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pensive: and land was not above ten years moiety of all the goods and lands of the purchase.

church yielded 475,000l. or nearly half a The valuations were apparently mode- million. It is computed tiiat the revenue

but the mode of taxing the prin- of the lands of the monasteries and other cipal, as it may be called, seems strange. religious foundations seized by that prince, Modern taxes affect the revenue, not the would now amount to fix millions annually. principal. Yet, if by ploughs we under- Yet this prize prevented not the constant Itand the oxen ufed, the articles are of an- impo!ition of fresh taxes: and when we nual production; and there seems reason consider the insatiable avarice, and lanto think that a fifteenth of spirituals and guinary tyranny of the Tudors, we are temporals implies revenue only.

rather inclined to pity than to blame, the The ambition of Edward I. and III. house of Stuart, whose misfortunes were and Henry V. carried taxes to an extreme chiefly owing to their being the heirs of extent. Even so early as 1297, a tax was an overftrained prerogative, and to the proposed on the clergy of one half of their general error of governments, the want goods, on the laity the sixth part, on bo- of concession and accommodation to the roughs one third; but its excess cccafi- fpirit of the times. oned its rejection. Yet taxation was car- The old chroniclers, from William the ried so far that he who was worth twenty conqueror down to the last ages, repeatThillings was obliged to pay four pence to edly declaim that the country was ruined the king; which, valuing income as then, by such and such taxations. This idea at one tenth on the capital, was a tax of may well excite a smile, for the taxes, one fixth. The duties were equally ex: though excessive, were merely temporary, orbitant. In 1298 the parliament, among and only continued for cne, two, or three other grievances, remonítrated againit years, whereas modern axes are eternal, the forty shillings a fack upon wool: and and truly ruinous. To a certain degree, itate that the wool of England amounts taxation promotes industry and prosperity, to almost the value of half the land, and and acts both as a ftimulus to national the duty on it to a fifth part of the value wealth, and as a security to property ; of all land. In the reign of Edward III. the state being, as it were, pledged to the this duty is estimated at 60,000l. equal individual, who pays his quota towards in efficacy to ten times that tum in mo- its fupport. In Turkey the taxes are dern currency. It seems hence to follow, trifling; but a baihaw pillages his prothat the revenue from land, or its annual vince at pleasure, and is then iqueezed by value, was computed at 300,000l. or three the court. Let it not, however, he inmillions of modern currency; and that ferred that taxation cannot be puthed too, the wool was worth about half that fum. far: it is, as the Oriental proverb says, The accuracy of this remonstrance may the last straw that overload's the camel ; be doubted, for the data must have been a small addition, if ill-timerl, may overvague; but it would be an enterprize turn the whole. It is not what the peoworthy of a patriotic parliament, to esti- ple can pay, but what they chuse to pay, inate the value of landed, commercial, that merits confideration. A deficit in and other property, and compare it with the taxes must occation, as we have leen the national debt, as is done in the affairs by recent experience, the fail at once of of the East India company*.

national credit, and of the state. DepoIt is unnecessary to proceed with an pulation is still a greater evil, and is a account of tenths and fifteenths, half necellary consequence of excessive taxatenths and half fifteenths, further than tion; for none will pay more for any goto observe, that, under the Tudors, vernment, or climate, than what they two fifteenths never constituted what are worth. was peculiarly termed a subsidy, being 25. 8d. in the pound on moveables ; while For the Monthly Magazine. lands and effects were taxed 4s. in the

MR. EDITOR, pound, or two tenths. In the reign of Henry VIII. a subidy was about 120,000l. THE

THE establishment of literary joura tenth of the clergy 25,0841. in 1531 a

nals has certainly been an event of the greatest confequence in the republic

of letters. It has been the means of * By a recent calculation of the minister, on propofing the tax on legacies, the lande diffusing knowledge far and wide, and rental of England and Scotland may amount

of kindling a love of learning, where the to 25 millions; the value, at 28 years pur

seeds of genius would otherwise, in all, chale, to 700 millions; the personal property likelihood, have perished in wretched tor May be óco millions; total 1,300 millions. pidity. It has also been of infinite de:

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rature.

