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bread and flesh plentiful and cheap in otherwise, the Bakewellian models were France, at the time when a certain dig- not only highly improved in some parts, nified and popular writer addressed the but the form of the stock both radically people of England, on the black bread, and advantageoudly changed. In general and Spartan broth, and starvation of the however, the ideas of the true thape of French; could he have given a better cattle were extremely vague, arbitrary and proof of the excess of his patriotic zeal indeterminate. Every district had its than by such a facrifice of truth? Jeading judges, to whose decisions - the

Cattle breeding coming so bighly into breeders in general paid an implicit defers vogue, and anjongst a class of men some. ence ; and if the judges of different counwhat fuperior to those whose only rule in ties differed ever so widely, as to the orthe science was, that the animals to thodoxy of shape and make, they were all, be conjoined were male and female, no as well as their disciples, invariably unawonder that a solicitude arose respecting nimous in one point--the necessity of beform, that the best reputed models were ing well paid for their improved tock. Iz fought even in distant counties, and that truth, the chief of this cattle-mending a strong emulation commenced between buliness, in process of time, degenerated the breeding competitors.

into a mere job. Certain persons purIn the early stage of this business, the chasing cattle for breeding at a very higla famous BAKEWELL of Leicestershire price, had cast into the bargain, the fame arose, a man who for the mild virtues of of great improvers. The family played humanity, and for the important services into each others hands, and became vouchIle rendered his country in every branch of ers for each other, as to the superiority of practical agriculture, has well merited the the new stock. The public, and those civic honours, and the attentive notice of not in the secret, paid extraordinary prices the Biographer *. The unwearied dili- for the purchase, or hire, of famous bulls gence of this famous improver, who ran- and rams, without finding any thing very Backed the whole ifland, and even repeat. extraordinary in their produce, when edly visited the continent, in fearch of the brought to fair market. It now became best fhaped animals ; and his celebrated serioully doubted, whether, after all the position, that in cattle breeding, “like bigh down pretensions of fyttematic produces like," are well known. His fa- breeders, any improvement at all had mourite ideas, on the leading points of form really taken place, in the form of the oriin cattle, were, " the finall bone and tight ginal breeds of the country: and Mi;, carcase : ” thence hé pretended to derive Parsons, of Somersetshire, past all doubt, every other desirable qualification. As one of the most complete judges of cattle there had been previoudly no settled prin- in England, goes fo far as to assert, even at ciple at improvement, and as that of this time, that the original breeds of the Bakewell was at least specious, from the island, instead of being improved, have ab. obvious and great fuperiority of his cat- folutely been deteriorated both in form and tle, the Dithley system was universally quality; the neat cattle particularly, by inadopted by the tathionable breeders. judicions crossing, and by the introduction This, like other systems founded in inere of coarfe northern stock. He complains opinion, has had its day.

of the Refh of the new cattle, as coarse, The di&tumn of Bakewell was for a long ille flavoured and spongy; and with too time held sacred ; he however lived long great appearance of truth, ridicules the enough, to see it disregarded, and to be modern fhews of bullocks at Smithfield convinced of the fallibility and approach. market, as confisting of huge animals ing decline of his system. It will be ea- made up of scarce any thing but legs, sily supposed, that amongst a number of hides and horns ! competitors, a variety of opinions would But to make dre allowance for the arise"; and that men of independent or of warmth of declamation, and to speak imcapricious minds, would naturally be de. partially, real improvenients have been sirous of making appeals from the judge- inade, and the quantity of animal food ment of their director, to their own. This much increased in the country. A most really happened, and either fortuitously, or striking proof of this is to be found in

Herefordrhire, where breeding has been * A number of the most respectable culti- much extended from the commencement vators have expresied their expectation, that of the era of improvement, and where the the name of Bakewell will appear in tbe Ne- cattle, taken in every point of view, are crology

said to be superior to any in Britain. It

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Agricultural Observations.

