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1799.) Mr. W. Belsham's Vindication of Two Passages, &c. 183 plication, at least ; which is indeed in. to what you are pleased to ftile “my definitely the worst mode of preferring an cisive hostility againit Mr. HASTINGS accusation. it. It is said in confirma. at the time that gentleman was under trial. tion of an opinion, which you are doubt. Our opinion, say you, concerning the less perfectly free to entertain, viz. that delinquency of Mr. H. is perfectly cothe characters of the history are often incident with the opinion of Mr. BELover-loaded, either with censure or en- SHAM, but nothing mould have extorted comium,~" William, Prince of Orange, it from us till a jury of peers, then fitting is so great a favorite, that even the maf: in judgment on the prisoner, had prosacre at Glencoe is not suffered to disturb nounced their verdiæt of acquittal or his repose.This expression is so cu- condemnation." It is well known to rious and obscure, that I think it dif- the public that Major Scott has replied, ficult to ascertain its distinct meaning. no doubt with the full approbation of

If this means any thing to the purpose, it Mr. HASTINGS, in two very able pammult import that I have admitted King phlets, to that part of the history which William to be the author of the mal- relates to India; and I have moreover facre at Glencoe ; and yet, that I have before me at this time several letters of represented it as no blemish in his cha- Major Scott, privately addressed to me racter,-a serious' allegation indeed! On on the same subject. It is material to the contrary, however, it is not only my vindication to contrast his sentiments aflerted, but fully proved in the history, upon this point with yours, and this must that King Willian was grossly imposed be my apology for the apparent vanity of upon in this business by two very artful the quotation :--(Feb. 16, 17955) “ I do and deep-designing men, Lord Breadalbin not say that you ought to have postponed and Secretary Dalrymple. The massacre the publication of your history of the preis every where spoken of in terms of the fent' reign until the close of Mr. HASutmost abhorrence, and the king himself tings's trial; far from it, I think the is freely blamed, not as an accomplice in miserable and almost hopeless state of the barbarity, for that would be intainous England, unless some change in her poinjustice; but for negligence in suffering licy shall take place, rendered your pubhimself to become the dupe of fo execra- lication liighly important indeed at this ble a design, and lupineness in not pu- moment, and particularly your history nisking with sufficient severity the con. of tlie American war. I trust that the trivers of it. The truth is, that Dal-" public will reap benefit from it; but, fir, rymple was a inan to whom the monarch, as the history of India makes a materiał not to say the nation, owed in many re- part of your memoirs, it did behove you spects such high obligation, that the

to exert your great abilities fairly and king may on plausible ground be suf- honeftly, in order to obtain the best porpected of a secret wish of extending too sible infornation.” Major Scott does, far his mercy to the unmerciful. And indeed, impeach, as he had unquestionto punish subordinate agents, while the ably a right to do if he saw reaion, the principals were allowed, by a culpable authority of the facts; but he elsewhere lenity, to escape, would have reflected no acknowledges, that if the facts themhonour on the justice of the government. felves are admitted, every one muft But all this is mere suspicion ; the vil allow that the epithets are well applied. lainy, however enormous, was perpe- 'To this conclusion there is one, and protrated under the forms of law, by the bably only one exception ; for, while king's own warrant surreptitioully ob- you, gentlemen, profels to concur in opi. cained ; and the declaimer's upon this sub- nion with me respecting the delinquency of ject have never yet shewn that the king Mr. Hastings in its fullest extent, your had it in his power to inflict that ven- delicacy is shocked at my “virulence of geance upon the parties concerned in this invective.” Your couniel, had I been bloody business, which they load his me- fortunate enough to have consulted you mory with reproaches for withholding. previous to the publication of the history,

The second allegation, is of a nature more would doubtlers have been to lash no immediately interesting; the charge is, sort of vice,” hut to make that pleasant that I have "fained the pages of the and playful fatirist my model, History of the House of Brunswick, by

" Whore fly, polite, infinuating file, an unbecoming and dangerous latitude Could please accourt, and make Augustus of expression, or rather virulence of in

fimile.” vective ; " and this is explained to refer Yet viewing the political conduct of Mr.


