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1799.] Authentic Experiments on the Phænomena of Galvanism. 193 vanic operations, certain enervating, and the Galvanic susceptibility was entirely des certain exciting dispositions ; of which, stroyed. The Galvanic susceptibility was some not only angment or diminish the only suspended by suffocation produced energy in the present instance, but, be- by the pure carbonic acid confined under fides, dispose the animal to a greater or a mercury. It was diminished, but not desmaller - lusceptibility, under- subsequent stroyed, in those cases of suffocation, which experiments.
were occasioned by sulphurated hydroge6. In order to accuracy of experiment, nous gas that had lost a portion of its and to the correct ascertaining of the ef- fulphur, by gas. ammoniac, gas azote, fects of an experiment, it is of great im or luch gases as had been exhausted of portance to know the precise state of the their pure air hy respiration ; and the animal, the manner in which it has been same thing was found to take place in anipreserved and sustained to the present mo. mals which had perished by total submer. inent, the state of the atmosphere, particu- fion. But the Galvanic' susceptibility Jarly as it is indicated by the hygrometer, survived unaltered in suff. cations brought by the baroineter, the thermometer, and on by submersion in mercury, by pure the electrometer.
hydrogenous gas, by carbonated hydro7. It were to be wilhed, that in mak- genous gas, by oxygenated muriatic acid, ing a statement of experiments of diffe- by fulphureous acid; as also when the rent forts these should be arranged in the fuffocation was occafioned by strangula. order of their efficacy, and that there tion, by the abftraction of the air in the might thus be forined a Galvanic scale, air-pump, or by the discharges from an which should help us to determine the electrical battery. The results of the exprecise degree of the Galvanic susceptibi- periments at the medical school suggested lity of any animal in this or that parti- the following reflections : cular state or position, should direct us in 1. Though it be true that all cafes of subjecting every such animal only to ex- fuffocation resemble one another in the periments suitable to its particular suscep- privation of respirable air, and in the tibility ; Thould enable us to estimate, suspensions of the functions of respiration, from the efficacy or inefficacy of our expe- and of the circulation of the blood; yet, riments, the Galvanic value of the cir- in their other circumstances, they are cumstances in which we every day find our- subject to great differences, arising from felves, and should enable us to judge diversity of nature in the substances by when the success or miscarriage of an ex which they are occafioned. periment can afford room for certain con 2. Of these causes, some appear to act clusions absolutely negative or affirmative. with a more thorough efficacy, penetrat
IV. In their experiments upon the ing at once all parts of the nervous and means of VARYING, DIMINISHING, and muscular systems. Others again seem to RENEWING the suSCEPTIBILITY of ani- act but fuperficially, producing only pulmal bodies to the influence of Galvanism, monary asphyxia, with its immediate the committee examined, ist, the influence effects. of electricity upon that fufceptibility; 3. One of the most remarkable changes 2. the effects of the muscular organs, and of not confined to the organs of respiration, certain liquors, such as alcohol, the oxy- consists in the alterations produced on the genated muriatic acid, the solutions of Galvanic susceptibility. In that respect potash and opium, upon the Galvanic pro- the various cases of asphyxia differ greatly perties; 3. and at the medical school of one from another. Paris they made a number of experi 4. The state of the irritability of the ments, in order to ascertain what new muscles, when examined by means of bomodifications the Galvanic energy under- dies, the mechanical action of which goes in various cases of fuffocation or causes the muscles to contract by irritatasphyxia. These last-mentioned experi- ing them, is far from always correspondments were made upon hot-blooded ani- ing to the state of their Galvanic fuscepmals, of which some were reduced into tibility, the state of asphyxia by submersion, fome 5. Lastly, the causes of suffocation or by ftrangulation, some by the action of asphyxia, do not act upon all parts of the gases, while others were killed in vacuo muscular system in the same manner. But by the discharge of the electric spark. In the heart is very often found in a state that suffocation which was produced by extremely different from that of the other. fulphurated hydrogenous gas, by carbonic muscles. vapours, and by submersion in which the V. The comparifon between the pheanimal was lulpended by the hinder feet, nomena' of GALVANISM and those of MONTHLY MAG, NO. XLIII.
