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FRIENDS INTELLIGENCER.

PHILADELPHIA, THIRD MO. 21, 1885.

THE SUCCESSION.—When a life closes which has been both useful and beautiful it is sometimes said with a tone of regret, how little a man is missed in the great world and how quickly the gap closes. The world's good work does not stop though the workers drop out one by one, and it is one of the causes of hope, and encouragement, and faith in the ultimate reign of right, that there are always shoulders ready and waiting for the descending mantle of the good and wise. While we often are called to lament the removal of those who have been leaders in the affairs of our church, we must believe in a succession of standardbearers because we see them coming forward to do the work and take up the burden when the elders lay it down. But if these new laborers are faithful to the manifestation granted them and not mere copyists, their line of thought and of action cannot be exactly in imitation of those whose places they fill ; nor need it, for often the fear of not following precisely in the footsteps of those whose work was valuable, stifles the impulse to do just as valuable work in a different way. We need in our Society to have faith in the succession; faith not only in the fact that successors will come, but in their work as an outcome of sincere interest. What a comment it would be upon all our faithful predecessors if there should not be found among us inheritors of their precious legacy “The force of character is cumulative. All the foregone days of virtue work their health into this,” Says Emerson, and to find ourselves ready for noble work proves that we have become sharers in a true nobility of soul, and inheritors of a purpose for the right, which it is our duty to transmit stronger and better for our having been its possessor. If the world has assimilated a man’s wisdom or grown wiser, if it has approved his noble deeds or grown more noble, and has appreciated his loving services and grown larger hearted, then his bequest takes rank among the blessings to mankind. And we may all, in a limited sense be benefactors, even in working with what ability we possess right in the Society to which we belong. We have inherited truths which need proclaiming and there are results of right living and honest thinking which need emphasizing, not for any self-glorification, but to set in a bright light the “better way ” as we see it. Let us withdraw our eyes somewhat from those who have excited our admiration by their faithful

ness in days gone by and consider what testimonies they have left for us to uphold and what principles to stand by. That they should have carried the work up to a certain point and there leave it seems to be in the Divine ordering, nor is it less Divine that others should take it up and carry it still further forward. Like the man who puts his hand to the plow we must look before us, if our eyes are turned backward we shall strike crooked furrows. And let us remember that if our days are not occupied nobly for our Society we shall bequeath weakness in the place of virtue. Standing amid the harvest of present blessings and privileges which we as Friends enjoy, we look back to the time of the seed-sowing, to the sad and painful days, to the weary and persecuted Sowers who faithfully cast into the unpromising field of a sneering or prejudiced world the precious germs of truth. While we remember the courage of these saints and martyrs and commend their work, we must not fail to appreciate the position in which we stand to-day, a position midway between the certain past and the uncertain future, with the reality before us that our work is to be judged by coming generations. If for their inheritance they receive only bare fields or unfruitful furrows which our labor might have blessed with plenty, shall we be ranked with those whom we delight to call the faithful?

MEDICAL EDUCATION OF THE COLORED RACE.We are glad to acknowledge the receipt, from some unknown source, of a copy of the Daily American, a Nashville paper, in which we find an interesting account of the Commencement exercises of Meharry College, recently held in that city. This college was established nine years ago for the medical education of colored students. On the present occasion the stage was occupied by a number of senators and other prominent men, among whom were President Cravath and Professor Bennett of Fisk University, and Dr. A. G. Haygood President of Emory College. The degree of Doctor of Medicine was conferred upon eight graduates, two of whom were residents of Nashville, Tenn., one of Kansas, one of the District of Columbia, and the other four were from the Southern States. The two papers read, one on “Cholera,” and one treating of “Diseases of the Brain,” are spoken of as valuable, and giving evidence of “deep study, and thorough knowledge.” Dr. A. G. Haygood, in an address which followed, spoke at length of the efforts now making in the different colleges of the South to educate and elevate the colored race. He congratulated them on the wouderful progress they had achieved in the short space of twenty years—a progress unparalleled in the history of the world. He said that such advancement was but a just return for the untiring labors of the many who were devoting their lives to the cause of educating the colored children; and a meet recognition of the munificence of such men as Peabody, Fisk and Slater, whose fortunes had been bequeathed to the endowment and sustaining of colleges throughout the South, wherein the offspring of the freedman might enjoy equal advantages with those of his white neighbor. We learn further of the Meharry Medical School, that it is a department of Central Tennessee College, organized in 1876, for the purpose of furnishing to the colored people of the South an opportunity of obtaining a medical education. At that time there was no medical school in the Southern States that would admit colored students, and in the North the doors of many of the medical colleges were closed against them. It takes its name from the generous and philanthropic family who have so liberally contributed towards its establishment and support. The building is of brick, four stories in height, including the basement, and is about forty feet wide by sixty in length. The college has conferred the degree of M. D. on fifty-two young men (including the graduates of this session), nearly all of whom are now engaged in the successful practice of their profession in the Southern and Western States.