1799.]
On periodical Criticism.

IOI vice to the interests of science, and to the dicature, where the bench has no authouseful arts of life, by examining into, and rity whatever to dictate a verdict, but making generally knowa, the discoveries only to fum up the evidence with clearand improvements of ingenious men. The ness, and to lay down the law with imart of literary composition has, inoreover, partiality and precision, leaving the judgbeen vastly improved; the principles of ment with the reader. language have been better ascertained; and I believe the first regular review ever the qualities of a just and elegant style published in this country was the Literary have been exactly deterinined hereby. Magazine, which cominenced in 1735 ;

These, together with numerous other and it was conducted exactly upon this advantages, might be enumerated, and broad and liberal plan. The works dilated upon, in reviewing the pretensions which it noticed were accurately analysed, of periodical criticism.

and occasional extracts were made from Yet, notwithstanding all these impor- them; but the reviewers feldom paffed tant benefits accruing from literary jour- either encomiums or censures upon the nals, justice compels the examiner to productions which they examined. The notice fome flagrant abuses which have public, however, by this method, were disgraced the monthly reports of lite- better enabled to form a just notion of the

book revie:veil, than they usually can by The grand charge which may be brought the modern method of criticism. It may, against all our literary journals, without indeed, be said, that this mode is a dry a single exception, is their being tinctured and unentertaining one, when compared with a party spirit. The religious or with the other. Here I apprehend lomepolitical opinions of a literary reviewer thing ought to be remarked concerning ought not, by any means, to have an in- the entertainment afforded by reviews. Huence upon his mind while he is engaged If a reader wants to be pleated with the in examining the merits of a book which ing nious manner of cutting up an aucomes under his critical eye. If they thor, and exposing him to ridicule, he should, the man is the molt unfit person thould first put himlelf in the situation in the world to bear the office which he of the poor wretch who is made the object has assumed, because he wants that cool- of his amusement. Perhaps there is not ness and indifference of mind which seems a more distresling circumstance in life to be a grand requisite in the judicial or than this, though the generality of mancensorial character. Some reviewers, in- kind affect to treat it as a matter of instead of being impartial reporters, and fignificance, and many as being one of contenting themselves with Tumming up justice. A man of talent and industry the merits of a work, become contro- has probably spent years in investigating verfialists, and enter the lists against the and elucidating fome favourite subject, author with all the ardour and petulance and either stimulated by ambition, or of professed disputants. This is un- driven by want, lays before the public doubtedly acting very unjustly, both to- the result of his enquiries. If his rewards the writer and the public. The viewex should chance to be in a capricious one has the misfortune of having his ar- humour, or have some dislike to the allguments misrepresented, and his whole thor, he has a fine opportunity to gratify treatise condemned in an extensive pub- his base passion by inisrepresenting his lication, the decrees of which are received production. This is easy tnongh, if the almost as infallible by thousands of author is a man of no name; and there readers. Another disadvantage under should be, as generally is the case, weak which he labours in this instance is the parts in the work. Little flips in point being opposed to a combatant, who is of argument, redundancies of expreition, theltered under an impervious veil, while or inaccuracies of language, when carehe is held up to ridicule. If he replies in fully culled out, and properly exhibited, a separate tract to the decisions of the re- will not fail to produce a risible effect, viewer, his vindication will probably and completely do the poor writer's buhhave but a very confined sale, at least ness. This is a game which is often compared with that of the work with played. which he has to contend.