ELECTRICITY is perhaps one of the most Such are the principal results of this interesting objects of attention in the whole very valuable train of experiments upon body of animal physiology. It is well Galvanism. It is easy to discern, that known that GALVANI was accidentally led they have only opened up, for a few to his discovery by observing the motious paces farther, a path, of which there reof some frogs, at a certain distance from mains yet very much to be explored, and an electrical machine discharging (pasks. which promises discoveries the most inte. The committee from the institute 'made, resting and important to the philosophes therefore, some attempts to ascertain the and the physician.. relations between electricity and Galvanilm. Having first paid due attention to the susceptibility of animals toward the *For the Montbly Magazine.. influence of electricity, they then fought Dr. MITCHILL'S SECOND LETTER to discover to what precise degree animals divested of the natural covering of the
(See p. 108 of our last Number.) epidermis were liable to be affected by the MY DEAR MADAM, variations of the electrical Auid in the at
COU are candid enough to assure meg mosphere around thein. Next, compar. ing the susceptibility of electricity with you felt a confiderable faare of pride for the susceptibility of Galvanilm, they per, the female sex, after. perusing a little nete ceived that quantities of the electrical to Miss - -, of last November, in Melf.. fluid, such as are still capable of being Swords's Magazine, and, as they say, afa very accurately measured by the electro- cribed to me." I believe the leading meter, are, however, often iQ weak to act sentiment there advanced is true, that upon a frog that retains the mok perfect women have always and uniformly obe sensibility to all the energy of:Galvanism. viated and extinguished pestilence by more The members of the committee purpose rational and successful means than ibe men. to prosecute farther their experiments upon have followed. This is owing, as you this part of the subject..
observe, to the use of alkaline substances Vi. The following are the general re in a great variety of their domestic opera -fylts of the experiments made by M. tions. HUMBOLDT in the presence of the com In addition to what is there brought to no-mittee ::
tice, you observe, “ that the modern fashion 1. There is no truth in the affertion of of discarding all sinelling-bottles, and certain physiologists, that the experi- other applications to the nostrils, on the ments of Galvanism fail when tried upon) advice of certain of our distinguished meng: the heart and those other muicles of must be adopted with limitation : força which the contractions depend not upon however uleless it may: be to employ: volition. For these organs have been thieves'-vinegar, rue, camphor, and other found to be actually subject to the in-. things of those kinds, it certainly cannot luence of Galvanili.
be improper; it may be advantageous to the. 2. The effects of Galvanisin are liable ladies to comfort themselves with a little to be interrupted by the constriction of spirit of sal ammoniac, a phial of bartshorn, a nerve, whenever both the nerve and the and some volatile salts, in times of general. constricting ligature are enveloped in the fickness.". Why, certainly, madam, you. Aesh of the animal body.
are riglit in your remark. You fee in 3. The powers of the exciting arc may this instance the old'established custom is be renovated or destroyed, even though its a good one, and ought not to be disconfupporters remain the same, and although tinued. It is cruell and injurious in the the extremities of the arc be unchanged. men to deprive you at all of these whole: Only the relations of the intermediate some precautions; but to do 10 under, matters require to be altered.
pretence of long obfervation or experience 4. There areatmospheres of Galvanism. of their inutility is a great deal worse.
5. There are substances which, though If it mould ever be your misfortune to in-in an eminent manner conductors of elec- habit a place where a fickly air prevails, tricity, yet interrupt the motions of Gala you may safely and truly advise your fe-Yanism.
male friends to persist in the use of these M. HUMBOLDT had performed also agreeable and reviving odours: they are: other experirents, which, when he at- preventives and antidotes, and act hy tempted to repeat them before the com- neutralizing the acid vapours of pestilence mittee, could not be brought to succeed, which enter your nostrils, and affail your on account, as was supposed, of the sea. life. Do not mind, iherefore, those - fan of the year.
