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guides and companions completely bewil- muda and Barbadoes, the thires of Engdered and lost.

land, and the departments of France, It is for the ladies to bring the wan the Appenines and the Alps, afford amderers back and put them in the right ple testimony of the fact. course again. But in doing this, there It is doubtlefs on account of the wonmult not be any airs of triumph on the ders done in these ways, by women in part of the fair sex. The men have whil house-keeping, as well as on account of pered already that the economical world, their beauty, that the charge of wirthis divided into two parties, the alkaline craft has been fixed on the fex. A witch and the acid. To the former belong al was therefore equipped with a broom, and most all the ladies; to the latter, with poflefied the power of allaying tempests, few exceptions, the gentlemen. In this by throwing fand into the air. What controversy it is easy to tell which will they effe&ed by natural means, has been eventually prevail.

ascribed by superstitious men to magic. As long as the beauty of the ladies Go on with your witchcraft, and initiate thall pleate the eye, or their grace delight men as fast as you can into its mysteries. the fancy, lo long shall the alkalescency Direct them in the right way of proceedof their cause tend to compose the world, ing, and train and tutor them with all. by tempering the tartness and neutraliza kindness and patience; but be sure you ing the acidity which is constantly issuing make them learn; and if you cannot befrom the other party. Whenever this dit witch them with reason and truth of the pute is properly settled, I expect the thing, there is no other alternative than phrases “my lovely, or my pretty al to beat it into them with the broomstick. kali," will become terms of eudtarment But I fear you will think me deserving of in the mouths of the gentlemen.

that discipline mytelf if I add any more In effecting this falutary reform, every to this long letter; I therefore end it, by woman in the sea-port towns of the assuring you, that I am affectionately United States should engage, they should your's, SAML. L. MITCHILL, persuade their husbands, fathers, sons,

New-York, Nov. 10, 1797. and brothers, that the method of securing [The second Letter in eur next.

et. ] bouses from peftilence is known already, and has been long practifed withiin doors.

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. I hope it is not impossible to convince thein that the means of exterminating in SIR, fection on one side of a wall will not fail

ITERATURE is either less cultito do it on the other; and that the lime and alkalis which destroy it in the par- than it was in those of our ancestors, for lour and kitchen, will as surely destroy it certainly learning does not now receive in the yard and the street.

the honours it ihen did. That it is less Tell them how nature has guarded the cultivated, cannot, I think, with any helplels unhatched progeny of birds from truth be asserted, because the present is the operation of peftilential vapours by denominated a learned age. It must be calcareous shells; and that some of the the universality then, with which it is eggs are white washed like your rooms,

diffuted through society, that renders it and others spotted like your paper hang- lels valuable as articles grow cheap, ings. Inform them that such testaceous not in proportion to their inlignificancy, ereatures as have little or no power of but their abundance. Great talents, inmoving themselves from place to place, deod, in any condition of civilized society and are doomed to lie or crawl on the mult inevitably confer a certain degree of earth's surface, either beneath the water power: inaimuch as they render their or above them, are guarded againit pesti

poffefturs either useful, or formidable : lential Auids by calcareonis coats of mail; but icarcely any literary attainments and that, secure uncler cover of his lime

would, I apprehend, raise a writer in built-house, the snail can inhabit the these days, to the fame degree of emifickly marth, and the oyster thrive amidst nence and request, as Petrarch, Erasmus, the putridity of mud. Bid them observe and Politiano enjoyed, in their respective where, like your sanded floors, extensive times. We have now amongst as many tracks of country are bestrewed with line; scholars of great erudition * :

men of or like your chamber-walls, whitewashed distinguished abilities : yet I much querwith chalk: the people who dwell there generally efcape the ravages of peftilence. * Parr, Wakefield, Profeffors Porfon, And their them on the map, where Born and White, &c. &c.