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HASTINGS in the serions light I do, I being communicated to the public. I
Thould have thought myself at once mean therefore send it to you, that if you think
and criminal to have suppressed the it inerits the notice of your readers, you
emotions of my indignation. Is this may give it a place in your valuable mil-
carrying the boldness of historic licence cellany :
too far?

About the middle of my garden stood “ So impudent, I own myfelf no knave; an old plumb-tree, which had gone to So odd, my country's ruin makes me grave.” decay, and lost most of its branches.

As it produced little, if any fruit, and As to the period of publication, I can truly afiert, that it never entered into my be cut down towards the end of the year

shaded the green-house, I ordered it to imagination to conceive that after nine

1793. The head and the root were cut years parliainentary investigation of the off and burned, with a part of the trunk, question, after pamphlets, speeches, and the lower part of which, about eight or reports innumerable, had been circulated

nine feet in length, lay on the ground all relative to it, that any thing I could say

the winter. would, in the Rightest degree, influence the judicial decision of the house of peers; occafion to make a boarded fence to

In the spring of the year 1794, having or that a rule of discretion adapted to screen the cucumber-bed, I ordered this common cases could poslibly be fupposed old tree to be put in the ground as a to apply to this. Your opinion might in: poft, merely to save the expence of a new deed have carried great weight; it might become you, therefore, to be silent; and several leaves shoot forth toward the top

As the spring advanced, I observed the cases you see are not analogous. I of it, which I expected shortly to wither know not whether I ask too gitat a favor in requesting a place in your magazine summer; and the next spring, to my

away: but they grew considerably in the for these remarks. As they relate not to altonishment, they put forth again, and my literary, but moral character, unjustly several blossoms appeared. In the course and ungenerously, as I think, attacked by of that year thele little shoots became you, I fatter myself they will not be rejected by persons entertaining luch vigorous branches, and the year following delicate notions of honor ; and I dare much like a damson, but of a nuch

produced twelve or fourteen fine plumbs, venture to affirm, that as this is the first: larger size. so it will, in all probability, be the most larger size. and only tine that I shall ever solicit for and decayed', but the branches have con.

The body of the tree still appears old the privilege of admission. I remain, fir, Your most obedient servant,

tinued to grow more luxuriant than thofe

of any other young tree in the garden. Bedford, Feb. 18, 1799. W.BELSHAM.

The last year it was full of blossoms; but

the sharp north-east wind cut them all To tie Editor of the Montbly Magazine.

off. Ai this time there is the appearance

of a fine bloom. SIR,

As this tree stands at the entrance from
HE following piece of natural history the garden into the burying-ground, it has
friends so curious as to be worthy of traft, fo finely illustrated in the book of

Job, between " a tree cut down, of
* We have inserted this letter entire, be- which there is hope," and the bodies of
cause we think that as far as concerns the men, which, when once laid in the dust,
defensive part of it, Mr. BELSHAM had a srile not till the heavens be no more."
right to require it; and with respect to any See Job xiy. 7–12.
mixture of contemptuous acrimony which was I should be glad to be informed if any
not effential to the argument, we less fear of your readers have ever met with an
undergoing its effects, than the imputation instance of renovation in a fruit-tree of a
of fupprefling it through a consciousness of similar kind, and whether this fact may
deferving it. Mr. BELSHAM's literary ta- be applied to any practical use in gar-
lents and exertions in the cause of liberty; dening.
cannot but command our efteen, whether it
be returned or not The general cliaracter

I am, Sir, and contents of our miscellany will, we

Very respectfully, your's, truft, also secure for us that of the public,

Hackney, March 5, 1799. S. P. notwithstanding any individual expressions of refentment. EDITORS,