THE Tafroduction to the Ou Testament,"
2799.] Dr. Mitchill on the popular Ufe of Alkalies.
195 would-be pliilosophers, who are so ready I must attend a little to the business of the with their advice on all occasions. I af legislature. We have in hand the nuifure you, I had rather side with you than fance-bill for the city of New-York ; and with them; and when I am with you,' I wish it was in our power to alkalizo I fall consider myself quite out of harm's every foul thing there. You must, thereway.
fore, give me credit for my condescenYou say, “ that if the principle laid lion in thus vouchlafing, while I have the down in the letter referred to, is jutt, great affairs of the state to engage ine, to then it, follows, that pot-afh cakes. Should answer your questions about smellingbe good for children ; for pot-ash, as bottles, ginger-bread, and tooth-wasbes. well as volatile salts, is an alkali. It The weather is dreadfully cold, and will prevent the miscievous effects of an my fingers are almost benumbed; though acid upon their stomachs, and calm the they are still flexible enough to guide the disorders to which their little bowels are pen while I assure you that, &c. &c. fubject." There again you are right:
SAM. L. MITCHILL. that sort of bread is, indeed, good for Albany, Feb. 3, 1798. them. Do you not see, where the experiment is fairly made, how fat and hearty
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. they, grow by eating cakes tinctured a little with that excellent material. If it SIR, would not divulge too much of a secret in 'HE account of Professor. Eickhorn's the practice of physic, I would tell you, that this very thing pot-ass, which wo. given in the Appendix to the 23d volume men have fo great a duration of time of the Monthly Review enlarged (from. mingled with their cakes, is a grand re- May to August, 1797) is .fo interesting, medy in various disorders of the alimentary that many persons unacquainted with the canal to which infants are subjected. But German language must be desirous, I ima
I hope you will not give them all to your gine, of seeing a translation of that very children; on the other hand, bring them important work. on the table in the evening; for I declare, I take the liberty, of asking, through that, next to your engaging manners and the channel of the Monthly Magazine, sconversation, few things can give a muse Whether a translation of the whole, or of agreeable relish to the tea, when I have any detached parts, is now in hand! the honour to sip it with you, than good It seems to be, by such sort of criti. pot-ass cake.
cism as this work contains, that the peIt is enquired by you further-Oh, tulant objections of unbelievers on the dear! how minute you are!---- Whether, one hand, and the orthodoxy, as it is as acids corrode and destroy the teeth of called, of churchmen on the other, is to certain ladies of our acquaintance, alka be corrected, and we are at length to line wasbes and powders would not be make some nearer approaches to truth. good for thein?" To be sure they would; If the following passage, inserted in and you may now understand, that if the Review, should be enlarged upon and foot or fine ashes have ever been beneficialas elucidated in the work, a tranflation dentifrices, it is by virtue of the alkalice would probably be a valuable acquistior, matter with which they abound. The as a detached part. former contains ammoniuc, and the latter
u Certainly thinking men would have re. por-ash; and these are the active ingredients conciled themselves to these important monuin both. A weak solution of pearl-alh in ments of human intellect, if but one exwater is better than either, being more effi pounder of their contents, if but one detencacious, as well as more neat and conve- der of their importance, had arisen, to shew nient. The mouths of many persons are that the greater part of this miraculous and manufactories of such acids as eat away of this fupernatural, is not to be found the teeth, and give a pestilential taint to in the books themselves, but has resulted their breath. How unclean and odious from misunderstanding ;--from ignorance of is this feptic venom! and yet it is wholly language ;---from inattention to the mode of destructible by alkalies. It at once afflict's thought and expresion, which characterizes
these in common with the other earliest produce and disgusts me to witness the confequences of that neglect with which these of the spirit of the East ;--or from impotence
tions of literature ;~-from misapprehension handy and simple applications are treated. of fympathy with the childhood of intellect, so
Then you beg me to inform you as to view all things through a similar meI cannot proceed any further at present ; dium of imagination." for you ought to recollect, that, as much
Your's, &c. M.C. 195 Í delight in obeying your commands,
For the Monthly Magazine.
