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absolutely fatiated or rather surfeited proof of the general fury against religion, therewith. The French affect to look even in the early stages of the revolution, upon all fystems of religion as not only and the general intent of its final extirpafactitious, and burdensome, but even sub- tion, than the horrid delapidation and deversive of good morals. I once listened, struction, by the mobs, of nearly all facred with much attention, to the discourse of a edifices throughout France, when so many clergyman of our church, who used all castles, the objects also of their vengcance, his rhetoric to convince a French Atheist were left untouched. The prevailing of the truth and utility of the Christian opinion amongst the superior people, and religion. The answer of the republican the literati, is, as heretofore, Atheism ; was, as nearly as possible, in the follow- or, as it is sometimes styled, Naturaliiin, ing remarkable words.

" You cannot or Fatalisin. The works of Volney have pretend, citizen, that justice and mora. contributed much to the dissemination of lity depend solely on the Christian faith, such principles amongst the people; and fince they have, may, and do exist, where probably it would not be too much to that exilts not, and even where that was assert, that they are prevalent with the never heard of; you can attach no merit very lowest class. In proof of this, a to belief, which is involuntary, therefore variety of instances, at different periods indifferent ; if you plead utility solely, of the revolution, might be adduced. you confess fraud : as to the delicate line

The chief attempts, either in favour of between Deilm and Atheism, you, who religion, or in counteraction of the popretend to decide, commit the error, not pular Atheilin of the country, were made the Atheist, who cannot be responsible for by the remaining members of the old the silence of Nature,” I much fear the clergy, who were enabled to step forward fun of Christianity has set, never more to on the unlimited toleration which was arise in France.

decreed; and by Thomas Payne, The late revolution in France found the apostle, or head of the sect of the the minds of a great majority of the up- Theophilanthropists. Great expectations per ranks, noblesse, ministers, lawyers, were entertained at the first opening of the even clergy, with a no finall minority of churches, which had been shut to long, the inferior, in cities and towns, fully and the sanguine Camille Jourdan flattered prepared to cast off the inconvenient re- himself, and his friends on both sides the Itraints of religion. The diffolution of water, with the hopes of soon having the the authority of the old government, pleasure to listen to the merriest peals of afforded the philofophic party that pre- church bells throughout France. He and cious opportunity, they had so long en- his bells, however, and the whole catholic thusiastically desired, of disseminating the scheme, foon became the standing jest of principles of infidelity amongst the lower the country, and that not in consequence ranks. This was effected with a zeal and adverse force, but from the mere rapidity, of which our cool and deliberate spontaneous inclinations of the people, brains in this country can have no con- The churches, both in Paris and in va. ception, in deluges of pamphlets, books, rious parts of the country, were remarka and papers, from one farthing up to six- ably well filled at first; and such accounts pence in price; and the poor, as it was were sent over to England, as to afford at that time observed, got rid of their re- great hopes of a considerable incipient ligion at a very easy expence. No won- change in the minds of the French; and, der that the extensive circulation of these if authorities may be relied on, to attract vehicles of moral instruction, so critically considerable luns to that country in supadapted to the temper of the times, had an port of the catholic iniflion. The bubble, a tonishing effect upon the minds of men, however, very soon burit; it appeared galled and irritated to madness, by the that the greater part of the congregations yoke of ecclefiaftical tyranny. It must were actuated by no better motives than te remarked too, that the French people curiosity, or even ridicule ; the places of have a great quickness and facility in the worship fortly became deserted; many perception of abstract principles. Thus prieits, who had been promised cures of the lower ople of France became philo- souls in the country, finding sophized, as well as their betters, and cure, fortunately changed their plan, and Christianity, became confined to La Ven- undertook to cure the soil of the original dée, and amongst the peasantry of the curse of barrenness: they turned farmers distant provinces ; even in those quarters and republicans, and succeeded. From that it is losing ground every day.

period, Religion, or as they style it, Fana. There cannot be a more convincing time, has been constantly on the decline,


of any

fouls to

1799.] Agricultural Queries and Remarks.