The most complete way, however, of The public also are very unfairly dealt cutting up an author according to the with by this mode of conduct; for the establihed rules of criticism, is to begini right of judgment is hereby taken out of with a flourishing preface on the imtheir hands. I regard the court of cri- portance of that branch of literature in sicism in a limilar light to a court of ju- which he has engaged, and then to pro

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a general and unqualified fen- lic adopt your manner of judging, if you tence of condemination upon him for his only censure vaguely, and do not point out presumption in venturing into it. This the place where the writer has forgot himenables the reviewer to pass himself off self? for a very wise man, and the

" There is hardly any book of which it victim

poor of his scalping-knife for an egregious may not be said, that it contains fome care

less or affected expressions. When you speak fool. Now it is very possible that all this in general, it gives room to believe that you while the unfortunate fufferer may be the have only glanced your eye over the work only one of the two who knows any thing which you are giving an account, and that at all of the subject. But this method of you are in baste to get rid of the trouble. general criticism is sufficient for the pur- 66 Another omition is, your noc fhewing poses of the reviewers and their pub- the best parts of the work. The good taste juhers.

of the reviewer requires that he should be I am sorry to observe, that there are

attentive to this. I a work is not worth the too many readers who feel the greateit trouble of reading, it is better not to anpleasure in this kind of reviewing; and

nounce it at all, than to rail at the writer.

It is illiberal to abuse a work merely to the critics, sensible of this, endeavour to accommodate their criticisms to this viti- author.”

make the public merry at the expe..ce of the ated taite, by throwing into their remarks

I am, Sir, your's, as much of the sol atricus as poffible. Sume, indeed, are more profuse in sprink- To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. ling the critical brine than others; but

SIR, this generally happens to be the case with thote who have hardened thematielves in Skender inte varum Magazine for Noa grown quite callous to the sensibility of vejpa nidulans, wh. re it was said to be an author differing under their operations. cnly found in America, I beg leave to There are, it must be confeftéd, a few alk, through the wr.edium of your Magacritics whó, have not quite lost sight of zine, whether there is not a walp of nearly what may properly be called the moralily the same kind in Ergland; as about four of criticism; but even they find that their cr five years ago I found a neft in a haycritiques are not fo favourably received lott, fixed to a beam, which, as well as by the public as they deserve to be, from

I can now recolleét, agreed in many parthe want of that which they carnot bring ticulars with that described in your Iviathemselves to make use of with the free gazine. dom of their leis tender-hearted bre

It was Niaped like a tunip, though not thieu.

fo mat, about three inches in diameter, The great source of all this evil

the outside confitted of a substance like

appears to be in the secrecy which covers the cri- thin pazer ftriped with white and a bluish rical tribunals. Were these literary cen

grey, that was wrapped regularly round fors to affix their names to their refpective twelve or fourteen times, and in the center articles, or at least in the title-pages of was the comb, which did not contain any their publications, they would be more thing ; but when I found the nelt I law a Cautions how they give loole to intem- wasp or two about it. perate wit, and would be under the ne- This description of it is merely from citry of taking more pains with, and memory, as it was pulled to pieces and manitesting more cardiour to, an author's destroyed foon a.ter it was found. productions, than they now feel them

P.P. teves disposed to do, I fhail beg leave to close these observa

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. tions with a few remarks on the same fub-,

SIR, ject made by that great man, Pope Clereviewer at Fk rence :

ing the attention of your readers fo so I always read your writings with plea

frequently to the Cretins : but the folfure, my dear Abbé; but I wish you would lowing paragraph, which I have transa ways give the reasons of your censures. In-cribed from the Appendix to the twentyfead of faying, for example, i bat the style of third volume of the “ Monthly Review, juin a work is incorrect; that there are rrifiés is so curicus, that I perfuade myfélf few zbirk disfigure the beauty of the book; you perfons will think their time lost in pe. ihould plain.y prove the charge. Rulcs have rusing it. The subject of the critique 2ways need of examples. How would you are the letters of Mr. Matthison, relating have an author correct himselt, and die pub- a cour performed by him in the year 1785,

through

ment XIV. (Ganganelli) in a letter to a PERHAPS L am troublesome in call

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1799.]
Unnoticed Works of Dr. Boyce.