Markets are exceedingly well and plenTOUR IN NEW ENGLAND. tifully supplied : fish and poultry may be (Concluded from Page 129.)
had in abundance; and, from the climate B es ;
and pleasantly situated; but many this late far excels the southern, or even of the itreets in the old and centrical parts midland ones, in all kinds of butchers' of the town are very narrow and ill paved; meat. Vegetables, however, are neither neither is sufficient attention paid to the so good nor so cheap in this, nor, indeed, cleanliness of the streets. The buildings in any part of the United States, as are heavy, antique, and incommodious; might be expected from the low price of but the major part of those in the more land, and other advantages : but this elevated situations display considerable arises froin a neglect of bestowing proper taste and elegance. The governor's culture on the foil, and leaving nature too house, formerly the residence of Mr. Adams much to its own unaslisted efforts. The (since elected prelident], Mr. Phillips's, fame inattention and defect is discover, Mr. Rogers's, and some others, are very able in their fruits. Soil and situation handsome modern edifices, many of which, do every thing; the choicest fruits in foine from the steep ascent of the streets, are lo parts growing luxuriously by the road elevated as to command at one view a side ; but from a want of the usual me. prospect of the whole town.
It is, on thods of improving them by horticulture, the whole, by far the most irregular, and their fine flavour is loft; and their peaches has received the fewelt improvements, of and other delicious fruits, though appaany capital in the United States. The rently natural to the country, will not Exchange and Coffee-house are merely stand the test of comparison with similar nominal, the latter being inferior to the productions in England. lowelt description of ale-house, while the The negroes in Boston, compared with merchants meet and transact their business thofe in the more southern towns, are in the open, dirty street. From their na- very few in number, the menial servants turally enterpriting and liberal spirit, it being mostly white people. This is no is matter of astonishment that a coffee- trifling confideration to an European, vnhouse has not been erected here, after the accustomed to their hue and features, and manner of the useful and elegant one the more disagreeable effluvia exhaling at New-York; I entertain little doubt, from their bodies. Yet, to do justice to however, that this and other improve the blacks, I never found any instances ments will be foon realized among to among them of impertinent or disobliging. commercial a people.
behaviour. The police of this town is Here are cominodious docks, containing well regulated ; diforderly houses and a great quantity of shipping, and conve- flagrant breaches of the public peace being niently situated near the merchants' stores rarely met with or taking place. The or warehouses, for the purposes of lading number of inhabitants is computed at or unlading ; but the port does not equal about 32,000. that of New-York, either in beauty, At the short distance of three miles convenience of situation, or extent of traf-, from hence is the pleatantly situated, and fic. I was credibly informed, that the not inconsiderable town of Cambridge, trade of Boston is in a manner stationary, fanous for its college, where a number and has not increased in proportion to the of Atudents are educated much in the manother principal sea-port towns in the ner of the English, universities. In this Union. This, which I think much to neighbourhood are the country-seats of their credit, may in some measure be ac many of the opnlent merchants, who have counted for, from their greater folidity of spared no expence to diversify and imcharacter in conducting business; whilit prove the rich scenery furnished by the innumerable mischiefs have resulted from band of nature. the extensive speculations too frequently Coaches stand for hire in the principal occurring among the more ardent people streets of Boston, a very useful conveof the south. I must likewise add, that nience, which has not yet been estaBoston pofleffes one very distinguished ad-, blished in.the larger towns of New York vantage, which is a material considera- and Philadelphia. A regular, handtion to the trading part of a community, fome, and well inanaged theatre, with as also to persons desirous of emigrating, some able performers, meet with due ennamely, that processes of law and reco couragement from the inhabitants. This, very of debts are obtained there more with assemblies, concerts, and promenades, easily and speedily than in most other constitute the chief of their recreations places
197 and diversions : hither, as in other places, the New England states. In many parts resort the Boston fair, who, in beauty of of the latter, but more particularly in the complexion and feature, are juitly ac midland and southern provinces of the knowledged to excel all others on the con United States, irreligion, with its usuak tinent.
