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Ecclesiastical Discipline of Spain.

125 the expence leffened; or that our leather To the Editor of the Monthly Magazines is much better than it was twenty years MR, EDITOR, ago. To this general remark, there may, perhaps, be two exceptions. An IN

N the 13th volume of the works of

Louis de Saint-Simon, printed at îngenious man has obtained a patent, and erected a manufactory near Westminster- Strasburg in 1791, I find some curious bridge, where leather is tanned on the remarks on the ecclesiastical discipline of principles of Monsieur Seguin, a French Spain, and on the authority of the Inchemiit of much celebrity. By this mode, quisition, which I fatter myielf will not leather of the fame kind and quality is

be unacceptable to your readers. manufactured in fourteen days, which in bishop of Toledo took me afide, and with the

" One day,” says the duke, “ the Archthe ordinary way requires as months. Whether the expence attending Heaven's fake, Sir, let your bishops in

many the most lively emotions, frid to me: for this process be greater or less, I am not France beware of following the example of competent to decide.

their brethren here in Spain. For, by little The other exception to which I have and little, Rome has brought us under her alluded, is the discovery and use of elm- yoke, and reduced us to mere cyphers in our bark, for which also a patent is obtained. own dioceses. Mere priests of the inquisition As this discovery is not generally known, are become our teachers and our masters, and and it seems to be of great importance, I are in possesion of our authority; and we are fall lay before your readers the result of daily indebted to our very servants for the many experiments made, under the direc. information, that a decree on doctrinal points

is affixed to the doors of our cathedrals, of tion of the patentee, by fome eminent manufacturers in Southwark, and which have which we had no previous knowledge, but been submitted to the examination of the The correction of vice and the regulation of

to which we must submit without reply. lords of the committee of privy-council,

the manners of the people belongs also to the as well as to a committee of the house of inquifition.' In the concerns of the bishop's commons. From this evidence it appears court, whoever pleases may disregard the that a considerable quantity of leather had proper officers and go to the tribunal or the been manufactured with elm-bark—that nuncio, where, if disiatisfied with his offiịt was firm and durable-that its quality cers too, he has only to appeal from their deand weight were nearly equal to that cision to that of the nuncio. So that, detanned with oak-bark-and that the shoe- prived as we are of all authority, we have makers who worked it up confessed that only the powers of ordination and of con

firmation left us: in truth, we are no longer they scarcely knew the difference. As it would be uninteresting to your is the immediate bisliop of every diocese herc,

the bishops of our own diocefes. The pope readers to enter into a detail of the expe- and we are no more than his vicars, conseriments, with a precise statement of the crated indeed, and mitred, but for the fole weight of the bark expended and of the purpose ordaining priests, and of performing leather produced, I shall only say that the a few other manual operations, without comparative advantage of that which was daring to intermeddle with, otherwise than tanned with oak, over that tanned with by blindly submitting to, the inquisition, the elm-bark,appears to be about one in twenty; nunciature, and whatever is sent us from and as the price of the latter is not above Rome: and should a bishop happen to disa half the price of the former, this advan- please them in the smallest tittle, he is in. tage is more than countesbalanced. ftantly punished, without being allowed to If the use of elm bark should become nothing less than the submission of deaf and

offer any thing in his own defence; because general (as it probably will when preju. dumb animals is expected from him. It feldice fubfides) it will considerably increase dom indeed happens now, that any one is fent the materials of tanning ; will lessen the

to the prison of the inquisition, or to Rome, consumption of oak timber; will aug. bound and gagged, because these instances, iment our commerce and revenue; and in past times, have been too frequent, and will ultimately tend to benefit the pub- because they wish to run no risk; yet we are lic by reducing the price of one of the not entirely without such punishments, and pecessary and ir.dispensable articles of life. these very recent.

Should this letter be deemed worthy a “ Judge then, Sir, what weight and authoplace in your valuable miscellany, I may rity the constitution can derive from the acperhaps on a future occafion trouble you ceptance of bishops thus enslaved, as we in with some further remarks.

