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under a burning sky, their beauty, which In fair weather, one half of Mount is neither Grecian nor majestic, but ra Ætna way be clearly discovered from ther languishing and modest, is not the Malta, although the distance is computed less feducing on that account. The coun åt nearly 200 Italian miles. In the great try women are generally faithful to their eruptions of that mountain, the whole bulbands; but the city ladies can no illand is illuminated, and from the reflecmore refist the gold of the bailies, than tion in the water, there appears a great the love-fick tighs of the youthful track of fire in the sea all the way frony knights; and theiefore che utmost licen- Malta to Sicily. The thunder of the tiousness of military celibacy prevails mountain is likewise distinctly heard*. here. Elegance and neatneís characterite The fortifications of Malta, both natheir dress, furniture, &c. and they have tural and artificial, are indeed a moft ftulike the men, but 10 artfully and dex- pendous work. Two thirds of its coait teroully, (this voluptuous operation is (on the other extremity of the ifand, opperformed with broken glais), that a posite to the northern coalt of Valetta), Itranger mutt be very near to discover the are lined with rocks, steep and pointed ; effect of this practice.
and as this rock extends in continuity Perhaps Malta was the only country for several miles, and is absolutely perin the world where duelling was autho- pendicular from the sea, besides being of rised by law. They had laid it, how an enormous height, Malta
be conever, under such restrictions as greatly to fidered as inaccessible on that fide, being diminish its danger. The duellifts are fo completely fortified by nature, that obliged to decide their quarrel in one par- nothing is left for art to fuperaddt. ticular street of the city, and were, more In other places, where the coast is more over obliged, under the most levere pe- accessible, it is defended by an infinite nalties, to put up their twords, when or- number of fortifications. The rock, in dered to to do, by a woman, a priest, or many places, has been loped into the fornr a knight. A cross was always painted of a glacis, with strong parapets, intrenchon the wall opposite to the spot where a ments and batteries running behind it, knight had been killed, and between fo as to render a landing, if not altogetwenty and thirty of these crosses were to ther impracticable, yet extremely danbe counted there about a dozen years ago. gerous.
The police, however, was much better There is one particular kind of ord. regulated here than in the neighbouring nance, invented by the Maltese, whiclr countries, assassinations and robberies be- excites the amazement of strangers, and ing very uncommon.
is unknown to all the world besides. The The only kind of vehicle the island affords, is coaches drawn by one muie each. * During the month of June, or for some The horse-races here are of a very singu- weekes before and after our Midsummer, the lar kind, being performed in the ancient weather at Malta is perfectly clear and ferene, Numidian manner, without either faddle, without a cloud in the liemisphere; the bridle, whip, or spur; and yet the hortes beauty of the setting fun also is much fupeyun at full speed, and afford abundance rior to what is obferved in Italy, or indeed of diversion. They are commonly accuf- any other country; and for some time after tomed to the ground for some weeks be- sunset, the whole of the eastern part of the fore, and although the course is entirely being that of a fine rich deep purple. The
heavens exhibit a most beautiful appearance, over rocks and pavement, it is very
feldom that any accidents are known to take of Claude Lorrain, so much admired by con
western hemisphere is the true yellow glow place. They have races of alles and noisieurs. This phenomenon very generally mules, performed in a similar manner, takes place at the above season of the year, four times every year, with this differ- The weather, however, is not intolerably ence, that the rider is allowed an inftru- hot, as the thermometer commonly stands ment like a shoemaker's awl, to prick on
between 75 and 76. his courser if he is tardy. The asses here
+ It is very singular, that on this side have long been famous for their strength there are still the vestiges of several ancient and fize, and it appears that the Romans roads, with the tracks of carriages worn deep fet a high value on the long haired dogs the precipice with the tea beneath, and seem
in the rocks; there roads are terminated by of this itland, the species of which is now to indicate that this island has in former ages degenerated. It is a lingular fact, that been of much larger extent than it is at preno venomous creatures are to be found in fent. The convullion, however, that occaMalta, and vipers, which have been lioned its diminution, appears to be much bebrought there from Sicily, expired almoit yond the reach of any history or tradition. instantly on their arrival.