MARRIAGES.

BROOKS-HOBSON.—On Third month 11th, 1885, by Friends' ceremony, in Philadelphia, Arthur G. Brooks and Jane Johnson, daughter of Elizabeth W. and the late Thomas Hobson, M. D.

: TAYLOR-SATTERTHWAITE.-On Second mo. 19th, 1885, at Edgemont, near Langhorne, Bucks co., Pa., according to the order of Friends, Mahlon Taylor o *. daughter of Amos and Elizabeth S. Satter

} Walte.

BELI. On Third month 8th, 1885, at her residence, West Whiteland, Pa., Martha T., widow of John Bell, in her 94th year.

BROWN.--On Third no. 9th, 1885, of heart disease, in Waynesville, O., Sarah L., wife of Allen Brown, in her 71st year ; a member of Miami Monthly Meeting.

St CLEAVER.—On Third month 10th, 1885, Nathan Çleaver; a valued member of Upper Düblin Preparative and Horsham Monthly Meetings, Pa.

EVES.–On Eleventh mo. 26th, 1884, of pneumonia, at their residence, in Millville, Pa., Francis Eves, aged 64 years; and on Second mo. 21st, 1885, of consumption, Rachel W., widow of Francis Eves, aged 64 years; members of Fishing Creek Monthly Meet111g.

WALKER.—On Third month 14th, 1885, in Baltimore, Md., Elizabeth C., daughter of Elisha H. and Lucy Cooper Walker, aged 4 years.

CITIZENSHIP FOR THE RED MAN.

Viewed only as a measure of right and justice, American citizenship should be at once extended to every adult Indian within the borders of the United States. But there are other and collateral views of the subject which every true friend of the Indian’s welfare should carefully study before committing himself to such a policy. It is now about three hundred years since the first European settlements were made within the boundaries of these United States. During that comparatively brief period of time, the entire country, from the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean, the borders of Mexico to Victoria's dominions, has, with the exception of a few limited reservations of land, been wrested from the Indians: A small portion by wars, the greater part by treaty purchase, in which latter transactions the business and financial ability of the Indian is clearly developed. His weakness in barter and trade was so apparent, that very early in colonial history, laws were generally enacted, making the purchase of land from Indians, by individuals, null and illegal—the proprietors and colonies reserving that right to themselves—and with a few fishhooks, measures of rum, etc., the Indian title to lands was speedily extinguished. o At a later period of time Congress deprived Indian tribes of nationality, and appointed the United States Government guardian of the persons and property of all Indians within its limits. Under this selfappointed guardianship, the United States now holds for its wards the lands of Indian reservations and funds of Indian tribes. It is now proposed by certain philanthropists to relieve adult Indians from that wardship by statute, make them citizens of the United States, and as citizens deliver to them their lands and trust funds. My nearly five years' superintendency of seven Indian tribes in various stages of development, from the blanketed hunter to the educated agriculturist, mechanic and engineer, has enabled me to study Indian business, character and financial ability; and I have no hesitancy in stating as my decided judgment and conviction that but few of the members of those tribes are at this time in such a stage of business capacity as would enable them to long retain their property if it was entrusted to their keeping. I firmly believe that a very few years would elapse before avaricious white men would own their property and they would be paupers, dependent upon the care and charity of the counties in which they resided; or roving tramps procuring a precarious livelihood by trapping and begging. As wards of the government, Indians have been using the lands of their reservations in common, the farms broken, fenced and cultivated by industrious Indians, were tribal property, subject to be taken from them, whenever a new treaty was made between the government and their chiefs. Few persons, Indian or white, would make farm