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1799.] Comparative State of Literature in the past and present Times. 11) tion, as haughty as kings were under the agree with the fimplicity of the Gospel, old feudal system, if any of the princes would natu

aturally give the mind a degree in heing would contend with the fame of penetration and conjecture conducive eagernels for their favour, as we learn the to the discoveries of emendatory criticisin. various sovereigns of Europe did, for An acquaintance with the Latin was not, that of Petrarch, or Erasmus.

however, confined to our fex only: the It has been questioned by some, whe- knowledge of it was familiar to ladies of ther the number of publications, which rank in the sixteenth century. We are are annually poured upon the world, have told by Moreri of the unfortunate Queen contributed in any proportionable ratio of Scots, “ That she was doubtless the to the encrease of literature? In my handsomelt princess of her age, and very opinion, they have not. To a liberal learned in the Latin tongue, in which the and cultivated mind there is certainly no prono nced several orations." And there indulgence equal to the luxury of books : are still prelerved in the Bodleian, if I but, in works of learning, may not the mistake not, fome Latin letters, or pieces, facilities of information be encreased, of Queen Elizabeth, in her own hands until the powers of application and re- writing. Catharine of Medicis also is tention be diminished ?After admitting represented by historians as a splendid that the prefent is a learned age, it may patroness of literature. She possessed the appear fingular to doubt, whether it hereditary attachment of her house to affords individuals as profoundly learned, letters and learned men; and was, we (at least, as far as Latin and Greek go,) may reasonably conclude, skilful in the as fome who flourished in the fifteenth and languages. fixteenth centuries. The general mass of The ftrange mixture of religion and Jearning is greater now than it was then; gallantry, chivalry and imagination, that and is evidently of a more valuable ten existed in the dark ages, had not lost its dency. Yet, whether any of the scho- hold upon the minds of men, even after bars of the present day could compose the restoration of light under the ponLatin verses with as much classic purity, tificate of Leo. This system was a fafand taste, as Strada, Sannazarius, orcinating appeal to the passions, and gave Politiano; or whether any of our com rife-firit to romances, which are an unmentators, eminent as they are, could connected and improbable narration of break a spear in the amphitheatre of crie religion, love, and war; and next-to ticism, with Erasinus, Scaliger, Salma- novels, a more contracted and probable fius, or Milton, is a matter I much species of story. Of the latt description, doubt. I am aware that the different the Italians, and particularly Bocaccio, ftate in which literature now stands, com have afforded many specimens highly enpared with that in which it formerly stood, tertaining. Cervantes himfelf, although may be urged as one reason for the fu- he wrote in ridicule of the prevailing taite perior celebrity which learning then con of the age, does not appear to have been ferred. Men generally unenlightened, entirely free from the contagion of chibut knowing the value of information, valry.' His “ Don Quixoteshews a would make comparisons, and attribute writer well read in romance, and not a to genius a degree of credit, perhaps, ex- little attached to it. The novels he has ceeding its real merit: but, independent introduced in the body of his work, dirof this, the writings of the early critics play the predominant spirit of the times. contain infinite learning. Before the They are beautiful, and exquisitely touchmodern languages were lo polished that ing. So highly, indeed, did the Spanish scholars could compose in them, it is and Italian novelists possess the power of known that the practice prevailed gene- imagination, a power in such times not sally amongst literary men, of writing much less than the power of the keys in and speaking in Latin. This naturally the successors of St. Peter, that Shakeled to a knowledge of that language, not speare, that great master of poetic fiction, only from motives of refinement, but of has founded many of his dramatic pieces necellity allo: for histories, poems, and upon stories taken from the latter * even familiar letters, were composed in Latin. The study of school-divinity,

* Or call up him that left half told,

The story of Canibuscon bold, and the discussion of learned questions in

Of Camball, and of Algarlife, the form of theses, served to quicken the And who had Canace to wife. comprehension of the student and the

That own'd the virtuous ring and glass, introduction of the Aristotelian philosophy And of the wond'rous horfe of brass, into the schools, however little it might Qn which the Tartar king did ride."

