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For Friends' Intelligencer,

convicting power in other minds, as we arouse them blood.” These are words of True Greatness. The to attention to its workings or stir them up to earnest flowers of prosperity smile in the blessed footprints and unqualified desire or prayer for it. God (or the of William Penn. His people were unmolested and Spirit fountain) is the only source of truth and good, happy, while, sad contrast, those of other colonies, and the truth that pertains to our spiritual nature, acting upon the policy of the world, building forts, and on which morality rests, comes only from within, and showing themselves in arms not after receiving out-and not as intellectual knowledge from out, provocation, but merely in anticipation, or from fear within--it is in this sense that God is a teacher of danger, were harassed by perpetual alarm, and of His people Himself, as distinguished from the pro- pierced by the sharp arrows of savage war. This phets and preachers of His law; they do not and pattern of a Christian commonwealth never fails to cannot know this law except first they have been arrest the admiration of all who contemplate its convicted of its truth by the Inner Light or Spirit of beauties.-- Charles Sumner. God operating on their spiritual natures and bringing it to their consciousness. Hence, as I understand it, the Inner Light practically creates for us knowl

UNITY THE PRIME ELEMENT OF STRENGTH. edge of right or wrong, and conscience indicates our obedience or disobedience to what we believe to be The tree is to be judged by its fruit. That the duty, and will change its action just as our convic- Society of Friends is not now in a condition to assert tions change.

itself and effectually impress its peculiar principles Animals below man may have conscience and feel upon the world is plain enough from the simple fact condemnation for doing what they have been taught that it does not do so. Originally its influence was was wrong.

potent and far reaching out of all proportion to the Obedience to the “Christ Within " regenerates our numbers of its members. Even then it was comparnature and changes our motives of action.

atively only a little flock, but such was its strength Obedience to conscience keeps us from all changes and individuality and the force with which it set until some other power gives us another law than the forth its principles, that its advent may be said to one we were conscientiously keeping. It has been commence a new epoch in the history of civilization. said a man may be moral without being a Christian, The vail of tradition and superstition that had for but not a Christian without being moral; in like ages enveloped the Christian church, obscuring the manner we may say a man may be conscientious truly Catholic character thereof, was torn away, and without being right, but never right without being the universal brotherhood of man was proclaimed conscientious; hence it is incumbent on us to obey with a power that palsied the arm of tyranny and carefully all of our convictions of duty, as this keeps secured new symmetry and blessings to future emus to the highest standard we have received ; then pires. earnestly seek for light and truth and our conscience To-day its membership still constitutes, what, as a will keep pace with our growth and keep us up to thoroughly united band, would be abundantly suffithe advancing standard.

J. W. P. cient to make its testimonies heard and felt, even to

the

very ends of the earth, but its influence has so WILLIAM PENN.