121 rocks here are not only scarped into for- from which the firing must be attended tifications, but likewile into fire-engines with the greatest effect. Indeed, the fort or artillery to defend those fortifications; of St. Michael (a very well-built place, being hollowed out in many places into crofied by two large and elegant streets, the form of immense mortars. These with other lesser ones crossing them), and mortars they fill with cantars of cannon- the castle of St. Angelo, (which two forballs, shells, stones, and other deadly tresses are erected on the point of the two materials; and if an enemy's fhip should peninsulas, which inclose what is called approach with a design to land, they fire the Grand Port, or the principal of the the whole into the air: the effect of this five subdivisions of the main harbour), tremendous invention must be very great, would alone keep in safety the navy
of as it will prodnice a shower for 2 or 300 the illand, even ihould an enemy's feet yards round, that would quickly link any prove successful in forcing the citadels of veffel, and make a dreadful havock St. Elmo and Ricasoli, which defend the amongst a debarkation of boats. A cantar entrance. is about a hundred pound weight; and as The harbour on the north side of the the mouths of some of the mortars are fix city, called Marsa Muscet, although chiefly feet wide, they will throw, according to resorted to for fishing, and as a place of calculation, a hundred cantars each. quarantine, would, in any other part of
In the accessible parts of the coast, the world, be considered as inestimable. there are several commodious harbours, It is liken ise defended by very strong bays, and anchoring grounds, all of fortifications, (particularly Fort Manoel, which (as already oblerved) are defended the latest and most finished work about by towers, forts, and other works; but Valetta, situated on a peninsula); and in the great or main harbour of Valetta the centre of the bason is an illand, on has been so admirably formed by nature which they have erected a fort and a las in point of depth, extent, security, and zaretto. At the entrance of this harcommodiousness, that it seems even be- bour, opposite St. Elmo, is the point of yond the power of art to improve it; it is Dragut; so named from the vice-roy of allo so well defended by its situation and Algiers, who landed here during the lege by works which have been added to it for of Malta, under the reign of the Turkithe more than 200 years past, that it may be emperor, Solyman, while Valetta was considered as almost impregnable against Grand Malter. any attack either by sea or land.
(To be concluded in our next.) The port, properly speaking, consists of two harbours; that on the S. E. fide of
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. the city is the principal one, and by much the most frequented. It runs about 'SIR, two miles into the heart of the island, OBSERVE in your Magazine for last and is fo very deep, and surrounded by month another letter from Mr. Wood such high grounds and fortifications, that of Shrewsbury, of which I am once more the largest ships of war may ride in it, al- made the subject; but which is written most without a cable. This beautiful in a style so very querulous and invective, bason is-lubdivided into five distinct har- that nothing but an allowance, and a very bours, all equally safe, and each capa. liberal one too, for that irritability which ble of containing an immense number of even a worthy man will sometimes feel at shipping. The entrance is very narrow, being compelled to relinquish opinions he being Icarcely a quarter of a mile broad, has long and fondly foftered, can entitle and is commanded by a strong castle on to any reply whatsoever. each fide, with batteries that would tear The original dispute between us may the strongest ship in pieces before the could now be regarded as completely terminatposlibly enter. Belides this, it is fronted ed : for, of the two errors of this gentleby the castle of St. Angelo, where a man which I so unfortunately noticed in quadruple battery has been planted, one my “ Dissertation on the Poor," the one above the other, the largest of which is he has fully acknowledged, and the other level with the water's edge; the platforms is rendered self-evident by a comparison are mounted with about eighty of their with other facts of a similar nature which heavieft artillery. In several others of the Mr. Wood has elsewhere advanced; and works are similar ranges of batteries ; an by his continuing to with-hold thofe data, advantage naturally ariting from the if indeed they be in his pofleffion, on rock ou which they are conitructed, and which the controversy entirely rests. MONTHLY MAG, No. XLII.