131 Payne has had very little better fuc- with that known in the Fen by the name cels than Camille Jourdan and his friends. of colefeed; there it comes into use The fe&t of Theophilanthropists has ne- about the same time and lasts as long as ver extended beyond Paris, at least not in turnips, but, I believe, it is never re-, any degree to deserve mention; and there served for spring feed, and indeed it canit has ever been confined to a few uniin- not be depended on as a certain spring portant (and as I have heard them called) food, as this winter it is almost destroyed Quakerly individuals. I believe PAYNE and rotted by the frost; so much so, that has rather loft ground in the popular efti- the grounds are hardly passable, from the mation from this act of apostleship. His very strong smell as it putrifies. Your fermon obtained little notice at Paris, correspondent recoinmends drawing it off but procured him the character of a li- for the stock, but I would alk him if this mited reasoner. It has succeeded better be necessary: will it not be much more in England, and is much valued by that profitable to cultivate turnips on foils that party among us called Democrats. are “ Itrong, clayey, and deep,” and In fine, one of the most ítriking fea- draw them off? On such land, with

protures in the French character, from the per cultivation, they will grow to a great commencement of the revolution to the lize, especially the tankard fort, and I present time, has been a total indifference should luppose, would yield more food per to, or rather rooted contempt of, religion acre, than coleseed, or colewort: and anof every feet or party : and this preju- other advantage attending turnips drawn dice has been purely spontaneous, for, off is, that if taken up at a fit time, and from the first, the zeal of the Sansculottes carefully stacked and defended from the against every thing generally held sacred, frost, they will keep two or three months; has even outstripped that of the philofo whereas a quantity of rape, or colewort, phers, their leaders. No force can be laid together, must heat and putrify, so alledged, for provided a man does not dip that if the crop must be drawn off, I am himself in political and counter-revolu; decidedly of opinion, that turnips are tionary intrigues, he may profess, and best. But I want to know, what good openly practice, any religion which he substitute we can have for turnips : on thall chuse, with as much fafety in Paris strong, deep, clayey land, where, in wet as elsewhere, and may publish and re- weather, sheep will siand up to the hocks? commend it to the people unmolested. This year I have had cole seed, the comSoine religious books in consequence have mon Norfolk white, and the Swedish turbeen published, but they have met with nip (ruta baga). The coleleed was used even less attention, than infidel publica- by Christmas, and though very bad eattions are wont to do in that country. It ing off, the sheep did not go on amiss; has been observed, that the elderly peo- the white turnips were remarkably large ple of France have rather relaxed in their and fine; the Swedish are now perfectly devotions, and that the difficulty is so sound. They were all fowed in the same great of educating their children in the piece of strong, deep, clayey loam, containbelief and profession of revealed religion ing about ,4 clay, 3 calcareous earth, and in a country almost universally infidel, 35 fand. I am inclined to believe, from that the attempt begins to be given up, the little experience I have had, that the almost in every part, as absolutely impracticable.

Swedish turnip alone, can be depended on

for spring food fur fheep; and I also think A Christian of the Church of England.

that the best mode of cultivation, is to low them early (some time in May), let

the ground be well hoed when the plants To tve Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

are large enough to bear it, and fèt out

about ten inches, and give thein a flight SIR,

hoeing after the common turnips are

finished (for by being fown early, they reI

quire this); they may be stacked when for the insertion of my letter in the the common ones are done ; and, I think, Magazine for December, and to your that in general, it is better not to attempt correspondent of last month, for his an- a crop of harley after them, but initead, fwer. I must again trouble you and him, fow white turnips to come in early; they or some other friend, for a further ac- will do without dressing, be very free count of the articles in question. I cannot from weeds, and, if fed off, will ensure a but think that the rape mentioned in the good crop of barley. Mid-Lothian Report, is not the same With respect to carrots, I have no doubt of their utility; indeed I think standing this was on a wild blowing seavery highly of them; but I question the fand. advantage of cultivating them on such I would recommend the same prevenland as has been described. I have known tive for bad favoured butter from colethe tops mowed twice for lorses, and a seed, as is used for turnips, I am, &c. very large produce of roots, notwith- Bedford, Feb. 8, 1799.






I to be made for the pub



I am not unwilling to flatter women : THE PRESIDENT MONTESQUIEU,

it is doing them a kindness at a cheap

I have naturally a great anxiety for the (Translated from his posthumous works just pub- prosperity and honour of my country, lished at Paris.]

and very little for my own fame. I al

ways feel a secret plealure when any reI have sensibility enough to receive lic benefit. all the pleasure which the objects that Whenever I have resided in a foreign surround me can afford; but not enough country, I have attached inylelf to it as to be susceptible of all the mortification to my native land; my heart has shared and sorrow they give to others. Vexation in its fortunes, and I have longed to see is very little known to me; and I am a it flourish. still greater stranger to littleisness of Ipirit. I have thought I perceived talents

I have ambition enough to take an ac- where the world has formed a contrary tive part in life; but not so much as to opinion. be dissatisfied with the station in which

I am not sorry to pass for an absent fortune has placed me.

man; I can thus with impunity indulge When I discover any new fource of in a neglect of many little forms, to which pleasure, I am extremely: moved ; and am otherwise I must have been a flave. instantly surprized, that I could over- I love to visit where I can escape cenlook the object, or regard it with indif- fure with my ordinary conversation and ference.