Italy, Portugal, and Spain are ; and from the I am, Sir,

universities, the doctors, and the fecular, obedient servant, your

regular, and monastic bodies of the clergy in

L. S. the fame countries. But this is not all. Bark-Place, Feb. 12, 1799.

Do you imagine that a fingle individual

among * Caudebec. Editor.

S. R.

among us would have accepted the bull, if whether any such tribunal now exifts the

pope had not, by his nuncio, commanded among the Roman Catholics of this it? Our very acceptance of it would itlelf kingdom. I hope, for the credit of have been a crime, which would not long Englishmen, they are under no such banehave remained unpunished. It would have

fui influence. Yet as they acknowledge been deemed an encroachment on the intalJibility of the holy father; for to dare to

the Bishop of Rome to be the head of aceept what he decides, is to judge that he enced, in some degree, by him. What

their church, they cannot but be influhas decided aright. Now who are we to add our judgment to that of the Pope? When

then has hitherto been the nature of this he has spoken, filence and blind obedience influence? and, what changé is it likely are our portion: we must bow down in per- to undergo from the present itate of af. eet adoration to what he has said, and lur- fairs at Rome? render, as I may say, into his hands, our February 4th, 1793. will, memory, and understanding. So that far from daring to contradict, move any

To the Editor of the Montbly Magazine. amendment, or ask for any cxplication, we SIR, are not allowed to approve, accept, or do any thing, that bespeaks an active part in

CONSIDER myself much obliged to I

your two Correspondents, W. #. and what he decrees. « Such, Sir, is the nature of the accept- attention to my queries on my kitchen li

E. F. (particularly the latter) for their ance given by Spain, by Portugal, and by brary; the list of the latter correspondent, Italy, and which, find, is so much extolled in France, and held out as the free judg

I imagine peculiarly fitted for such a ment and approbation of all the churches aud plan; the cheap repository mentioned by schools! But, in truth, they are no better the former, is, I apprehend, also particu. than Naves, whose maiter has condescended larly fuitable. A bible, and prayer book, to open his lips, and has prescribed the form has hitherto, I believe, been all that the of words that they are to pronounce, and generality of kitchens have had to shew. which, without the change of a letter, or an I would at the same time suggest to W. H. iota, they have servilely pronounced. This that, if the principle mentioned in my is the pretended judgment, that is so much · lalt be true, I am afraid those two will talked of in France, and which we have given indeed unanimousy, because the same long, and in addition to the church of

not so exactly answer ; I have had them form was prescribed to us all!

“ At this view of the calamitous 'situation England prayer book, I have added a of the church, the archbishop could no longer collection of prayers for the use of famicontain himself, but melted into tears. He

lies, published at the expence of the sointreated me, for obvious reasons, not to ciety of Unitarian Christians, established mention to any one what he had said. Ac- in the West of England, for promoting cordingly I kept the secret inviolably as long christian knowledge, and the practice of as he lived, but as he is now no more, i virtue, by the distribution of books; think myself equally bound to reveal it to the printed at Exeter, by M'Kenzie anci world.”

Son, and sold by J. Johnson, St. Paul's The inquisition, Mr. Editor, which Church-Yard, London; not presuming ta generally narrows and debates the mind dictate in what mode my equals, though of those who live within the sphere of its my fervants, should worship the power activity, had little or no effect, it seems, that created them. My wish, Mr. Editor, on this fenfible primate of Spain, who- is to mix the useful with the agrecable and ever he was for I am not fufficiently to invite iny domeitics to the habits of conversant in the history of Roman Ca- free enquiry and the practice of morality tholics to know his name, nor of what by the allurements of the rational volupconftitution and bull he speaks, unless of tuary, and I folicit your correspondents that which is called Unigenitus, which, will continue to suggest such books as as history tells us, convulled all France may in their opinions be suited to such a and Flanders in the beginning of the pre- scheme. I hope I shall foon meet with an fetit century--yet, as his language ap- informant equally able and ready to conpears to be fo very unusual in the inouths municate on the hatting business as E. F. of bishops of the Ronish communion, I. on my“ Library.” Perhaps, Sir, it shall be glad to learn, from fome of your would be assisting, in fome degree, the en. correspondents, what degree of credit is quiry on the second fibject, to inform you, due to Louis de Saint-Simon, and to the that one kind of hat is called Cody or archbishop. Perunit ine allo to ask, whe- Cordeback, which I am told took its ther the inquisition ever found its way name from a town in France, * where cod into England before the Reformation; or