With respect to the former, which relates provisions, and of the average number at to the comparative mortality, or rather that time fupported. From the inacthe superiority of life enjoyed by infants curacy, indeed, with which the accounts at the Shrewsbury Houle of Induttry, were, at this period, kept by an unfaithduring their first month, beyond what ful secretary, I do not apprehend Mr. occurs in every other part of the world, Wood knows correctly, or has any of and in violation of the accustomed laws the above data by which to determine, of nature, Mr. Wood declares, in the what was the weekly expence precisely letter before us, that the tecretary was incurred. The average number of paupers “ inaccurate, and negligent in his ac- for the year 1790, we collect from his. counts,” and believes it posible that he pamphlet, p. 78, was 340. But we can did not keep a corre&t register of the no where collect what was either the deaths of infants within this period. I average number for the year 1791, or have now, therefore, no farther contention the aggregate annual expence for their with him on this point; and can readily support. If he be in pofleffion of thefe excuse the tenderneis which he still ma- data, why has he not fubftantiated his nifests for his former opinion, by assert. affertion by producing them? This, ining that “ the mortality of their children deed, was truly necessary; not only as it has, nevertheless, been remarkably small, would have terminated the dispute at a and much less than in the old work- moment; but becaule, without such col. houses, or among the poor of the town in lateral evidence, it is still imposlible to their own houses.” For all this I can believe but that he must be egregiously give him full credit ; and have no doubt mistaken: for it is a price totally unbut much of the falubrity of the House known in any other part of the kingdom of Industry proceeds froin his own very where a diet equally liberal is permitted ; laudable and unremittert attention. It and very considerably lower, as I have alwould have been more satisfactory, how- ready oblerved, than what has occurred ever, still, if he had complied with a re in the Shrewsbury House of Industry itquest I expressed in my lait letter, and self at every other period whatsoever of favoured us with a correct statement of which we have any account. Its present the proportionate mortality of infants of expence, he tells us, is is. 9d. for each the above age since the regiiter has been inhabitant weekly : and, in the year 1794, more accurately attended to. A single the only period besides upon which we are fact, or a single figure, is worth a volume able to calculate, and when, according to of observations that prove nothing. his last itatement, the average number of
As to the average expence of the poor paupers fupported was 364, and the anmaintained within the houle, Mr. WOOD nual fum expended in their provisions appears till tenacious of his former 1782).8s.gd.--the weekly expence of each allertion, and continues to state it at could not have been less than is. 10 d.15. 644. for each weekly. He allows, I repeat it “ according to his last itatehowever, that this is not the price at ment :" for the statement advanced by which they are supported at prelent, nor Mr. Wood in the fourth edition of his have been for many years. But that fo pamphlet, p. 29, differs materially from far back as 1791 this was the precise that of his firit letter inserted in your average of the expence then sustained, and Miscellany for November. In the former which has fince been considerably in- he tells us, dating this edition January 1, creased. Mr. Wood's pamphlet (its 1795, that “ the average number of the latt edition at least) does certainly in- poor in the house is 350 :" while, in the clude a range of time from December 1783, above letter, he aflerts them to have been the period of the institution of the elta- at this time 364; a difference, indeed, blishment, to the termination of 1794. which it is not easy to reconcile. But no-notice is taken in any one page The actual truth of the matter, and of any charge that has occurred in the probably the only cause of our present arrangement of the diet, or its additional controverty, is, that the accounts whicha expence ; the only average Itatement we have hitherto been printed of this very meet with being the above of 15.6d, laudable inititution are, unfortunately, weekly for each. Nor does he now afford very incorrect. This gentleman, indeed, us an opportunity of calculating for our freely allows it. " Mr. Good,” lays felves, and thus corroborating the truth he, in the setter before me, complains of so extraordinary a pofition by an ad. that the published accounts of the Shrews. duction of the annual grots aitwount for bury Kloula are imperfect: I admit the
1799.] Mr. Good in Reply to Mr. Wood.