(1) Ponferoje.)


Milton also, notwithstanding the severity To the Editor of the Monthly Mogazine. of his learning, appears to have been at

SIR, tachel, in no inconliderable degree, to the perutal of romances. And what is the IN the haft number of your Walpoliana, tory of " The admirable Critchton, who

there is an egregious blunder, into was-mas Tum Marti, quam Mercurio ;"

which one would hardly have thought and is said to have possessed powers, ap- have fallen.

that such a man as Lord Orford could parently beyond all human attainment, tions on the profound study of mathema

His Lordship's observabut a romance, or, at least, a true story tics will only excite a smile in those who romantically embellithed? From these remarks, I would not be

are well versed in that science. But upon

a « historical fact," Lord Orford cer. understood as wishing to make invidious comparisons between the learning of dif- tainly ought

to have been more exact. ferent ages, or to depreciate that of our Speaking of Dr. South's opinion of com

Upon a fair investigation, there mentators on the Revelations, he calls can be no doubt, I think, to which side him a Bishop. But that ingenious divine the scale of general literature would in- never rose higher in the church than to a cline. My object fimply is, to thew the prebendal stall in Westminster Abbey. different direction which letters lake, and It he had been a man of less note, there

would have been the less reason to notice the different patronage which they obtain, in different periods of society. Indeed, this inaccuracy, but the church of Englearning may more properly be faid to

land has produced few divines of greater lead than to follozu'the course of the celebrity than South. His fermons are a world: face, though it may, at first,

treasure of wit and found reasoning. He bend to the fpirit of the age, it will in

was educated at Westminster school, under

the the end assuredly direct, and govern it.

great Busby, who treated him with The general stock of genius is, perhaps,

uncommon severity, for which he al. always pretty equal: the opportunities

ledged this as a reason: “I fee great taof improving it, and the support it re

lents in that obstinate boy, and I am deceives, vary with the times. Petrarch

termined to flog them into action." In and Erasınus were carefled by popes and

his latter days, Dr. South became a very princes: Butler, Otway, and Chatterton,

zealous Calviniit, but he retained his not much inferior in merit, were abso

animosity against the Puritans, from a lutely starved ; and Johnson, whose inoral

remembrance of their conduct in the civil works were calculated to delight and

wars, to the last period of his life.

His improve the age, lived long in distress,

statue in Westminster Abbey is exquisitely

done. and at length received a scan.y penfion. In some ages, and upon fome occations,

Few of your readers, I believe, will acit must be admitted, a genius darts upon quiesce in Lord Orford's judgment of Sir the world with intellectual powers, that

Isaac Newton's book on Daniel and the no industry, in the common course of Apocalypse, or that on Chronology. I things, can hope to equal: but this is much question whether his lordship ever a particulor case, and is generally com

read either.' I am, Sir, your's, &c. pensated some other way. If former

Jan. 10, 1799.

J. W. times have enjoyed works of more fancy, and fublimity of imagination, than are For the Monthly Magazine. given to us, we, in return, possess more

PERSONIFICATIONS IN POETRY. useful acquisitions. If they have had their Spencer, Tatlo, and Shakspeare, we

(Continued from Page 434.) boast Newton, Locke, and Johnson.


NHEERFULNESS, an affection of all Science, taste, and correction, are indeed the most friendly to the mind, has the characteristics of the present day. excited few efforts of the imagination Every thing is refined; every thing is among poets, a race feldom much under grand. We are actually misers in luxury her influence. Spenser has inerely fketched and taste, and have left nothing for pof- the countenance of a cheerful person. terity. Venimus ad fummum fortuna"We learn our Greek from the Pursuits

And her against, sweet Cheerfulness was of Literature, and our morality from Pa. Whose eyes, like twinkling stars in evening

placid, riffot: and I do not see how we are to

clear, be outdone either in learning or in dress. Were deck'd with smiles that all fad humours I remain, Sir, &c. &c.