When I was a youth, I was always so On visits, I am always charmed when fortunate as to persuade myself that the I find one of the company take upon himwoman I loved was partial to me; and self the trouble of being gay and enterwhen I happened to be undeceived, to be taining. Such a one protects those that instantaneously cured of iny paffion. chure to be filent. Literature is with me a never failing

Nothing diverts me more than to hear remedy for all the ills of life; nor did I

a man relating petty stories with all their ever know what that forrow was which petty circumstances. It is not the tale I an hour's reading could not dissipate. attend to, but the ridiculous passion of

I awaken in the morning with a secret the speaker. As to most talkers, indeed, joy at seeing the dawn; I regard the light I would rather gratify them with my with a feeling approaching to extacy ; praile than attention. and, during the rest of the day, I am I love my family fufficiently to provide happy. I pats the night without awak- every thing in my power for its welfare, ing, and am asleep the moment I lay down but am not so toolish as to make myself

a llave to the minute affairs of a house, I am almost as well fatisfied with the

When I confide in any one, I have no company

of fcols as of the wife; for I reserves; but there are few in whom I have not often met with men fo dull as

am inclined to confide. not to amuse me, and there are few things It has given me no high opinion of as diverting as some filly people are. myself, to perceive that there are very

I make no fcruple to entertain myself few offices in the state for which I am in with secretly observing the characters of reality qualified. As to my station as men, permitting them meanwhile to do president of the parliament, I have a very the same with mine.

upright mind, and I can readily enough When I was a novice, I looked up to discover what reason demands of me; but the great with veneration ; experience I am loft, when I come to ask myself foon changed my sentiments, with little What is the decision of the law ? Yet, I exception, to the extreme of contempt, have been anxious to make myself inafter



my head.

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If a

Portrait of Montesquieu, by Himself.

133 of the intricacies of form, and am the within my own reach-moderation and more angry with myself because I see economy-unmingled with foreign aid, men with mean understandings acquire which is always mean or unjust. what I could not attain.

When I have seen a company expect to In the treating of topics at all profound find me excel in conversation, I have been and difficult, I am obliged to reflect much more than usually unsuccessful. I would as I proceed, to prevent my ideas from rather be prelent with men of talents to falling into confusion. If I perceive that enliven my understanding, than with I am listened to, the subject seems to fools to applaud my sayings. vanish from me, or my thoughts rise in The persons I inost despise are the such hurry and disorder that nothing is minor wits; and men of high station diftinct. But when difficult points are without probity. discussed in conversation, where there are I never wrote a pasquinade; I have other speakers, I acquit myself infinitely committed mistakes enough, but never better.

was guilty of ill-will to any one. I never could see tears, without sym- I never was prodigal in my expences, pathy.

yet I am not avaricious, and I know of I may be said to have a passion for no enterprize that I would at any time friendship,

have undertaken to amass riches. I am prone to forgive, because hatred

It has been very prejudicial to my afis a troublesome companion. When my fairs, that I could never forbear to despise enemy wishes to be reconciled, he applies those I could not esteem. to my vanity, and I can no longer regard I have not failed to increase my proas an enemy one who does me the favour perty, my lands being greatly improved ; to give me a good opinion of myself. but, I am persuaded, my motive was l'a

When I am residing in the country, ther to enlarge my power than my reamong my vassals, I never encourage unfavourable reports

of them.

On my entering into life, I was spoken tale-bearer would repeat something said of as a man of talents, and people of conto my disadvantage, I interrupt him with dition gave ine a favorable reception ; but saying-I do not wish to incur the dan- when the success of my PERSIAN LETger of believing a false report, and would TERS proved perhaps that I was not unnot give myself the trouble to hate a worthy of my reputation, and the public knave.

began to esteem me, my reception with At the age of 35, I was once more in the great was discouraging, and I expelove.

rienced innumerable mortifications. The I can no more make visits with merce- great, inwardly wounded with the glory nary views, than I can accompany birds of a celebrated name, seek to humble it. through the air.

In general, he only can patiently endure In the bustle of public life, I felt as if the fame of others, who deserves fame I could not endure retirement. In re- himself. tirement, I forgot the world.