123 fact, and will tell him the true reason.” while, adds he, they are not supported What then follows from such an ad- at is. gd. instead. Even this, however, mislion, but that Mr. Wood has been I am sorry to observe, is not perfectly liable to imposition ? and that the con- consistent with the fact. I avowedly calclusions he deduces from such question- culated the expence of the poor at Shrewfable data ought to be feverely catechifed, hury, as I did those of every other instiand even at lait received with no finall tution upon which I thought it necessary degree of hesitation and doubt. This, I to aniinadvert, at the mean London price freely avow, has been the conduct I have of the different articles consumed, and at pursued myself: 'and yet, for the mere a period when provisions were in some inexpression of liich doubt, the actual de- ftances double the mean price at which tection of errors now openly confeffed, I they may be purchated at prefent: and have been unfortunate enough to excite upon such calculation, and at such time, Mr. Wood's indignation : and he speaks, I certainly did state that the Shrewsbury in consequence, of disingenuity on my part; diet, it purchased in London, would, at of attempts to deceive the public ; of round the time of writing (to wit, in January and confident assertion; of my being the 1796) have amounted to the average price dupe of my own fallacious reasoning; of of 3s. 1d. for each weekly. But so far being his enemy; of aiming a dagger dipt from itating that this 3s. 1d. must be in oil at his reputation ; and, lastly, of be- the common average expended at Shrews. ing hereby guilty of a capital crime !!! bury; I expressly declared in the fame
This, Sir, is language which I cer place (p. 65), that even at that period of tainly shall not imitate, and which I extreme scarcity and dearness; it was should much rather have expected from very probable this calculation exceeded in one of the inhabitants of the Shrewsbury some degree the actual cott incurred at poor-house than from one of its directors. that place : contending alone that Mr. Far, however, from being irritated by its Wood at least must have been mistaken very opprobrious and unmerited violence, in reducing it at any tiine to fo low an I am rather excited to laughter; and am estimate as is. 64d. half induced to regard it as a new, but This gentleman once more enquires certainly extraordinary, attempt at wit. what right. I had to presume that the Yet I cannot but regret that a gentleman number of their poor quithin the House of of Mr. Wood's liberal pursuits, and, as Industry were diminishing annually ? I hear, estimable heart, should fo widely This I have twice told him already; and deviate from the path that belongs to fhall only, therefore, refer hiin to passages him; and consent to tarnish a journal of which he hitherto appears to have peruled POLITE LETTERS with a phraseology to inadvertently. The augmentation of the diametrically out of character.
poor-rates during the latt two or three It appears there has been a mis-state- years at Norwich and Manchester, to ment of the weekly price of provisions in- which he lo triumphantly adverts, does curred at the poor-house at Norwich: and not necessarily imply an augmentation of Mr. Wood is still resolutely determined the number inaintained within thof reto impute this mis-statement to myself. fpective poor-houses; whose families, for Whoever does me the honour to peruse the most part, are derived fiom a descripmy Disertation on the Poor, will readily tion of perfons, who lo far from being discover that there was at no time any subject to frequent increase, Mr. Wood necessity for such a personal imputation : himself immediately afterwards, with a but surely, after the full explanation I fingular instance of self-contraction, asserts have since given of this subject in my last to be cominonly stationary; and which in letter, to perfevere in such an imputation reality appears to have been nearly so at ftill, is to discover a pertinacity of dif- the institution to which he has devoted so position, fortunately, for the world, not much of his time. The augmentation in often to be met with. But even this the above rates may, therefore, and in all does not now fatisty Mr. Wood; for probability actually does arise from the independent of this imputed error relpect- additional affittance which, in consequence ing the poor- house at Norwich, he asserts of the present war, or some casual l'ile in that I have fallen into one of even the price of provisions, it has been deemed greater magnitude relative to that at necessary to afford a vast multitude of Shrewsbury : for I have stated, he gravely families without the poor house ; and tells us, that the cost of the poor at whom, from the mere pressure of tempoShrewibury, is 38. old, each per week; rary distress, it would be equally in
humane' and impolitic to force from their any longer. I admire the warmth with own homes, and render permanently bur- which Mr. Wood has embarked in the densome to their parish.