209 is a curious fact, Mr. Editor, but perhaps pointed out ; and there will remain now somewhat dangerous to publish in these no farther excuse to those men of proticklish tiines, that our welt country oxen perty, who are either understocked with have been much improved of late years, cattle, or their farms disgraced with un'in fineness of flesh and in form, by French productive rubbith. Without pretending croftes. I should not have ventured to as- to doubt the judgment of those very alle sert the fuperiority of French beef, but and experienced men, who are engaged in that I speak it after Arthur Young, this affair, I would wish to throw out, a whose political orthodoxy no man will hint. The true form of the horse has dispute. How will the affertors of the long been settled, paft all dispute ; but imprescriptible rights of English roast beef that seems not to be the case with respect relinh this? I lately mentioned the fact to to oxen, sheep and pigs. Those animals a countryman who stoutly maintained its which are candidates for the prizes, and impoflibility. By way of a collateral aid which are, in consequence of success, to to my argument, I introduced the old En- be recommended to the country, have glith prejudice of one Englishman being a their merits decided upon, by the arbitrary match in the field for ten Frenchmen, judgment of certain persons, appointed This home thrust staggered, and rather to that end. But ought not thele to have abashed my antagonist, who replied de. some fertleri principles on which to decide, murely, “ no, no, only five Frenchmen; and what are they? Since the principle of which I thought a great concession. Thus form laid down in Mr. Culley's otherwise much for prejudice and its boasted utility. very useful Treatise on Live Stock, (the Who knows but the use of this Frenchi- barrel shape) is now generally exploded, it fied west country beef may have contri. would be of infinite use to the agriculbuted to the increase of jacobinismamnongst tural readers of the Monthly Magazine, us ? a question which I submit, with the if some ' experienced gentlemen would most profound deference, to the unerring come forward, and give their sentiments as judgment of the conductors of a certain to the true natural form of those animals; magazine.

that from the collision of various judgeOn the subject of agricultural improve- ments, a standard principle, worthy of "ment in general, however, we may at dependence, might be at length itruck length rest perfectly well satisfied: much out; and this request I make bold to exhas been done, and the remaining steps to- tend to the numerous foreign correspon. wards perfection are under the conduet of dents of the magazine. the ableft leaders our country can boast.

A PRACTICAL FARMER. When such men as the Earl of Egremont, February 10, 1799. the Dukes of Bedford and Norfolk, with their long list of honourable and patriotic associates, undertake the increase and im

For the Monthly Magazine. provement of our breeds of cattle, we are MR. EDITOR,

Wimbieru permifiore of wine king aids being engaged, but there is no longer myself the pleasure making any danger to be apprehended of those a farther answer to your respectable corlow horse-dealing intrigues and tricks, by respondent, G. A. of Bedford, which the public was formerly gulled. I conceive, there can be no doubt, but The plans of improvement by the mode that the rape recommended by the Midof annual shews and prizes,' in Sussex, Lothian Report, the colejeed of the fen, of Bedfordshire, and in the West, are highly Suffolk and Effex, where I have to otten judicious and liberal ; and the appendage viewed it, and the rape cultivated last of a Smithfield Society in London (lately year, by G. A. are precisely the same instituted), which will as it were conneět genus and even species. The difference the judgment of town and country, is an of product arises merely from difference idea which cannot be too much com- of loil and management. This uncer. mended. All ideas of private interest are tainty, both with respect to rape and out of question with these patriotic socie- coleworts (as I before hinted), is no new ties, since, by covenant, the animals which matter. When the Iced of the latter was from :heir superiority command the prize, sent to England, some years since, by the are to be let out to hire, at rates perfectly Marquis de Turbilly, with the highest rereasonable. Here then is a fair challenge commendation, I well recollect, it was to the farmers of England. The coun- tried by various able cultivators in differties in which the belt stock is to be pur- ent parts of the country, without the chased, either for keep, or breeding, are finallelt lisccess; whilst at the fame time, MONTHLY MAG, No. XLIII,



