarating name of liin 1742, compared with that which is berty is calculated to infpire;-this vicgiven of it by voyagers who have touched tory' was well worthy to attract the nothere 22 years after the voyage of the tice of a member of the National Instiformer. À quarter of a century has fuf- tute; a viétory like this deserved well to ficed to transform an enchanting piece of be engraved upon bronze. Why have. fcenery into a rude impracticable wild : not we also erected durable monuments to so true is the obfervation of the Pliny of those ofour legislators, who, by the decrees France, that man enjoys more than he which they have proposed, have so poffefses; that he only keeps poffeffion of fully, contributed to make us re-conquer what he has by cares perpetually renewed, our rights? Why have we not also, like the and that if these are discontinued, every Romans, distinguished our laws by the thing languishes, every thing deteriorates, names of the authors ? Unquestionably every thing falls back into the hand of the representatives of the French people nature, which re-assumes her rights, and have no occasion for similar inftitutions effaces the works of man.

in order to make liberty loved and reCitizen GOSSELIN has read to the spected, to labour to render the French class fome disquisitions relative to the nation as happy as it is great; but there geographical system of Polybius, and institutions, could they only prevent one presented also a chart founded on the data fingle disastrous law, could they only of that historian. This is the fifth geo- give birth to one wise law, could they graphical system of the ancients which only be one additional guarantee of our Citizen GOSSELIN has restored.

felicity and our glory, we ought to Citizen BOUCHAUD has read two ine- adopt. Let us lavish encouragement moirs, the subject of which is the Roman on the men who are called either to Legillation. One, which continues the govern us or to give us laws; the career feries of seven preceding memoirs pub. which they have to run through is imlished by him, is entitled, Historical and menfe, and it is strewn with tlie greatest critical Researches on the Ediets of the difficulties. Roman Magistrates. In the other, which

power.

WALPOLIANA; OR, BONS MOTS, APOPHTHEGMS, OBSERVATIONS ON LIFE AND LITERA

TURE, WITH EXTRACTS FROM ORIGINAL LETTERS, . OF THE LATE HORACE WALPOLE, EARL OF ORFORD.

NUMBER XI. * This Article is communicated by a Literary Gentleman, for many years in babits of intimary zwith Mr. WalPOLE. It is partly drawn up from a collection of Bons-Mots, &c. in bis orun band-writing ; partly from. Anecdotes written down after long Conversations with bim, in which be would, from four o Clock in the Afternoon, till two in the Morning, display those treasures of

Anecdote with which bis Rank, Wit, and opportunities, bad replenished bis Memory; and partly from Original Letters to the Compiler, on subječts of Taste and Literature. CXLVIII. BOLINGBROKE'S GRATITUDE. her husband, that he could not walk

OLINGBROKE, to thew his grati- through the gardens, without her calling to return to England, endeavoured to sup- when she had a cold, or was otherwise in. plant the minister by means of the royal disposed. mistresses—but George II. was ruled by his queen, and not by his mistresses. Swift was a good writer, but had a bad Queen Caroline, indeed, deserved the fa- heart. Even to the last he was devoured vour the enjoyed. So attentive was the to by ambition, which he pretended to de

CXLIX. SWIFT.

217

CLIV.

LADY SUNDON.

CLI.

GEORGE J.

CLV.

POPE.

CLVI.

BURNET.

1799.]

Walpoliana, No. XI. spise. Would you believe that, after find- intimacy, that almost the fole remaining ing his opposition to the ministry fruitless, idea of superiority remained with her who and, what galled him ftill more, contemned, had the advantage in personal charms he summoned up resolution to wait on Sir and in this there was unfortunately no Robert Walpole ? Sir Robert seeing Swift comparison. The duchess becaine fo look pale and ill, inquired the state of his presumptuous that she would give the health, with his usual old English good queen her gloves to hold, and on taking humour and urbanity. They were stand- them again would affect suddenly to turn ing by a window that looked into the her head away, as if her royal mistress had court-yard, where was an ancient ivy perfpired some disagreeable effluvia! dropping towards the ground. “Sir, faid Swift, with an emphatic look, I am Lady Sundon was bribed with a pair of like that ivy: I want support.” Sir Ro- diamond ear-rings, and procured the donor bert answered, “ Why then, doctor, did a good place at court. Though the matyou attach yourself to a falling wall ?" ter was notorioully known, she was so imSwift took the hint, made his bow, and prudent as to wear them constantly in retired.

public. This being blamed in a company, CL. ATTERBURY.

Lady Wortley Montague, like Mrs. Can. Atterbury was nothing more nor less dour, undertook Lady Sundon's defence, than a jacobite priest. His writings were And pray, says she, where is the harm extolled by that faction, but his letter on I, for my part, think Lady Sundon acts Clarendon's History is truly excellent. wisely-for does not the bush thew where

the wine is sold ?" On a journey to Hanover the coach of George I. breaking down, he was obliged Pope received a thousand pounds from to take shelter in the next country-house, the Duchess of Marlborough, on condiwhich belonged to a gentleman attached to tion that he would suppress the character the abdicated family. The king was of of Atossa-yet it is printed. course shewn into the best room; where, in the most honourable place, appeared Bishop Burnet's absence of mind is the portrait of the pretender. The pos- well known. Dining with the Duchess sesfor, in great confusion, was about to of Marlborough, after her husband's difapologize by pleading obligations, &c. grace, he compared this great general to when the king stopped him, by saying, with Belisarius. « But, laid the Duchess, eaa smile of indifference, “Upon my word gerly, how came it that such a man was it is very like the family,"

lo miserable and universally deterted.” CLII.

“ Oh madam, (exclaimed the distrait pre

late) he had such a brimstone of a wife!" William Duke of Cumberland gave promises of talents that were never ac Strawberry Hill, August 18, 1785. complished. One day he had given some I am sorry, dear fr, that I must give offence to his royal mother, and was re- you unanswerable reasons, why I cannot manded to the confinement of his cham- print the work sou recommend. I have ber. After what the queen thought a been so much folicited since I set up my sufficient duration of his punishment, the press to einploy it for others, that I was sent for him. He returned in a very sul- forced to make it a rule to listen to no len humour, “ What have you been do- luch applications. I refused Lord Harding?" said the queen. - Reading wicke to print a publication of his; Lady “What book?"-" The New Testa- Mary Forbes, to print letters of her anment."

"-"* Very well. What part?”' ceitor Lord Eflex; and the Countess of “ Where it is said, Woman wby troublest Aldborough, to print her father's poems, thou me?"

though in a piece as small as what you CLIII. DUCHESS OF MARLBOROUGH. mention. These I recollect at once, be.

I am told that the secret letters between fide others whose recommendations do not Queen Anne and the Duchess of Marl- immediately occur to my memory; though borough, in the first glow of their passion, I dare say they do remember them, and are still extant in a certain house in the woud relent my breaking my rule. I will Green Park. They used to correspond under feigned and romantic names. When * About a hundred letters of compliment this intense friendship abated, the duchets or civility, will be omitted. Thore only are was certainly more in fault than the queen. telected which contain literary facts, or unsuch was the equality produced by their common thoughts. MONTHLY MAG, NO, XLIII,

Еe

only

WILLIAM DUKE OF CUMBER

LAND,

CLVII.

ORIGINAL LETTER.

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