I do not think I ever expended four A man of eminent merit I can never pounds for the sake of thew, or made one bear to analyze ; a man, who, with valua- visit for the sake of interest. In what I ble qualities, does not rise above medio- undertake, I employ no trick; and am crity, I analyze very carefully.

lets anxious for the success of my enter.. I believe I am the only writer who has prize, than for the discharge of my duty not been smitten with the passion of being in it. reputed a wit; and my intimate friends Had I been born in England, nothing know that in conversation I never affect could have consoled me in failing to acit, but have sente enough to use the lan- cumulate a large fortune; I do not laguage of those with whom I affociate.

ment the mediocrity of my circumstances I have often had the misfortune to be in France. disgusted with persons whose good-will I I own, I have too much vanity to wish had earnestly sought.

my children to make a splendid fortune, I never lost but one friend, through for they would find it difficult to proany misunderstanding; and I have lived nounce their father's name, and my tomb with my children as with friends. would be a monument to perpetuate their

It has been a principle of my whole disgrace. I do not suppose they would life, never to do, by the agency of others, level my tomb with the ground; but what I could do for myself; and hence i they would scarcely rebuild it, if thrown bave improved my fortune by means down. Their origin would embarrass


their flatterers, and twenty times a day If I knew of any enterpriže that would bring blushes on their owri cheeks. My do myself a service at the expence of my memory would exist only to give offence, family, I would reject it; if it were one and my unhappy shade haunt the living that would advance the fortune of my with uncealing terrors.

house to the injury of my country, I Timidity has been the bane of my life, would endeavour to forget it; if it were it seems to affect even the organs of my something that would be useful to my body, and iny intellect; to arrest my country, but inconsittent with the interests tongue, cast a cloud over my thoughts, of Europe or the human race, I should and confound my language. I am less regard, the prosecution of it as a crime. fubject to this humiliation before men of My ambition is to be simple in my fenie than fools, because I trust to their manners; to receive as few favours as perceiving the train of my ideas. Some. poflible; and to grant as many as poftimes, I have chanced to acquit myself tible. well enough. Being at Luxembourg, in I am going to do a very foolish thingan apartment where the emperor was at it is to make a table of my genealogy. dinner, Prince Kinski said to me-"You, Sir, who came from France, will be sur

MISCELLANEOUS THOUGHTS, BY prited to see the emperor fu ill lodged."'

MONTESQUIEU. « Sir," I answered, “ I am not sorry to see a country in which the subjects are

(Translated from the fame.) better lodged than their sovereign." To take delight in reading, is to have Being in Piedmont, the King said to me, the power of changing those moments of “ I understand, Sir, you are a relation lassitude that visit every man, for the most of the Abbé de Montesquieu, whom I delicious moments of life. have seen here with the Abbè d'Estrades." What an unfortunate necessity is it in “ Sir," I replied, “ Your majesty is the constitution of man, that his underlike Cæsar, who never forgot any one's standing is scarcely matured when the

-Dining in England with the organs of his body begin to fail ! Duke of Richmond, the French envoy A celebrated physician was asked If there, La Boine, who was at table, the commerce of the fexes was prejudicial and was ill qualified for his situation, to health– No,” said he, “ if provocontended that England was not larger catives are not used.” But I should rank than the province ot Guienne. I opposed variety among provocatives. the envoy. In the evening, the Queen It is a proof that merit is of the highest faid to me, “ I am infornied, Sir, that kind, when it continues to shine with acyou undertook our defence againit M. de cuitomed lustre, although merit of as high la Boine." “ Madam,” I replied, “ I a rank is in its presence. cannot persuade myself that a country I call genius a secret gift of the Deity, over which you reign, is not a great which the possessor displays unknown to kingdom.”

himself. I have had the double misfortune to He who runs after wit is apt to emwrite books, and to be ashamed of them.

brace folly: I never wished to increase my wealth I once said to Madam du Châteletby the favors of the court; but, content " You postpone your sleep, to read the to improve my lands, have held my, for- pliilosophers; you should read the philotune "dependent only on providence. fophers, to haften your flumbers, N********, having certain purposes to Hope is the link that unites ail our pleaanswer, intimated, that a pention would sures. be granted me. I replied, Having ne- The interval is too short between the ver degraded myself by concessions to the time of our being too young and too old. court, I have no need to seek confolation

It demands a great deal of study to acin its favours.”

quire inoderate knowledge. If I may predict the fortune of the

Of those who make companions of their SPIRIT OF LAWS, it will be more praised servants, I have only to fáy, that vice is than read. Such works afford satisfac- its own punishment. tion, but are never retorted to for anjuse

Men of talents govern fools; and some ment. I conceived the design of making fool or other often governs a man of parts of that book more elaborate and pro- talent. found, but the state of my eyes would When I reflect on our discoveries in not permit me to pursue the necessary natural philofophy, I think we have gone fcudies,

very far for human beings.



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