Mr. Baker the celebrated Irish cultivator, able, from the fingular severity of the feasent over very favourable accounts of it. fon. When I advised carry ing it home The culture of rape, or coleleed, stood for the stock, I by no means intended the in the fame' unaccountable predicament. whole to store (which is impracticable with Miller had given a very flattering account rape), but merely to cut and carry daily, of the napus silvestris, or rape ; allereings as we do foiling in summer. With perthat it would relift the feverest frosts of million, I will now dismiss the subject of this country, that it would stand for Cole worts and rape, bothr which, as winter fpring-leed, after turnips were either de- food for cattle, appeared to me, many years stroyed by frost, or feeded ;, would pro- fince, comparatively useless, whether in duce nearly double the quantity of tur. this country, or any other. nips, and if kept for feed, would return a To the question, What good subfiitute profit of five pounds per acre, clear of we can bave for turnips, on strong, deep charges. The actual practice of Irish clayey land, where, in wet weather, sheep husbandry was still more in favour of will stand up to the hocks—the belt anrape, as winter food, than Miller's theory. [wer in my power to give, is, that, as far It was there, two feet high at Christmas ; as our discoveries go, the cabbage is the in-March, four; a middling plant weighed proper winter food of fuch foils, as to eight or ten pounds; stock of all kinds weight and nutritious quality. The throve upon it, and the burden upon the ruta baga, which is of the brassica species, ground, computing the number and no doubt refifts the frost and the wet, beweight of the plants (even from the small. yond every thing else, as G. A. is well eft), amounted to the astonishing total, of apprized, and in that light, stands in the sevenıy-three ton, fix hundred weight, first rank. But the material question is, per English acre! Stimulated by this Whether other articles may not be fubftimagnificent account, Mr. Young him- tuted, of superior weight and quality, and telf late about a coleteed experiment, un- of sufficient, if not equal

. kardiness ? T der circumstances of foil, exposure and confess myself here upon fpeculative culture, perfectly and studioully similar. ground; I never tried the turnip cabbage Turnips and Battersea Cabbages also, of Sweden. In the first place, proceeding were associated in this trial. All the froin a northern and unfavourable clime, crops flourished exceedingly, and the re- I should not expect from the plant any fult was (in October), the cabbages were high degree of nutriment. I have heard, ruperior to all; the weight of the rape the subitanee of the turnip is very hard, being barely one fifth of either of the and apt to be stringy; that the ruta baga others. Thus he gained a loss of two draws ant impoverishes the land, and that pounds three shillings and nine-pence per the quantity is very deficient, compared acre, by an atteinpt to rival Irish practice; with our own country turnips; which the colefeed, by the strictett computation, again, in that respect, are much behind appearing to be worth no more than fif- cabbages. I have never heard of a hea, teen shillings per acre: it was obviously vier crop of ruta baga, than the amount of useless to continue the experiment through from twelve to fifteen ton; whereas twenty winter, the bulk being fo linall. I have and twenty five ton of English turnips, yet no doubt of the authenticity of the are a product fufficiently common, with Irish account of colefeed, nor of the which must be considered, the fuperior French account of coleworts, G. A. and fatting quality; and if both the Swedisi myself even, can easily reconcile the dif- and English are supposed to be drawn ference in respect to rape particularly: he house and stacked, before the frost, the has doubtless, as well as İ, seen the large balance in favour of the English must be erops of rape produced upon proper foils, highly increased. G. A. however has the and has had the experience of last year, of advantage of regulating his judgment ou the very indifferent ones to be expected the matter from actual experiment. upon his own. Although rape undoubt- I lrave paid particular attention to the eilly affects a deep and Itrong foil, yet it analytis of the fcil, and the stated propormust be found, dry and of considerable tions of clay, cafcaeolis earth, and land natural fertility; on such, it will not only on a foil to composed, I have known not produce great bulk, but endure the frost, only cabbages and turnips, but also potaat least of ordinary years. The soil of toes, and even carrots and parsnips, fucG. 4. appears to have been too poachy, cessfully cultivated, as winter food for probably of insufficient warınth and fe- cattle. But I must here observe, that po. cundity' for the due nourriture of the fitive conclusions are not always to be plaat.' The trial however was unfavour. drawn from a bare knowledge of the com


watery diet.