103 through part of Germany, France, and gree, that of his mafter; and there ca.9 Switzerland; the following are the words be po doubt of his taite for ferious comof the reviewer :

position criginating in the Royal Chapa “Of that most unfortunate class of hu- pels. It is then in the con pulitions for man beings, the Cretins, the writer (Mr. the church in which we are to look for Matthifon) mentions one whose circumstances that eminence which I have been speaking made us shudder. At Martinach lives a Cretin, of'; and I shall refer your readers for who is apparently destitute of animal instinct fpecimens of his abilities to the following to such a degree, as 110t even to be able to

anthems. If we believe that Jefus feed alone. His wen is enormous, and his died;" and, “ Beihou my judge, O Lurd." eyes are exceflively small. he is exposed to the fun, and lies immoveable (ift vol. of anthems). Thele are pecutill carried back. Another Cretin, placed liarly fine and impreslive, invariably pre lower still in the scale of human kind, had serving that gravity which best accords no other opening in his whole body than his with the devotional gloom of our cathemouth. It is a most remarkable circumstance, drals. As a masterpiece in the true that women froin other parts, after having church style, I ihall mention another anspent but a few weeks of their prógnancy in them in the same work : “ By tbe waters Vallais

, are likewise brought to bed of Cre- of Babylon we sat down and wept.It eins.” Appendix, &c. page 526.

breathes throughout that pious folemnity To the best of my recollection, Miss which cannot but affect every auditor; Williams, in her - Tour in St lr. and notwithstanding its parts are molt land,” does not once advert to this melan- fcientifically dispared, it is highly repletę choly phenomenon of our species ! with that melody which characterises Dr. Your's, &c.

J.S. N. Boyce's belt competitions. A few years

back was publithed a second volume of For the Monthly Magazine.

anthems for the benefit of the widow, in

which the following excellent ones occur : MR. EDITOR,

I have surely built thee (in house to divell N your Magazine for September lait, I in;” and, ó Sirig o Heavens, and be late Dr. Boyce, whose talents, as a thco- known than any other of his works, and retical musician, your biographer very your correspondent has given us its chiajuftly estimates to be of the firit kind. Al- racter in appropriate terns. though his fame has not acquired that It is now with pleasure I come to speak height which many of his inferiors have of a work not at all known to the mutical attained, yet we may with truth afert, world, not even by name; I believe inthat, as a scientific composer, he takes deed, that this is the firit time of its title place of every English nusician, except appearing with a list of his other produce the immortal Purcell.

tions. It is “An Ode to CHARITY,” To enumerate the productions of so great and was compofed at the request of a man requires no apology, and with your Mr. Joseph Cradock, of Gumley, in liberty I shall follow your correspondent Leiceitershire, who wrote this elegant with a list of the Doctor's works*, point- poem for the annual performance in luping out those in which his talte and learn- por: of the Leicester Infirmary, ing is particularly displayed.

It opens with an overture for a full orAs Dr. Boyce received his education chestra of a pathetic cast, but rises as it under Dr. Green, we shall not be fur- proceeds into the fublime. A matterly prized if his style resembles, in some de- effect is produced on the sudden and un

expected Itroke from the double drum. Already published.

This overture surpasses every other inftru* Lyra Britannicus.-Chaplet.-Shepherd's mental piece of the author. Lottery.--Solomon.--Ode and Anthem at the Installation of the Duke of Newcastle.-Two vols. of Anthems.--Anthem for the Sons of performed in the Queen's Garden.--Ode to the Clergy. – Funeral Anthem King George Charity.--New Year and Birth-Day Odes, II.--Nuptial Anthem King George III.-- from 1755 to 1779.-Ode to Shakespare.--Eight Coronation Anthems. Eight Sym- Pindaric Ode.--Prince of Wales Birth-Day phonies.--Twelve Overtures --Twelve Son Odes. ---Corydon and Miranda. Inconitant natas.--Twelve Voluntaries.