1799. ]

Recent Tour in New England.






wool (called in the North mort wool) was captains of packets; in this respect much first uled upon a wool hat. That must be like the drivers of Mort Itages, never basome time since, and the probability is lance the ease and comfortable accomno. that the name has been changed. I re- dation of their passengers with their fares : collect no such name in that country, so it proved at night; for what with the though some of your correspondents may few births, and the number of perfous to inform me, from which we may, grada- occupy them, I had no other resource tim, develope its history. Another kind than to wrap myself in my great-coat, of stuff hats are also called Carolines and and Mcep as well as I could on a failor's Castors, the last name evidently from the cheft. caltor or beaver, the fine hair of which On onr way, and arrived within fight animal covers the outside of the hat. But of New York, I was thewn the renains why the former?

of the Jersey, an English 64 gun man In Whitaker's Hiltory of Manchester, of war, converted during the American p. 304 and 305 of the first volume, we troubles into a prison-thip: the floated have the following account:

immediately opposite us, and the More “ The Britons in general did not adopt was covered with a number of boney fragthe Roman pileus or petalus, as a covering ments, reliques of the many victims who for the head; but continued their own kap- had from thence been daily conveyed and pan, hata, or boined, in use, as they have deposited there. The Ainericans relate transmitted them and their appellations to divers Itories of unusual severity and illo;

Vid. Suetonius, p. 82, « Solis-ne hiberni quidem patiens (Augustus) domi

treatment experienced at that time by the quoque non nifi pecafatus


' dio spatiabatur;" prisoners on board ; but which I hope, and Montfaucon, plate 15, tom. 3. L'Ant. for th: fake of humanity, and for the Expliquée.

honour of my countrymen, Your's, &c.

MUNNOO. the exact truth. In failing down Newcastle, Feb. 8, 1799.

about ten miles farther, along the east

river, we passed a tremendous current To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

and whirlpool, called Hell-gate: to get through this dreadful Eripus iir safety,

it is neceffary for ali veliels, excepting luable miscellany, and highly gra

conferts her bare en realida and narrows tified by your correspondent J. S.'s topo- and are fo perplexed with contrary ones, graphical information relative to the and jutting rocks on all sides obstructing cities of New York and Philadelphia, I them, that it requires the nicest care and here include you a brief but accurate and circumipection of the most tkilful pilot. impartial account of a thort tour which I During the minute we were rapidly undertook through a part of New Eng- whiled through by the impetuous curland, in the United States of America, rent, the foaming noise on every lide, fome little time ago. If you think it contrasted by the still anxiety of the worthy of infertion, I shall consider my. paffengers, contributed not-a little to iiiself as highly flattered.

crease its natural horrors. The captain, Having previously visited Philadelphia though for many years habituated to itel! and New York, I failed, in the autumn ing through this passage declared it always of 1795, from the latter place in a packet had the effect to produce on him a profloop for Newport, on my way to Boston, fulė perspiration; and related a circumthe capital of New England. There is ftance of piloting a West Indiaman froin a regular stage which daily passes be- New York up the Sound, when the owner, tween these places, (distant about 270 whole whole property was un bard the miles); but as the roads are but indif.' vell, and who had entoitained great apferent for carriage conveyance, and the prehentions of this placı, (tomething like coach was, strictly, speaking, a kaary Ulyfles in fabulous hittery), actually caravan, carrying eleven passengers be- böcked up his (the pilot's) wife, who was fides the driver, I preferred the vellel as on board, in the cabin, during the time the least evil of the two, although not at the vertel was passing through, lett by all partial to the watery element. I loon any converiation the might ettrange and found I had cholen right, at least if I withdraw her husband's attention? InInight judge from the number of passen- deed, this place, wrich I viewed at a ger's bound on the same expedition. This subsequent period from the adjoining decided preference, however, was not un- More, is well deserving the inipation of attended with its disadvantages, as the the curious: it is supposed to hay cak"


its rise from immense rocks, which, on On my entering Boston, the activity fome earthquake or other unknown event, and alacrity visible in the domeftics, with have funk considerably, and turned the the general bustle, and concern for bulicourse of the waters from their accustomed ness which characterises the inhabitants, channel.