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or home improvements under such circumstances. For many years I have been an earnest advocate of the allotment of lands in severalty to Indian adults and heads of families, to be held by them under patent from the government, inalienable on account of debt, for a period of thirty years. If at the termination of that time the holder has proven his capacity for financial self-protection and self-support he will also have demonstrated his fitness to assume the duties of a citizen of the United States, and require no guardian but its laws, for protection of person and property. When Indians have reached that status of financial ability, it were a crime to further withhold citizenship from them. Until they have graduated to that status, I believe it would be equally a crime to give them citizenship and its consequent pauperism.”—Barclay White, in the West Chester Republican.

A HOME ATMOSPHERE.

Balzac, that close and keen observer, somewhere says, “You may judge of a woman by the vestibule of her house.” This matter of atmosphere is a great matter. If every individual has pervading him and surrounding him an atmosphere appropriate and peculiar to him. self, much more is this true of every home. That impalpable something which every one feels but no one sees, that assimilating element to which we yield as a matter of course, which we breathe, and which becomes a force in our life so long as we are in it— every home has this. When you look forward to that home of your own, the happy vision of every young, expectant man and woman, you seldom think with particularity of the material part of that home. You do not decide whether its walls shall be made of stone or of brick or of wood. You do not settle the plan of the house, nor the height and size of the rooms, You think of the air of the place, the general and pervading character, of this intangible viewless medium which will envelop and harmonize all the material things. You do not picture to yourself the style of the chair or the sofa on which you are to take your ease. You know you mean to take your ease. You have in your mind's eye a sunny, or at least a tranquil, domestic sky; a pure, vitalizing element where you can live and breathe freely, and develop under what seem to you the best conditions. You have a distinct, ideal of this essential thing about your home, though you may not be clear as to where, or when, or how that home is to open its doors to you. Now, how are you to make sure of the right kind of atmosphere in this home of yours ? It is not a matter that may safely be left to the determination of chance or nature. Impalpable though atmos. phere itself is, it is affected by, it depends on, palpable things. The first is law. Without law, order, duty, subjection, a home is no more possible than a nation. Home life means united life. And law is one of the strongest of uniting, binding forces. “Thou dost preserve the stars from wrong,

And the most ancient heavens through thee are fresh and strong.”