1799.) Etymology of Sicily, Etna, Pisuvius, and Strombali. 211 ponent parts of a foil; the natural quality, I obferve mention made of " fheep and condition of those parts, is of the int- ftanding up to their hocks" in wet clays. most import. There are clays and fands Is it then the practice to winter theep on of the utmost fertility by nature, in Effex firch lands? Ian partial to wintering all and Suffolk, on the south coait, and in the kinds of stock at home, and as much in. west, for instance; other clayey and sandy der cover as poffible. The Italian method Jands are to naturally steril and hungry, of wintering Wheey in pens, or warm yards, that they will swallow up an immensity of has been tried in England, particularly manure, with very little apparent, or very by Mr. Young, with great success. Are tardy benefit. The turnips of such poor sheep a fit stock for wet, clayey soils ? On lands, as I have elsewhere observed, are by thele points I should esteen myself highly no means fo nutritious as those produced obliged to G. A. for information. For upon rich soils, nor will they fatten cattle my own part, I am much attached to pig without other assistance. I should suppose stock, with which I have been largely conthe lands in Bedfordthire to be generally cernecha of a superior description, and that the

A PRÁCTICAL FARMER. dryest of those of G. A. Atirred deep and wrought as tine as possible, would pro. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. duce a considerable and profitable weight SIR, of the best English turuips. These might ERMIT me to offer to the notice of , , PERM

your readers a few examples of etyfrost had either damaged them, or di. mology, derived from the Welsh lanininished their weight, the tops being guage, prefaced by the enumeration of thro:vn to the cattle. But I have ftill fome of the leading proofs, which ought known turnips stacked in the most careful to induce a recurrence to that tongue, for way, and in a warm situation, affected, the explanation of the names of places in and even rotted by the frost; and, in very different parts of Europe. severe weather, they are but a cold and

The firit preliminary observation is,

that it can be fully proved, though it is I fubmit it to G. A.'s superior inform- generally admitted, that the original inhaation, whether it would not be amusing, bitants of most of this part of the world and not improbably advantageous to him, were a people who have improperly paffed (if he has not already) to make trial of under the denomination of "Celts, and cabbages, for the bulk sake, and of the from whom the Welsh are immediate defiiperior roots just now meutioned. The scendants. fuccess of cabbages must be certain. Po.

Secondly, that the most ancient appeltatoes will succeed on his land, to a cer- lations are those of countries, seas, rivers, tain degree, and although (notwithstand and mountains.. ing fome pretenfions to the contrary) they Thirdly, that a great proportion of the are worse than ufeless without boiling, names of places have no meaning at all in, with it, their use is great, particularly or are nat words of the modern languages with pig stack. Carrots and partnips are of the several countries where they are finot so nice about the quality, as the tuated. depth of the foil; and if success with

Fourthly, in confequence of the forethein fhould not be of the first rate, yet going premises, it is to be inferred, that ample amends is made, by their excellent those names are words which never bad quality, and the comforts they dispente any signification ; or they are the remains among the farming stock, in a severe win

of the language of a prior race of people. The wintry wetness of the foil does Fifthly, there are abundant proofs to not so inuch affcet thele, lince they are a few that the Welsh language is, at the summer crop, and hould be got in as

present day, exactly what it was in the early as posible, upon all earths, but iwelfth century, even to the peculiarity of fands: to this end, they should be fown dialects in the different parts of Wales. on winter fallows, Jajd up in broad and Sixthly, the inference from the last high lands, cuefully drained with water proof is, that if no change took place in furrows. The foil being deep, well workert the course of fix centuries, and during the and well manured, the carrots will be

greatest part of that period the Wello large and long, but not of fo deep a co- people were in close connection with the lour', nor indeed in fo great a quantity, as English, a less change, if possible, must on rich lands ; in which predicament, in have happened in an equal length of time point of quantity I mean, turpis ullo prior to the twelfth century, when they Hand.

were without any intercourse with itrangers.