had well-nigh led me to mistake the meThe Americans have long obtained tropolis of New England, for some great credit for building swift-failing vessels, town of its mother country. It is a preand very juftly, in my opinion ; for in the vailing custom throughout the United space of about eighteen hours, we were States, on account of the scarcity of confafely landed at Newport, which is 200 venient hotels, and coffee-houses, for miles distant from the place of our de- ftrangers to be accommodated with board parture; having failed at the rate of and lodging in private families, by above eleven miles an hour. This town which means, a number of widows, with (Newport) is called the capital of Rhode small incomes, who generally fuperinIand; and during the late war, on ac- tend these concerns, are enabled to maincoant of its commodious and beautiful tain their families with a degree of credit harbour, it was in a very flourishing ftate: and decent respectability. This method it has since, however, gradually declined; is not without its advantages, as it tends whilst the town of Providence in the same to familiarize, by associating together, state, thirty miles diftant on the road to travellers of different countries, from Boston, has increased in a proportion whose conversation much entertainment equally rapid. This place, though not and mental instruction is derived and info eligibly situated as the former, in a terchanged ; it may also be a means of commercial point of view, far furpaffes it preventing many excesses, to which men in extent and opulence; which may be are often addicted, in the usual taverns, attributed to the spirit of enterprise ap- {uch for instance as those in Great Britain. parently pervading the whole body of its The tables, at the above houses, are well inhabitants, and for which it is not a and plentifully served, (rather indeed little indebted to that truly indefatigable profusely), as are those of moft priand worthy citizen, Mr. John Brown. vate families; I cannot account for this At the entrance of the town of Provi- from any particular cheapness of prodence a new bridge has been erected, of visions, as whatever might have been the a light and very elegant structure. The case formerly, at present they are fully church is a very handsome modern edifice, adequate to the prices in England. and the inns have accommodation for ti is astonishing to think of the rapid travellers, fuperior to any I have ever advance to which every neceffary of life teen in the fouthern districts of America. has arisen, in consequence of the war now This state, although the smallest in the raging in Europe. At the cominencemen union, apparently pofleffes the most con- of 1793, five dollars was the general fiderable advantages; the farms here are price per week, for board and lodging, better cultivated, and the lands are more but in the short space of three years, it productive, than

any I have seen in other has increased to more than eight dollars parts. It is likewise admirably fituated per week; house rent rises in yet greater for commerce, lying contiguous to the proportion, and if this disaitrous war Atlantic Ocean, and at a convenient dif- ihould continue for any length of time, tance between the great, capitals New what with the influx of emigrants, and York, and Boston: the climate allo is the necessary supply of provisions exported generally allowed to be the mildest, and to the West India Ilands, the above arthe peafántry here are accounted the hand- ticles will, in all probability, become fomeft.

still dearer. I have remarked, not withFrom Providence to Boston the distance out a degree of furprize, the comeliness is 45 miles. As the river is not navigable and apparent health of the American men, farther, I proceeded to the latter place in particularly in this part, the New Engthe stage, and was agreeably surprised to land states, which is difficult to be ac. find this conveyance a confortable close counted for, considering the great quancoach, instead of the open, jumbling ca- tity of animal food they eat, and the new ravans, to which I had been accustomed male fpirit or rum they usually drink. in the Pensylvania and New York States. An American breakfast is even proverI observed állo with pleafure the increased bial for its variety : I seldom fat down to expedition in travelling, and the attention this meal, but in addition to the usual and excellent accommodations on the road, fare of tea and coffee, fish, beef-fteaks, a satisfaction which was enhanced by have ham, chcelé, &c; were served up; yet, ing loft light of the people of colour.