Steadfastness and vitality come with law. Law in home life need not be loudly proclaimed. Nature does not advertise her laws on the faces of the rocks. Yet how unfailing they are—the sure reward, the relentless punishinent There must be obedience in home life, the yielding of one will to another, the yielding of each will in some degree to each other. There must be the orderly working of forces. Harmony results from law as truly as from love. Deprive your child of a strong sense of this principle of law, and you have committed not only a great wrong but an everlasting mistake. Lose this principle from your own ideal of home life, and you have sustained a fatal loss. Again, there must be liberty in the home. This is one of the things that you mean to have in that home of your own. But remember, there must be liberty not only for one but for every member of the household. Take the full benefit of the home comforts. Allow some freedom in the disposition of little things, of fragments of time. “Everything in its place,” “everything in its time,” are good mottoes; but don't have too many places, too many times. A third element that is necessary to a healthy home atmosphere is something which is not easily set before usin one word. Outflow and influx, interchange with other homes, ventilation—these things are essential. The air of your home will surely lose vitality if you shut it up to itself. Social life, with its opportunities for love and forgiveness, for delicate consideration of others and setting aside of self, is a moral force that ought not to be lacking in the home. The children are gainers in many ways in the home when hospitality is frequent and free. Open the door of your home to others, and lend yourself sometimes to other homes. It will do no harm to the best housekeeper to see occasionally how other people do things. The wife is never lovelier in her husband's eye than when he has been in the society of other women, and discovered how humdrum and uninteresting they are. The husband is never more admired by his wife than when she compares him with other men. Not far removed from this element of interchange is that of variety. We fall too easily into routine in our homes. Breakfast, business, newspaper, bed, is the too unvarying daily history of many men. And the programme for the women and children is correspondingly monotonous. It is possible to impart quite a Christmas flavor to the whole year by well-planned surprises and unexpected pleasures. In some households this is done. Try it, remembering that not only the children but the elders like these things and are the better for them. A sensible father last spring took his boy out of school in the midst of the term, and carried him off for a fortnight in Washington. “But isn’t he well ?” asked the astonished teacher. “Perfectly.” “But he will get behind l’ “Very well.” “But he may not pass the examination l’” “All right.” But he'll have to make it up !” “We’ll see.” The boy saw the sights of Washington under intelligent guidance, he was present in Congress at a discussion on the tariff question, and he knows more now about matters of national and international importance than years of school could have taught him. We all acknowledge that the child has been made unduly, abnormally prominent in American families. In some households everything bends to the supposed interests of the child. All plans give way before his supposed advantage. Far better for him when be becomes not a mere recipient, but a sharer in the daily household life and work, taking his proper place as one of a community. But it is not always a child who occupies this post of exaggerated importance in the household. Who does not know the dominant member of the family, who plans for all and judges all ? Who does not know the exacting, the selfish member, the dyspeptic who fills the house with gloom, the sensitive and nervous, whose uncertain tempers charge the domestic atmosphere with discomfort 7 To maintain equilibrium in such cases, great nicety and care must be exercised by the other members. It is worth remembering that it is clashing alone which produces the worst results. One may make the household atmosphere gloomy or uncomfortable. It takes two to make it actually stormy. Need it be said that religion is essential to the healthiness of the home atmosphere? Only he who has faith can have true patience. Only hope sure and steadfast can give the cheeriness and serenity which are the very soul of home. Only the far outlook into the eternal and the infinite will show the present vexations and perplexities and pleasures in their true proportions. Every relationship of the family needs the love of God to confirm and purify it. “All fathers learn their craft from thee, all loves are shadows cast” from the greater love. The spiritual life, the life with God, is as essential to the perfection of home life, as sunshine to the perfection of a landscape. It makes clear the distant. It brightens and vitalizes the near. And, last of all, the home must have love. “Last?” you say; “not first?” Aye, first and last, the beginning and the ending. Love is presupposed in home life, and love crowns and includes the whole. It is the soul of law, and the inspiring force of every one of these essentials we have been considering. But household love must be not the mere sentiment of love. It must be the principle of love. It will not do to trust to nature. Any two or more persons who have tried to make a home together must have soon made this discovery. Here lies the rock on which many a young husband and wife have wrecked their delicate craft. This is the warning that ought to be sounded from end to end of our land. It will not do to trust to nature. Love must be fortified by law, by religion. Love must be fed and tended from above. All the forces of will and reason must come to the aid of love, and by God's blessing all will flow together into the grandest stream of joy and fruitfulness that he has set in motion. Pray to God daily that your love may be sweet and fresh and true, a daily benediction on its object, the purest earthly gift, and he will help you make it such.-The Christian Union.

THE clouds above us cannot long conceal the heaven beyond them.

JOHN RUSKIN ON COUNTRY LIFE.