cause of the poor; and have only to laIn stating that the board of directors at ment that it should occasionally excite so Shrewsbury have been imposed upon by much fever in his language*. their domestic officers, whom, with falle confidence, and from growing neglect,
John Mason GOOD. they had entrusted with the management
Caroline-Place, Guildford-fireet, of the internal concerns of house, and
February 13, 1799. that they had in consequence been involved in increased expences, Mr.WOOD has only verified what I long predicted would be the inevitable result. " These
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. gentlemen,” I observed (page 122 of my Differtation, &c.), are entitled to a very activity: but the
that your Magazine is infinitely Icheme they are thus enveloped in, I can- perior to every other miscellany in all not recommend to be adopted generally matters of elegant entertainment and usethroughout the country. It is not to be ful information. The attention shewn to expected that a necessary attention should, subjects connected with medicine, chefor many years, be paid to fo extensive á mistry, and manufactures, deserves parconcern, unless the parties attending are ticular notice. In the latter class you entitled to some emolument for their trou. have lately admitted some påpers on tanble. And when once such a necessary at- ning, a branch of manufacture, which, tention is relaxed, or discontinued, the independent of its general utility, is of parijh will be involved in a very confidere considerable importance to our commerce able expence for the purchase of new ma and revenue, particularly at this time terials; and from the idleness or the frauds when our active neighbours in France are that will inevitably ensue, the articles sold indefatigable in their exertions to rival us will seldom repay it for the original ex in this article. It is only within a few pences incurred."
years that men of science (I do not mean The rest of Mr. Wood's letter has no luch superficial writers as your correconnection whatever with the dispute be- fpondent C. T. C. page 427) have attweta us; and appears merely written tended to the mode of manufacturing with a view of informing is, that he is leather, which is capable of wonderful about to publish a new edition of his improvement, and which, it is to be pamphlet; and that he has the happiness hoped, the late discoveries in chemistry of ciaiming a friend hip with Mr. Voght, will soon bring to perfection. The great
one of the benevolent founders of the scarcity and coniequent high price of Hamburgh institution,” and “ who has oak bark, for some years pait
, with the written (an observation in which I cor. time and expence incurred in the usua! dially acquiesce) an admirable account of mode of tanning leather, have led many this establishment." In both these notices, ingenious persons to endeavour to shorten indeed, I rejoice mest sincerely, particu- the process, and to subititute' other arlarly in the former, as he will hereby ticles leis expensive in the room of bark. have an opportunity of correcting those The mineral and vegetable kingdoms errors upon which we have neither of us have been explored for materials, while any farther controversy:
chemistry and philosophy have' examined I have now, Sir, only to ask pardon of their nature, and directed their applicayou, and the public for having a second tion. But with all the experience of time obtruded nyself fo largely upon their practical manufacturers, and all the in: attention. Mr. Wood has talked of my genuity of scientific men, I do not find fkill as a controversialist; I beg it may that any inportant discoveries have been be reinembered, however, that this con made; that the process has been shortened ; troverfy was first introduced in your miscellany by himself, and that whatever Errata in Mr. Wurd's last letter. Page 2, may be this gentleman's determination col. 1, line 24, for per lb. read per busne) upon the subject, for my own part neither page 2, col. 2, line 14, after severity, niy private studies, nor my professional add“ in fueh an imputation.” Page 3, col. I, avocations will allow me to continue it line 17, for 1794, read 1796. Ediror.