1799.] Present State of Religion in France.

129 notwithstanding the frequency of meat same effeèt on the bulk of the people, as diet, partaken of four or five times a day, tbe, contemplation of it did upon their the scurvy is not so prevalent here as in philosophers? Answer, Yes, that reOld England: a presumptive proof, that collection is indelible with full nine parts the clearners of atmosphere, experienced in ten of the people of France. The phithroughout the United States, acts power- losophers have succeeded most wonderfully fully in the prevention of this diseale. and universally, in imbuing the public (To be concluded in our next.)

mind with their favourite principles.

Congratulations on their escape from ecTo the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

clefiaftical fraud and tyranny, are very

general, and are usually accompanied SIR,

with stories of the religious and ariltocraI

MOST cordially agree in opinion tical cruelties of former days. As an ex

with a correspondent, who subscribes ample, take the following fact, which V. W. that the report of the Monthly was related to me by an American gentle. Magazine, on the national institute of man. “ Before the revolution, a personFrance, and the retrospect of French lite- travelling in Franche Comptè, faw in a ráture, are articles peculiarly interesting village near St. Cloude, at the door of a and valuable; and this interest is doubly miserable hut, three guards arıned with enbanced by the consideratio that the muskets, and bearing a bandalier across real state of that country, and its im- their shoulders, with the arms of a dignia provenients, from fome lage motives of tary of the church. These guards were striv. bottle-conjuring policy, are attempted to ing to prevent a woman in tears, and four be feduloully withheld from the observa- ragged children, from entering the door. tion of the people of this country. The observer supposed them officers of

In the first place, I shall state the na. justice, but was inforined, that in the hut · ture of my authority, that every one niay was a mainmortable, in the agonies of death, judge of the degree of credibility to which and that his wife and children were it is entitled, and enjoy a fair opportu. struggling with the guards to get to him, nity to investigate, or even controvert it, and catch his last breath ; but as his fur. which is the only method of opening the niture belonged to the Lord, it was the real path to truth, supposing that I have custom to drive away every one, least not yet discovered it. I do not however any part Mould be stolen." ' The stories hesitate to acknowledge iny own con- which one hears in France, of the vio. viction.

lence formerly put upon the inclinations My inquiries commenced, soon after of young women, from interested motives, the fortunate dissolution of the reign of are incredible, for their number and atroterror, by the overthrow of the treache- city.. Nothing surely could be better rous and felfil Rohelpierre, when the contrived to stifle the feelings of humanity republic beginning to assume a legal and than monastic inftitutions. fettled form, encouraged a return of con

Query 2d.

Is the number of French fidence, and promoted, in a considerable Protestants increased, since the revolution, degree, the facilities of intercourse; these or are they generally gone over 10 Deism? enquiries have been attentively pursued to Answer. Protestantisin has decreased the present time, through the medium of much, if it be not entirely obliterated ; travellers of neutral nations; fome of them the little religion which remains in France, commercial, foine agricultural and lite- is the pure Roman Catholic, with an af. rary, whom a laudable and useful curio. fected display of all the ancient mum. fitý attracted to the examination of a mery; which they imagine to be politic, country, which had undergone fo wonder- in these times of total laxity in religious ful a metamorphosis. I have allo ob- discipline. tained considerable information from fe- Query 3d. Have any confiderable atveral intelligent men of the later emigrès, tempts been made to promote free enquiry who have relations or friends settled under with respect to religion, and to propagate the republic; and froin prisoners both the knozvledge of pure Chrifliani'y? English and Irish, who being confined in Answer. None at all, at least if

any the inland parts of France, were in confe- such have been or are made, they do not quence under the necessity of making jour- excite the finallest interest or curiosity. neys of some length through the country. The French public, of every degree, are

The particular queries are, ift. Has totally indifferent to the subject, in all its the recollection of the superstition and 19- branches ; even books of infidelity have ranny of their old church, produced ibe now no attraction, the public mind being MONTHLY MAG. No. XLII.



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