AUSONIUS. And darted forti: delights, the which her Wells, Norfoll, Oct. 24, 1798..

goodly grac'd.

F. div. 104

tive plant;

1799.] Personifications in Poetry.

113 Collins, in his Music of the Passions; de- action ? Numerous authorities may be lineates her as a huntress: obviously al produced for both these methods; and luding to the effects of exercise in pro- each may become proper, according to moting a clieerful disposition.

the nature of the symbol, and the charac

ter and purpose of the fancy-formed perBut, 0, how alter'd was its sprightlier tone, fonage. "The merely quiescent mark of When Cheerfulness, a nymph of healthiest hue, distinction seeins to be inost common in

Her bow across her thoulder flung,
Her buskins gemm'd with morning dew,

the designs of the ancients, whether in Blew an inspiring air, that dale and thicket painting or poetry. The more varied and rung!

complex invention of the moderns has

generally connected the symbol with the The penfive hymn to Cheerfulness by person, by fome circumstance of acAkenlide, exhibits no other picture of tion; and this must be allowed to be an the power he invokes, than that of “ a improvement in point of spirit and extriumphant fair, sweet of language, and pression. The danger is, leit such action mild of mein." He bestows, indeed, ihould produce an incongruity, and intermany lines on her genealogy, in which fere with the scope of the allegory. he makes her. the daughter of Love hy To apply this consideration to the Health; but a genealogy is more easily beautiful passage juft quoted. If the perinvented than a portrait.

sonified figure of Sensibility were merely I shall conclude the list of mixed personi. to pats before the eye in a lort of pageant fications with Mr. Hayley's beautiful por- (as the characters do in Spenser's Masque trait of SeNSIBILITY. After describing of Cupid), there would be no impropriety her flowery garland, and thin transparent in fixing her whole attention on her sensirobe, decked with roses, he proceeds:

the action would be as exOf that enchanting age her figure seems, preslive as any in which a single transient When smiling nature with the vital beams figure could be employed. But as, in Of vivid youth, and pleasure's purple fame, Mr. Hayley's elegant fi&tion, she is made Gilds her accomplish'd work, the female a queen of numerous subjects, in whole frame,

fate lhe is deeply interested; to whom the, is With rich luxuriance tender, sweetly wild, And just between the woman and the child.

-quick to pay Her fair left arm around a vase The Alings,

The tender duties of imperial iway. From which the tender plant Mimosa springs: I cannot but think it derogatory from Towards its leaves, o'er which the fondly her character and dignity, to employ her bends,

in trivial assiduities about a favourite The youthful fair her vacant hand extends With gentle motion, anxious to survey

vegetable. The Mimosa Thould rather be How far the feeling fibres own her sway:

borne by her as a signature, than occupy The leaves, as conscious of their queen's her attention. command,

III. I now proceed to the third class of Successive fall at her approaching hand; personifications, those in which the figure While her soft breast with pity leems to pant, presented may be called purely enblemaAnd thrinks at every shrinking of the plant. tical. This must be the case, where, if

Triumphs of Temp. C. v. the subject be a quality, it is one which Of this engaging figure, both the na- exhibits in its effect on others, rather than tural and the emblematical expression are on the possessor of it-if it be a metaphysihappily conceived; but from the prin- cal being, it has no particular reference to cipal circumftance of aftion I fall take any one bodily form or mode of exprefoccafion to make a few remarks, which fion; and though it inust take some huwill also be applicable to several of the man shape in order to become a person, preceding and subsequent quotations. yet this is its vehicle, not its efsence.