utterly passed away that it is generally regarded by

those around us, as being in the last stages of dissoTo William Penn belongs the distinction, destined lution. And it is evident that this is not, as some to brighten as men advance in virtue, of first in seem to think, to be altogether charged to lukewarmhuman history establishing the Law of Love as a ness and indifference, for there is amongst us a prevrule of conduct in intercourse of nations. He de alence of righteous desire and keen interest that clined the superfluous protection of arms against nothing but the rankest injustice can ignore. The Foreign Force, and “aimed to reduce the savage na body is indeed exceeding sick, but there is no lack tions by just and gentle manners, to the love of civil of physicians ready and eager to help prepare a society and the Christian religion." His serene remedy. But the great trouble seems to be that the countenance, as he stands, with his followers, all un- disease is regarded from so many and various standarmed, beneath the spreading elm, forniing the great points that there are scarcely two prescriptions alike treaty of friendship with the untutored Indians, who and each physician casting his supposed specific into fill with savage display the surrounding forest as far the common receptacle, the medicine has become an as the eye can reach, not to wrest their lands by vio- aggregation of such unassimilated constituents, that, lence, but to obtain them by peaceful purchase, is to instead of being a curative, the functions of the my mind the proudest picture in the history of our patient seem in eminent danger of being brought to a country. The great God," said the illustrious speedy termination by the distracting force of the Quaker, “has written his law in our hearts by which incongruous mixture. we are taught and commanded to love, and to help, The one important thing which seems to be generand to do good one to another. It is not our custom ally overlooked is that the healthfulness of the body to use hostile weapons against our fellow creatures, is only to be found in the harmonious action and for which reason we have come unarmed. Our object perfect co-operation of the various members thereof. is not to do injury, but to do good. We have, then, And each of these members being directly responsimet in the broad pathway of good faith and good- ble for acting up to his own convietions of right, and will, so that no advantage can be taken on either prohibited by every essential of his well being from side, but all is to be openness, brotherhood and love, placing his judgment in subservience to the dictation while all are to be treated as of the same flesh and lor authority of any other man, or body of men, genuine harmony and perfection of co-operation-the which being defenceless, proves that these mollusks healthful action of the body-can extend no further “come of a gentle kind." The clam gains its slight than the members are united as to their convictions locomotive power by its digging foot, which, in these and their judgment. It must ever be remembered disturbed specimens, was retracted between the gills, that the strength of the body is as the strength of its but, in a state of nature may protrude far beyond the members, and as the strength of each member is de- shell. pendent entirely on his fulfilling and bearing witness At the posterior end of the body a black spot was to his own convictions of right, it is plain that if the noticed. This could be resolved into two tubes, the body should by any means either constrain or per- syphon ; these are stretched up to the surface of the suade a member to become a party to wbat his judg- sand and are immediately below the little holes seen ment condemns, or even to what he is not clearly upon the beach. Down one tube flows the pure convinced is right, it paralyzes his usefulness as a mem- water and out of the other that which has been deber and plants the seeds of destruction within itself. oxygenated. The foot and syphon are absent in the

A happy day will it be for this People and for the oyster, consequently it is non-locomotive, and if Nations when our members, recognizing this most buried below the sand, dies. This is one reason why important fact. shall see the necessity of searching dredging oyster-beds is so destructive. our own house as with a lighted candle to shut out If there is any chance that the specimens are alive everything that has a tendency to scatter and to di- it is better to observe the heart first of all. In the vide; that, that dumb, dead idol called "submission oyster this is just above the large muscle, and in the to the prevailing judgment,” may be replaced by the clam nearly under the beak. Cut away the delicate mighty power of heartfelt and aggressive unity; that membrane covering it, and the pulsations may be our testimonies may be proclaimed as with a voice easily shown to the class. Through this organ, in the through a trumpet having no uncertain sound, and clam, passes the intestine, to end in the ex-current the banner of righteousness again raised aloft, with or upper syphon tube. In the oyster the termination its inscriptions shining forth in their pristine purity, is near the large muscle. The class then cut into the perspicuity, and grandeur, to be carried forward by abdominal portion, and saw the large, brown liver, an unwavering hand to conflict and to victory. the stomach, intestine and ovaries.

I. W. G. There are other points in the anatomy of the clam

and oyster which may be shown to a class, but this EDUCATIONAL.

much was given, not as new or original, but because

these types are common and full of interest. Some TALKS FOR TEACHERS.

familiar relations of these mollusks were shown; pearl

oyster shells, those of the salt and the fresh water On Seventh-day, the 21st ult., the second meeting mussels, of the pecten and the razor; also the great of teachers and those interested in education was enemy of the oyster planter, the star-fish. held in the lecture-room at Fifteenth and Race streets. Under a microscope was a specimen of embryo Emily G. Hunt gave a class lesson upon the clam oysters, showing that in extreme youth the valves of and oyster. Twenty-four small pans were placed the shell are equal, and resemble those of the clam. upon the tables containing a clan and an oyster Under a second instrument could be seems the action alternately. The pans were half full of water and of the minute cilia upon the gills, which sweep the in each was a loaded cork to which the specimens food to the mouth. might be pinned if necessary. One valve had been re- To those interested in this subject Professor Hyatt's moved from each shell, and the teachers were invited pamphlet entitled “The Oyster, Clam and other to make rough dissections of the animals by the aid of Common Mollusks," is recommended, published in instruments provided for that purpose. They were Boston by Gion & Heath. From an economic standguided in their search for the parts by rough draw- point, though not exclusively so, “Oyster Culture,” ings of the clam and oyster, much enlarged, placed by Ernest Ingersoll, published by our government, side by side upon the blackboard in colored chalks. is excellent.