Seventhly, laying no stress upon the pronounced almost exactly like it, and is last mentioned interence, we have ample thus explained : Vus-hyvys, if it were not proofs to Thew, that the Welsh tongue governed in construction by the word is now what it was on the coming of the Mont, would be Bus-byvys in its absolute Romans into Britain.

form, from Bus, a mouth or aperture, Lastly, it can be proved that the mass and Hyvys, from Myv, apt or capable, of names before mentioned as inexplicable and Ys, a consuming or burning. in other languages are real words in the Welsh; consequently there results a two- The Welsh words STRUM BALI, which fold inference: firit, that it has been pre- are exactly of the same found as this ferved without any change from the most name, imply the ridge of eruption, or the disremote. antiquity; and next, that the gorging riage; and they are thus explained: language of the first inhabitants of Europe Yfirum, a ridge, from the prefix ys and is identified therein.

trum, is, by the common elision of the y, Examples of etymology : the names of written 'Strum; and Bali, a disgorging, volcanic mountains explained.

is a collective noun, from Balu, to throw

out, to eject, or to erupt. The title of king of the Two Sicilies, Having, as I conceive, so successfully belonging to the crown of Naples, is of found the before-mentioned names itself a difficient evidence to thew that plained in the Welch language, I am the name must have an allusion to fome. tempted to rob Vulcan of part of his hothing coinmon to the island properly fo nours, by deriving the term volcano from called, and also to the country about the same fource. In so doing, it is ne, Naples ; and nothing can be more re- cessary first, to observe that the initial markably to than the two celebrated vol. V is not a radical letter ; and that its canoes of Etna and Vesuvius. The word found in the Welsh is the secondary Sicily, by preferving the primitive found power, or mutation of M and of B. í of (as K,'is very nearly the Well Ceg. therefore fix upon Bal-cynnau, or the ulw, which is pronounced as if it were burning peak, or burning mountain, as the written Kekeeloo in the English orthogra- original, from whence Volcano is derived : phy; and the signification of it is, the and under various forms of constructions. mouth of burning cinders; being derived it is very like in found ; as e vAL-CYNfroin Cég, a mouth, and Ulw, burning NAU, the burning peak; and to give the cinders, hot ashes, or embers. The ini- found of Val-cynnau, according to the rial of Cegulw has three mutations, English orthograpiiy, it must be written which, for want of appropriate characters, Valconno, .which differs but very little I must thus exemplity: Bar e Gegulw, from Volcano. BAL-CYNNAU is fornied the peak of the combustible mouth; Bár from Bal, a term for a conical hill, or. a Chegulw, a peak wich a combustible peak, and especially such as is thrown up'; mouth; In-Nghegulzu, in a combustible and Cynnau, to kindle, or to take fire mouth and these mutations account for and also a firing, or kindling. writing Sicily, inftead of Cici'y, or Kikily,

I am, Sir, your's, &c. which ought to be the word in its absolute

MEIRION, form. Hence the appellation of the Two Sicilies implies the trvo burning craters.

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, In this name may be recognized the Welsh wurds, E TÄNA, the accumulation the English translation of the bible

BY no means intended to assert that of fire, which may be thus further explained : E, the ; TANA, to accumulate should be considered as the standard for fire, and allo are collected together; and biblical criticism; but what I advanced the root of Tina is Tân, which prima- in my reply to M. R. was merely that rily ineans expansion, and fire in a le- it was rendered perfectly consistent with condary rense. So MONT E TANA, itself; and this consistency is still mainMONT E Tân, and MONT E TANIO, tained in all the passages which your corare literally the mount of the accumulating refpondent M. R. quotes (p. 247 your fire, the mount of fire, and the mount of magazine for O&tober last) to prove his the firing ; or, the burning mountain. former position ; and I will now proceed MOUNT VESUVIUS.

to offer a few reasons why the word JenoThis name means the mountain of the val is rendered Lord in those paslages. combustible mouth, if it is to be identified Although in the original Hebrew the in MONT VUS-HYVys, which words are word JEHOVAH is every where made use

Feb. 6, 1799





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