1999.) Hieroglyphics, and the Origin of Alphabetical (Vriting. 185 To tie Editor of the Monthly Magazine. calioned by the desire of prieits employ,

ing these hieroglyphic signs to conceal SIR,

what they recorded in them from the NARTICULATE sounds are insuf- discovery of the vulgar. By all these

ficient for the mutual communication means would the system of hieroglyphics of the knowledge and the desires of ra- be at length wrought into a curiously tional and focial beings, such as men. complex and artificial structure; just as Articulate language has been, therefore, spoken language that, at first, confifted invented. Even this is insufficient to but of the timple name and interjection, commemorate the past, or to transmit has been gradually reared into a complex information to those who are at a distance. fabric of parts of speech, declinable Hence, among even the rudest nations, and indeclinable, of inflexions, numbers, arifes the use of moveable; material signs modes, genders, comparisons, and fornis of thought, and of hieroglyphics, paint- of construction. ings, and sculptures.

In this progress of abbreviation, it was Hieroglyphics were, in their first in natural that the attention, at least

, of the vention, limply painted or sculptured more unlearned among those who made imitations of the objects of which the use of hieroglyphics, should be at length ideas were meant to be conveyed. To turned to think more of the relations bethis class were almost immediately added tween those painted signs of thought and other painted signs, expressive of tlle articulate language, than of their ruiageltures, attitudes, and situations, in tions to things. Adjectives, pronouns, which different actions were respectively all the indeclinable parts of speech, even performed, and meant to communicate, very many verbs and nouns, representing by means of these representations, the things which were not fufceptible of benotions of the actions themselves. Those ing painted, and which could scarcely be, figures which scantinels of idea, paucity by every underltanding, even precisely of words, inaccuracy of conception, and and definitely understood, mult in conardour of sentiment, quickly introduced fequence of these circumstances have been into speech, were to be expresied by a denoted in hieroglyphic painting, by correspondent figurative use of the signs figns having, not a natural, but an arbiof hieroglyphic painting. Such seem to trary and positive connection with the have been the three principal modifica- tliings fignified. While this connection tions under which hieroglyphics exiited, arole, it was impossible that the attention after they were first enlarged into a {ystein of the writers and readers of these arbiof permanent signs, and before they had trary figns should not be, in very many yet begun to be, in any considerable de- instances, fixed particularly upon the regree, abbreviated for the ends of myste- lation between the found and the painted rious concealment, or quicker ufe. fign, and upon that almost alone. This

In the progressive application of these was one grand step in the transition from hieroglyphic signs, they were gradually the use of hieroglyphics to that of alphaaltered and abbreviated. Qualities, betical writing. The conversion of me, energiee unconnected with external atti- taphorical terms into fimple ones, the tude or gesture, athrmations and all the difficulties ariling from the attempt to varied transitions of thought, with those express different spoken languages by the notions of generalization, in which the fame common system of hieroglyphic mind endeavours to combine into genera ligns, the merely technical variations and and species the individuals of nature, abbrsviations of different writers, would were necessarily to be marked in hiero- all likewise contribute to separate, in the glyphical writing by other contrivances ideas of those by whom 'hieroglyphic than that of simply painting the object writing was used--the greater part of fignifi:d. As in Ipeech, as in the alpha- the hieroglyphics, from the things they belical writing with which we are ac- originally represented, and to leave them quainted, innumerable abbreviations are, in association, increly with the vocal artifrom time to time, almost vnconsciously culate signs denoting those things in introduced by mere use alone, unassifted speech. by any prospective plans of improvement; After the alliance between founds and so would hieroglyphics, in a manner little hieroglyphic figns has come to be more diffimilar, be gradually abbreviated in regarded than the relation between these the hands of the prieits of India and Jait signs and the things signified, w Egypt, or of the merchants of Phoenicia. discoveries to direct continued abbreviOther abbreviations were no doubt oc- ation, are quickly made by the conMONTHLY Mag. No. XLII,