The use ofíyinbolical accompaniments to There will, indeed, be a greater promark out the character of many personi- priety in certain attributed forms, than fied beings, has been rendered sufficiently in others, on account of some congruities evident; but it may still be a question, of character which almost every mind will how are these tyinbols to be employed ? perceive ; thus Time and Death, if

preAre they to be used merely as filent fig- lented in a bodily form to the imagination, natures, annexed to the figure as a part will almost universally be associated with of his dress, like a general's baton, or a age and deformity; and Love and Hope lord-treasurer's wand? or are they to be with youth and beauty; yet these circuinemployed by him as instruments, and in itances are not the characteristical parts some manner or other to constitute his of che portrait; and of theinselves would MONTHLY MAG. No. XLII.




vention. The former is the idea evi- UNDER this general denomination

do nothing towards the likeness, which Tell me, where is Fancy bred, must entirely depend upon symbolical ad In the heart, or in the head ? ditions.

How begot, how nourished? I fhall begin with the exhibition of a

It is engendered in the eyes, being much celebrated by modern poets,

With gazing fed, and Fancy dies

In the cradle where it lies. who have, however, established a con

J. A. ception of him somewhat different from that of their immediate predecessors.

For the Monthly Magazine. This is FANCY, who, by the earlier English writers, was considered rather as the genius of caprice, levity and mutabi PUBLIC SERVICE, IN THE FRENCH lity, than, as now, under the character of REPUBLIC. the power of poetical inspiration and in

are comprised the following new dently entertained by Spenser, in his institutions : beautiful picture of Fancy, as he marches

The Polytechnic School, first in the Masque of Cupid.

The School of Mines, The first was Fancy, like a lovely boy,

The Artillery School,

The School for Military Engineers, Of rare aspect, and beauty without peer.

The Bridge and Road School,

The Geographic School, His garment neither was of filk nor fay,

The School for Naval Architects, But painted plumes in goodly order dight,

The Navigation School,
Like as the sun-burnt Indians do array

The Marine School.
Their tawny bodies in their proudest plight:
As those fame plunes, so seem'd he vain and

All these schools are dependent on the light,

general organisation of the public inThat by his gait might easily appear,

itruction: they have for their objects the For still he fared as dancing in delight, different public works for the service of And in his hand a windy fan did bear, the state, and especially a universal acThat in the idle air he niov'd till here and quaintance with the sciences and the arts. there.

F. Q. iii. 12. None will be admitted into them as puIn the next stanza he is made the parent tition of candidates, exhibited proofs of

pils, except such as have, on a compeof Desire; and common language still represents fancy as the cause of that love preliminary knowledge: and these puwhich has no foundation in sober reason. pils are to be maintained at the public A representation of this being, very


POLYTECHNIC SCHOOL. different in figure, but formed upon a similar conception of character, is given months of its adminiftration, erected to

The present government, in the first by Addison, in his Vision of the Moun- itself a glorions monument by the estatain of Human Miseries :

blithunent of this universal instruction. “ There was a certain lady of a thin airy The polytechnic fchool occupies a great fhape, who was very active in this solemnity. part of the quondam Palais Bourbon : She carried a magnifying glass in one of her there live the directors, the teachers, and hands, an was clothed in a loose flowing robe, even the pupils: there are the halls of inembroidered with several figures of fiends ftru&tion, the laboratories, the collections and spectres, that discovered themselves in a thousand chimerical Thapes, as her garment tools of all the arts, which belong to this

of books, of models, of instruments and hovered in the wind. There was something school. The object of this establishment wild and distracted in her looks.

Her name was Fancy.Spectat. No. 558.

is to improve all those branches of natural

and mathematical knowledge which bear The employment of this phantom was relation to the sciences and mechanic to aggravate every one's misfortunes or deformities in his own eyes, and to in

The instruction is divided into twe fpire a restless and capricious inclination principal branches, mathematics and for change.

physics. It is the same idea of Fancy, as prompt

The mathematical department ing a trivial and irrational estimation of comprehends the analytic and graphic things, that forms the subject of the mo. description of matter, with the applicanitory fong in the Merchant of Venice, tion of the analysis by means of geometry where Bassanio is to make his choice of and mechanics. Descriptive geometry, the myitic caskets.

as the first part of the graphic develope




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