In one of his recent Oxford lectures Ruskin, referred to some blots of modern social life, says: “ I need scarcely tell any of my pupils that my own art, teaching has been exclusively founded on the hope of getting people to enjoy country life, and to care for its simple pleasures and modest enjoyments. But. I find now that the ideal in the minds of all young people, however amiable and wellmeaning, is to marry as soon as possible, and then to live in the most fashionable part of the largest town they can afford to compete with the rich inhabitants of, in the largest house they can strain their incomes to the rent of, with the water laid on at the top, the gas at the bottom, huge plate-glass windows out of which they may look uninterruptedly at a brick wall, a drawing-room on the scale of Buckingham Palace, with Birmingham fixtures, and patent everythings going of themselves everywhere—with, for all intellectual aids to felicity, a few bad prints, a few dirty and foolish books, and a quantity of photographs of the people they know, or of any passing celebrities. This is the present ideal of English life, without exception, for the middle classes—and a more miserable, contemptible or criminal one never was formed by any nation made under the wondering stars. It implies perpetual anxiety, lazy and unjustifiable pride, innumerable petty vexations, daily more poignant greed for money, and the tyrannous compulsion of the laboring poor into every form of misery; and it implies, further, total ignorance of all the real honor of human life and visible beauty of the visible world.” The lecture was mainly on “Birds,” and he dwelt on the pleasure that might be derived from an artistic study of their plumage. This led him to remark as follows: “If any of you care to put your lives a little to rights, and to prime your own feathers for what flight is in them—don't go to London, nor to any other town in the spring; don’t let the morning winds of May find your cheeks pale and your eyes bloodshot with sitting up all night, nor the violets bloom for you only in the salesman's bundles, nor the birds sing around, if not above the graves you have dug for yourselves before your time. Time enough you will have hereafter to be deaf to their song, and ages enough to be blind to their brightness, if you seek not the sight given now. If there be any human love in your youth, if any sacred hope, if any faithful religion, let them not be defiled and quenched among the iniquities of the multitude. Your Love is in the clefts of the Rock, when the flowers appear on the earth, and the time of the singing of birds is come, and the God of all Love calls to you ‘from the top of Amana, from the top of Shenir and Hermon, calls to every pure spirit among the children of men, as they to those they love best,

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WOMEN'S MEDICAL COLLEGE OF PHILADELPHIA.

The thirty-third annual Commencement of this institution took place at the largest audience hall in this city, the Academy of Music, on the 11th inst. A very large audience assembled promptly at the hour (12 M.) and after a brief prayer and some musical exercises, the degree of Doctor of Medicine was conferred upon the following twenty-two graduates: Pennsylvania.-Ellen C. Brensinger, Mary H. Cheyney, Harriet A. Kane, Calista V. Luther, Kate McDowell, Anna M. Reynolds, Clara C. Shetter, Ida M. Shimer, Elizabeth Snyder, Ella Prentiss Upham, Ella S. Webb and Emma M. Williams. re New York.-Jenny G. Wagner, Juliet E. Hanchett and Mary Edith Hennesy. Connecticut—Elizabeth L. Peck and Lucy M. Creemer. District of Columbia.-Ida J. Heiberger. Massachusetts.-Mary V. O. Callaghan. Missouri.-Frances Coleman Smith. Nebraska —Saleni Armstrong. Rhode Island.—Sarah M. Wilbur. Dr. W. W. Keen, Professor of Surgery, then delivered a valuable and interesting address on some considerations connected with the progress of surgery. This has been much promoted by judicious experimenting on living animals, and his address was a plea for the toleration of a work which the Doctor believes is justified by its results. In regard to vivisection in America, he cited Dr. Wood's experiments on the effects of heat on animals, Dr. Weir Mitchell's on snake venom, and the present strenuous efforts to study the cholera microbe. In conclusion he said: “I have given you only ascertained facts for your future use in the communities in which you may settle. They may assist you in forming public sentiment on a basis of fact, of reason and of common sense. The sentiments of our profession, so constantly and so conspicuously humane, are always against giving pain, but if in yielding to sentiment we actually increase disease and pain and death, both among animals and men, our aversion to prevent pain is both unwise and actually cruel. “In conclusion, let me wish you the greatest success in your professional life and the richest blessings of our kind Heavenly Father. Farewell.” Among the audience were many distinguished graduates of this college, successfully engaged in their profession in different parts of the world. The deep interest and hearty sympathy of so many of the most honored citizens of Philadelphia, must have been gratifying to the faithful, devoted ones who have advocated the cause of the medical education of women from the very first, and stood by it in the darkest days of bigotry and proscription, until today we see that a right public sentiment in this cause has gained the ascendent, and the opposing voices have sunk into silence. These days of Commencement ceremonies are to many solemn days of recollection and of thanksgiving. The generations pass as they finish their appointed work, but their faithful labors remain long after them to bless the coming times, and be an incitement to other heroic works, in broader and ever-widening fields. With words of loving consecration, the beautiful and appropriate ceremonies of the day closed, and the twenty-two women physicians go forth on their mission of healing. S. R.

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