attendant, immorality, seem to be adConsidering the capital of Massachusetts vancing with hafty itrides, more esper in the aggregate, I prefer it, as a place of cially among the rising generation. refidence, to any other town or city I Proceeding on my journey from Nore' have visited on that side of the Atlantic ; wich to Hertford, the capital of this for while it possesses neither the beauty state (Connecticut], distant about forty nor the regularity of Philadelphia, nor miles, I remarked in general a fertile foil the elegant buildings and delightful pic. and large farms, breeding great numbers, turesque scenery to be found about New of cattle, with a few very pretty villages: York, you have, to compensate for these intersperted. Stopping at one of these to defects, people of yourown colour to attend dine, and having received the usual faluon you, are but little pestered with mus- tation, not less prevalent, than inmanquitoes and other verinin; nor is the nerly, not to say iinpertinent, among the scorching heat of summer felt so intensely; inhabitants of New England, of, « Sir, and, above all, it has hitherto been much I perceive you are from the old country? less afflicted with that baneful and infec- --where are you going ?-what is your tious autumnal fever, which of late years, business?" &c. &c. I was requested by in both the other places, more particu- my good landlady to walk into an adlarly in the former, has made fuch ter. joining room, to act the part of an interrible ravages.
preter to a country-woman of mine, who On my return to New York, leaving a few days before had landed at Boston. the States of Massachusetts and Rhode Fortunately for my good hostess we were Illand, which in general had the appear- both literally from the same county, ance of being well settled and in good otherwise non of us would probably cultivation, I arrived, after a tedious have been the wifer; for this woman, journey, from the badness of the roads, with her four children, I found, had just at the town of Norwich, in the State of arrived from Lancashire in search of her Connecticut. This is not a place of any husband, who had written for her, hav. considerable magnitude, neither does it ing fettled here advantageoully; but the exhibit the appearance of recent improve- fpoke the provincial dialect so very broad inent : it stands, however, in a pleasant and coarse, that very few of her words and well sheltered situation, and has an were intelligible. Having explained the excellent inn, with good accomodations. language of the Lancashire woman to my The landlord is Colonel Brown, a very inquisitive landlady, she was delirous of public spirited and useful citizen. It ap- knowing why, both coming from Engpears singular to an Englishman on a tour land, we should talk 10 differently? The through ihe United States to find the host, reason why this appeared fo very singular in many, even the most ordinary houses to my hostess was, that, considering the of entertainment, a ci-devant general or vait difference in extent of country in the colonel, &c. These titles are not af- United States, the English language is fumed, but were really possessed by the spoke there very plain, and what is yet parties in the revolutionary war : and, more lurprising, in general, pretty gram. indeed, they are not a little proud of matically. them; for I have remarked, that on neg Hertford, the capital of this state, is a lecting these appellations, the same alacrity populous and well built town; the streets has not been mewn, as when their full are spacious and regular ; it enjoys a title, or rather, one exceeding it, was given confiderable trade, which will no doubt them.
increase rather than otherwise, if we conIn this part of New England, the ob- fidei its advantageous position, on a fine fervance of the fabbath and religious du- navigable river, and lying in a line dities is rigidly adhered to, neither public rectly centrical with New York and Boston; nor private travelling being allowed on it is likewise, from its situation, the that day ; and it is considered as in fome grand mart to the capital of the state of measure disreputable to neglect attendance Vermont. From hence to Newhaven, on public worship This strict obfer- which is in the fame state, about thirty vance of the Sunday is, however, chiefly miles distant, the country appeared more confined to the state of Connecticut, as it settled than any I had yet feen on the condoes not extend generally even through tinent. We passed along the banks of