The different shape of the two mollusks as they May Haggenbotham, formerly a teacher of Friends' lay in their shells was first noted, and the mantle Central School, now Assistant Superintendent of the lining the shell and forming a loose, two-lipped bag. Public Schools of Philadelphia, spoke on Primary This secretes the shell. The large, central muscle Education, as follows: which attaches the oyster to the shell was noticed, The educational movement of the present time is also the two which serve the same purpose in the rennaissance. “The great truths of the new education clam. These furnish the means for opening and are ringiog in the air,” eager to benefit the commushutting the shell.

nity for whom they are intended. After sixteen The gills in the oyster next attracted attention; months' experience in the supervision of the work of four delicate, lined plates, lying upon one side of the the public schools of our city, the speaker found fleshy body. These were compared with similar herself standing before the profound depths of the organs in the clam, of a different shape, and situated subject, an eager questiover, ready to act with the two upon each side of the soft, abdominal portion. light which her short but intense experience had At the anterior end of the gills, or in that part of given. She spoke of the many perplexities and vathe body toward which the beak or pointed end of ried experiences met with in expounding new meththe shell is directed, were seen the mouth palps, also ods to the twenty-one hundred teachers whom she four in number, broad and round in the oyster, long has supervised. and slender in the clam, Between these is the mouth Au ardent student of methods is not necessarily a

a

student of the principles that underlie those methods. meets with many restrictions that defeat his highest His resources may be drawn from a reseryoir, and aims. not from a spring.

A child's habits are frequently determined before When meeting with the teachers of the public it reaches the primary school, often before enterschools, it was found easy to arouse an enthusiasm. ing the Kindergarten. The lecturer asserted she had Faces brightened when the talks and illustrations known children of six years who were old in sin. began, showing a desire on the part of the teachers Other restrictions to be met with are the demands to elevate their standard of work. Why, then, have of fashion for those studies which are ornamental so many failed in these methods, which have seemed rather than useful; then parents are content to do so good? In answer, the question arises, Do you un- the reasoning for the children, instead of requiring derstand the principles underlying the methods? them to think for themselves. Again, irregular at

Teachers dealing with mind know very little tendance in school, the short duration of school life, about mind. Their failures are largely due to a large classes, and false ideas of social life, are all neglect to study the science of teaching, the under serious restrictions to be borne in mind in estimating lying principles. They do not think to study the a teacher's work. pupils and themselves. A teacher should be as great But let each one do herself justice; all that can à student in his profession as is a doctor or a lawyer be hoped for is to accomplish some good. in his. Nothing influences character like character. The lecturer now referred to the studies which

Our teachers fail because they have not a practical train the senses. These remarks were necessarily ideal of their work. To one possessing a realization brief, and the teachers were congratulated upon havof a teacher's true work, the little things of a school. ing Prof. Brooks to dwell more particularly upon room assume a proper importance. Small things are the philosophy of the mind. no longer petty. The personal neatness of pupils, Perception is the primal source of knowledge, but attractive surroundings, as well as moral training, there is no enduring knowledge of things gained by should take high rank among a teacher's cares. dependence on the senses alone; a training of the

A teacher with a practical ideal, an earnest pur memory and reasoning powers must supplement the pose, is a living and prolific source of expedients first. with which to meet varied circumstances. He is able The early period of a child's life is most favorable to give proportional attention to the parts of his for training the memory; the plastic age is from six work.

to twelve years. The questions should arise, What are you doing Again, the lecturer remarked that she would give this for? What is it leading to?

nothing for the study of methods without a study of Too many are the slaves of tradition. A new principles. The cardinal doctrine of the new educamethod or a new subject must elbow its way into the tion is, “Knowledge has to do with things." Not school as best it can, if enter it must.