tinual comparison of the sounds with the the simple sourds in words and fyllables, figns. It is obviously perceived that the at last complete the invention of alphabe. different articulate founds are far from tical writing, and hieroglyphics are no being equally numerous with the different more. Syllables or words in any language; that, These ideas concerning the use of hierothe complex articulate sounds of words glyphics and their gradual transition into and fyllables, are fufceptible of being alphabetical writing, have long been analysed into a few, Simple, primary, mine. To have detailed that induction elementary sounds, the endlessly varied of facts on which they are respectively combinations of which, form all the in- founded, would have been here unseasonafinite diversities of speech. Rude lan- bly tedious. I was for a moment afraid guages conlist chiefly of monofyllabic that in the communication of them to the words, or of words which, although public, I had been anticipated by Sis long, are made up of syllables, having George Staunton, in his account of the each separately, the powers of a word. Embally to China ; but he has only In a language of this character, therefore, thrown out some valuable hints concernit is easily feen, that, there must be many ing the manner in which hieroglyphio among its monosyllabic words agreeing ligns come to be first associated in the in sound. Nothing can be more natural minds of those who use them rather with after this has once been perceived, and words than with things : I admire his after hieroglyphics have begun to be or- work, as alike masterly in compofition dinarily referred to words in preference and rich in important and interesting to things, than that it should be attempt- information ; but I cannot think that he ed farther to abbreviate these hieroglyphics, has exhausted the subject of hieroglyphics. by ceasing to use more than one hiero- Perhaps my notions concerning them are glyphical tign to denote all those words good for very little. or fyllables which are the fame in enun- Edinburgh, Sept. 1798. R.H. ciation. By this new artifice of abbreviation, the number of the hieroglyphics DESCRIPTION OF MALTA. neceffary for ordinary use, is greatly diminished, This is another grand ttep [The following valuable article respecting an

Itland which has always attracted the in the progress toward the analysis of ar

attention of mankind, and which has riculate founds, and their written repre

lately become a very interesting subject of sentatives into their ultimate and inoit

political speculation, has been communi. general constituent principles.

An ex

cated to us by a gentleman wlose opporceedingly near approach is now made to tunities of collecting original information actual alphabetical writing.

are considerable, and who has combined The very next remarkable change pro- with his own materials those of all the duces alphabetical writing. It is quick

writers who have had occasion to describe ly perceived that fyllables are susceptible

it.] of analysis into principles yet more timple

(Concluded from page 121.) and more general ; and that by this new "HE city of Valetta is built on a pe: analysis of syllabic founds, the number of the signs requisite to denote language tween it and the tea is the celebrated calin writing, may be infinitely diminished. tle of St. Elin), accounted the chief for. Among those ligns which are at this time tification in the island; here it was where in use, is found a certain number of the Turks, (under Solyman himself, the Which one has already been applied to fame who had driven the knights from the Every simple elementary found in the lan- Ille of Rhodes), loft so many men in their guage ; for all the primary, fimplest, and famous fiege : they could not carry this most general founds are to be found sub- fortress till ihe very last knight who defisting as diftinét separate words among fended it was llain. It is now far more the vast multitude of its monosyllables. impregnable than ever. Beyond Valetta, The selection of thote hieroglyphic signs on the land tide, lies what is called the which thus embrace in the words to which Lower-Town, both it and Valetta being they are separately applicable, all the simple defended by fortifications which appear Counds each different found a different - impregnable; and all of these are, notword—tach different word having its withstanding, covered by other works of peculiar sign ; the rejection of all the rest nearly equal importance, called Florian, cut of the use of writing; the combina- from the name of the engineer who con tion of these few primary figns in a man- structed tliem. This latter fortification, her corresponding to the combination of called also the Citadel, is, as well as St.