Swain. - Thyrfis, Danae, Cantatas.--Elegy Manuscripts.

on Mr. Goling.--Masque in Tempeft.Dirge Ode on St. Cecilia's Day.--Pythian Ode.

in Cymbeline and in Romeo and Juliet.--Oratorio, Saul and Jonathan.-Dryden's Se

Music in the Winter's Tale.-Concerto in Di cular Malque.--Peleus and Thetis Ode, three ditto in E E and B.

recitatives,

The songs,

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recitatives, and chorusles, are written in To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. the full oratorio ftyle; and the following,

SIR, for their merit, cannot be too highly fpoken of, “ Think not in vain the pitying TN answer to your correspondent E.M. tear,” is an elegant Soprano song. - De 1 I beg leave to inform him, that the plore the fate of human kind," is a serious usual mode in writing, of prefixing a ca. chorus, finely wrought in the minor key pital initial letter to lubitantive nouns, is of G. The duetto * Here shall soft cha- inelegant; and as a proof of my affertion, rity repair," I observe has lately been I refer him to the writings of two men performed by Mr. Harrison and Mr. Bar- of opposite opinions, but both men of ilemon, (the only part of the work great celebrity for their knowledge and which, I believe, has found its way into learning; 'I mean the Bishor of Rothe musical world) and which could not CHESTER and JOHN HORNE TOOKE. fail to give a favourable opinion of the

M.E. work; especially when executed by such unrivalled talents, which those gentlemen To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, are known to possess.

SIR,
“ Awake in high enraptur’d strain,
Breathe louder yet, ana yeț again," IN

N order to reconcile the contradiction is an animated air; well calculated to

tublisting between the books of Exthew the extensive powers of Mad. MARA; in your last to change the usual

' signifi

odus and Genesis, Mr. Simpson proposes and in which the trumpet has a most

cation of the words name and known, diftinguished part: This song forins a

into the collateral, or metaphorical sense prelude to the concluding chorus:

of them, employed mostly in the poetical « To hail the work, the full voic'd choir we

parts of fcripture. This proceeding is raise,

not very allowable: however, I will, for And all uniting, fing Jehovah's praise.”

the present, admit the frequent changes For grandeur and fublimity, this chorus in the meaning of words, on which Nir. may dare a comparison with any thing, S. and also Nir. Wile inlifts, but which ancient or modern. It is conceived in a

tends to destroy the authority of fcripmost lofty style, and clothed with pon

Let us then examine Mr. Simpderous harmony, which at intervals iş fon's elucidation of the paffage, Ex.vi. 3. happily interrupted by a bold and spirited in his own terms, “ I appeared unto fugue.

Abraham, unto llaac, and unto Jacob, As the parts approximate the end, they by the nanie (or title of) God Almighty, form a climax, which Handel would have but by the name (or title) Jehovah was I been proud to own.

not known(or diftinguished, or distinguishThere is a celerity which invariably at- ingly manifested) to them.”

• That is,' tends the operations of genius. I recollect Mr. Simpson adds, " when I appeared to having been toll, by the present celebrated Abraham, Ifaac, and Jacob, I did not Mr. Boyce, that his father from the tiine then appropriate the name Jehovah as my of his undertaking this work, finished it diffinctive title from falje Gods, and as the in ten days! It is difficult to conceive God of my people, but I appropriated the how a work so elaborate could be executed appellation of God Almighty to these in fo short a time. The songs are highly purposes, under the Abrahamic difpenfafinished, and ornamented with ingenious tion.' If Mr. S. had attended to the accompaniment, and the chorulles are

numerous passages quoted formerly from constructed in eight and twelve parts: Grnesis and Exodus, Je would surely from my own knowledge of the score, it have hesitated before he drew this concluwould take a ready hand near half the fion. The only proper arguments to be time to transcribe it. Mr. Cradock very adduced against his explanation, must be handsomely paid Di. Boyce zool. for fet. taken from scripture ; and many passages ting this ode to music, and I mention it yet remain, which appear contradictory to to the credit of the musician, that his his statement. In Genesis, chap. ix. Jehorectit would not permit him to reserve vah is declared to be the God of Shem, a copy for himself. Mr. Büyce has long (the Father of all the children of Eber, wished to procure a tranfcript of it in ho- chap.x. 21.); and it is foretold, that he nour of his father, by which he would mould abide amengít, or preside over, complete his collection; but I believe no Shem's pofterity. “And Noah said, Blessed part has been transcribed, except the dun be Jehovah, the God of Shem: God shall etto before fpoken of.

enlarge Japheth; and (but) he fball dwell Leicester, Jan, 1799, Y.

in

tures.

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