here, however, must the work rest. Words must Another reason for a teacher's maintaining a prac- have their place. The language training of a child tical ideal is because it sustains and animates her cultivates memory. In the public schools, language under much that is depressing. A teacher is denied lessons may precede reading. Reading and spelling the usual sources of hope. She is always producing, are truly a part of language training. Knowledge never attaining a finished product. Her pupils are comes through the senses. Pictures and objects may constantly passing on, making room for others to fol. therefore be used as foundation for language lessons. low over the same ground of labor. Is it any won. Every teacher should be a good story-teller, and der, then, if a teacher grows depressed, often hope- should be capable of selecting good stories to read to less, frequently degenerating into a pessimist? her pupils, that they may reproduce them from

What shall be the practical ideal? What is it our memory: This work trains the memory and attenbusiness to do for the child ?

tion. In most cases, with our public school children, it Pictures, objects and stories have been the means is necessary that the child shall be trained in such of producing a marvelous change in the public way that it may gain a livelihood in later years; it schools. must be supplied with intellectual food in the form The lecturer displayed many pictures which had of facts; it must be taught moral precepts, and the been prepared for the use of the children. Most of duties which life in a community forces upon all. It these were figure subjects which would attract and is necessary that the mind shall be formed as well interest the children, and about which they could as informed.

find many things to say. Teachers were cautioned The primary teacher's duty is to promote good to go slowly; let a child find out for himself; do not habits of intellect and will; in fact all that is in- tell him about the picture. In this way, his power cluded in the growth of mind and character. His of observation will be trained and his imagination work must have a value both as knowledge and as dis- exercised. For this purpose colored pictures are cipline. Education is a generation of power. preferable.

To produce in the pupils good habits of intellect Specimen compositions were read, which had been and will the teacher must have a knowledge of the produced in the fourth grade of primary school by mind. He should also possess a knowledge of psy children of eight or nine years of age. A little story chology and of ethics, in order to fulfill his part well. of The Pet Lamb had been read to the children, and Every teacher should philosophize.

they had reproduced it from memory, spelling words With a high ideal in view, and an earnest effort to with care, and using capital letters and periods cormaster the difficulties that will be encountered, he rectly.

rize.

Another story was read, about Frederick the in the propriety of calmly and dispassionately weighGreat and his Page, the composition produced from ing them and acting upon them, and to seek a spirit which proved that the childreu had not grasped the of love and forbearance one unto the other, so that ideas. *They did not comprehend the terms Freder- we may be enabled to yield to a brother tbat which ick the Great, and Page. It was claimed that this we would ask for ourselves, thus doing unto others as was not a good story. It should not be necessary to we would be done by, in the endeavor that harmoni. explain the story to the pupils.

ous action may thus be reached. Another story, of Old Tom and the Eagle, was

OLIVER EVANS. beautifully reproduced, and again seriously maimed, Philadelphia, Third mo. 2d, 1885. by pupils of about eleven years, in eighth grade secondary school. In a familiar talk, a question was asked the chil; of the Chappaqua Mountain Institute, printed in

In my communication with regard to the burning dren about the size of an eagle. Some boys had last week's Friends' Intelligencer, I am made to say given quite good descriptions of the size of the bird, "Mr. Collins," instead of “$. C. Collins, but no girl could answer the question. The boys

as it had used their eyes at the Zoological Garden.

was written. The Managers of the Institute have Improving exercises had resulted in writing secured the W. G. Lambert place, which is very answers to the questions, “Do you like a rainy day? pleasantly situated about half a mile from the for"Why?” “How does the sky look at night?” mer location, with sufficient accommodation for the

“How does the sky look at night?” School, which they expect to re open on the 10th Questions were given in regard to the appearances inst. of nature.

Respectfully,

ROB'T S. HAVILAND. Talks with the children improve them. They may be incitet to see and look.