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1799.] History and Description of Malta. Elmo, fituated between the two ports; ones. All their Chips and gallies likewise and although the front on the land-lide is were well supplied with excellent arthought to be tov extensive, it is reckoned tillery. one of the best and most perfect works Indeed, it must raise the astonishment which the art of defence affords. The of a stranger to conceive how this nation access, both to Florian and the Lower has ever been able to execute such great Town, is mostly over precipices and steep and noble undertakings, than which norocks; besides which, Florian itself is thing can be bolder, or wrought in a beta completely overlooked by the city of Va- terityle ; at once simple and dreadful ! letta, whofe batteries effecually prohibit These immense and truly masterly conall approach to it. The works of Florian ftructions are more like the works of a also, on the covered ways, are mined and mighty and powerful people, than of so counterinined to a considerable extent; petty a state. To forin, however, a and as this citadel is the only point on proper idea of thein, and give them all which it is poflinle to direct an attack on the admiration they deserve,it is absolutely Valetta from the land-fide, it is easy to necessary to see and observe them on the conceive what a number of obstacles must spot. All the boafted catacombs of be furmounted ere an enemy could effect Rome and Naples are trifles compared the reduction of the city: and after all, with the immense excavations that have even if Florian were taken, it would he been made in this little island. Valetta, impossible to keep undifturbed poffeffion in particular, is wonderfully strong, both of it, on account of its being commanded by nature and art, and has certainly been by Valetta, which must necessarily be be- planned in the finest situation imaginable, fieged.

betwixt two of the finest harbours in the It is a fortunate circumstance for the world. The artillery allo which defends Maltese, that their island is so difficult of their coaft is immenfe. Although the approach, infomuch that (as the Chevalier greater part of the works on the island Folard observed) 10 or 12,000 men are have been constructed or repaired after the fufficient to hinder a descent, although manner of Vauban, there are yet some 30,000 would barely fuffice to defend the remaining, which serve to evince the imworks alone in the cities and other parts provement which the art of fortification of the territory); which works, daily aug- has undergone during the last 200 years. menting, consequently become weaker, The city of Valetla, properly so called, and require more roops to defend them. with the citadels of Florian and St. Elmo,

If a descent be once accomplished, the require no more than about four or five principal dependance of Malta will be in thousand men for their defence. If the the works which encompass and defend Maltese, from various causes, were comthe port. From what has been already pelled to abandon their other works for observed, it is evident that nature designed the defence of these places, it would be an the execution of each of these works, and easy matter for the enemy, being masters. that nothing has been negle&ted hy art to of the island and the sea, to block up the improve her advantages. No country in garrison by land, with a body not much the world, of such finall extent, abounds fuperior in number; and by forming enwith so many various works; a thirst for trenchments, supported at each port, and fortification, carried almoft in a pitch of out of the reach of the cannon, woul extravagance (conlidering that they could length force theni to surrender merely for never support a sufficient number of fol- want of provisions, diers to maintain them) has constantly In these forts there are exceedingly good pervaded the Grand Masters and the and spacious magazines hewn in the rocks, whole order ; yet these very works, if left fufficient to contain provisions, &c. for defenceless, would, in case of an attack, three years, and sheltered from all exteronly prove so many intrenchments for nal annoyance; consequently the surrentheir enemies. The whole territory of der of the forts can only depend on the Malta is surrounded, as it were, with quantity of provisions contained in the fortifications, mortars, and cannon. Of magazines. these last there is a vast number ; in one Besides the cisterns which every inhaplace only, the great circumvallation, bitant is obliged to have in his house, near Vaietta, called La Catonera, (from there are water-houfes cut in the rocks, the name of the Grand Master who built which, when filled, contain sufficiency of it), there are upwards of 1500, of which water for three years; it is kept very 50.) are of brals; yet the Maltese were good, and used at all times. Little adcontinually purchasing or casting new vantage would, therefore, be derived from



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