Chappaqua, Third mo. 3d, 1885. It is a significant fact that the spelling book has been eliminated from the primary public schools. EXTRACTS FROM LETTERS. The routine work is abridged, while the mind is being trained to think instead of merely to memo

In the present desire to arouse new life amongst us,

I trust we will bear in mind there is still need of the Good work in the primary schools is largely in the precious silence” in our meetings. I do not object to majority, while in the secondary it is in the minority. the hour being shortened, if the life appears to be

The lecture was closed by the forceful remarks spent, and there is no vocal ministry, but I do want that “ teachers do not owe life and soul to their pro- us to maintain in true dignity a period of reverential fession,” “the life must have a circumference as well

quiet, where we can commune with our own hearts as a centre.

and be still.Many who worship in the evangelical

churches are coming to value quiet. I have just CORRESPONDENCE.

read in one of their church papers the following, which I enclose for thy perusal. It should encour

age us to hold fast to this feature of our mode of MY MIND has been turned to reflect upon the

worship, though we must not fall into the very grave proposed changes in our Discipline," that are ex

error of worshiping silence. pected to come before our approaching Quarterly Meeting, and if thought worthy of consideration, I

“Why is it that the silence is never so oppressive in am willing to offer the following suggestions in this the peaceful meetings of the Friends, as it is, say, in very important movement: There are three elements of complete silence that sometimes try the nerves of interested therein, composing, as they do, the young, both pastor and people? Perhaps the differeuce is the middle aged, and elderly members of our Society. this, that, in the one case, those present know that Presuming each to be concerned in its result to the they are not expected to speak unless they have a body or Church," there are those who

message; while in the other, nearly everybody feels may

as if somebody else ought to speak, message or no have borne the burden of the day, and are thus enti- message, for the purpose of breaking the silence. Yet, tled by greater experience to decide how and what after all, is silence so dreadful that it is better to speak should be done in the premises, whilst the middle without having anything to say, than to wait in reveaged and young may conteud that they, in the natu- rent stillness before God?" ral course of events, will be the longer subjected to such changes as are sought for, and are also entitled WHOEVER sets a right value on the events of his to be heard, and their opinions received with proper life for good or for evil, will agree that next in imconsideration. Now, in order that these views may portance to the rectitude of his own course and the be the more fairly and fully set forth, let us suppose selection of his partner for life, and far beyond all two facts to exist, namely, the rapidly declining the wealth or honors which may reward his labor, numbers of our Society, and the great changes in our far even beyond the unspeakable gift of bodily health, general surroundings (social and otherwise) that have are the friendships which he forms in youth. That taken place since our present Discipline was adopted, is the season when natures soft and pliant grow toand whilst we may differ in the expression of our views, gether, each becoming part of the other, and colored I incline to the belief of sincerity in each. Then, if by it; thus to become one in heart with the good, the facts are as above stated, may it not be found and generous, and devout, is; by God's grace, to be“wiser and safer” for the good of all concerned, to come in measure, good and generous and devout.consider, each for himself, whether all cannot unite Coleridge.

feel they

ness.

truth in the world's twilight, from Abraham. "Shall FRIENDS INTELLIGENCER. not the judge of all the earth do right?''

Oh! it is strange, passing strange, that one must, in

this nineteenth century of grace, in the heart of New PHILADELPHIA, THIRD MO. 14, 1885. England, in talking to a Christianly educated mother,

go back to the very alphabet of the Christian religion ;

aye! of all religion and of all morality. Salvation is BELIEF AND CHARACTER. “ Wherefore by their character. To be noble and true-hearted is to be saved.

The Christian minister is not lost because he makes fruits ye shall know them," was perhaps one of the his home in the slumıs of New York. Christ was not strongest declarations in that most beautiful and degraded because he lived a sufferer among sinners. practical of all sermons, the “Sermon on the Mount.” Shall we never learn that circumstance is nothing,

and character everything; that sinless suffering is no Yet how slow the religious world has been in coming evil

, and sinful joy no good; that to be saved is to be to give credit for character; for the true life lived delivered, not from some imagined future prison

house, but to be delivered from falsehood and deceit, out before us, rather than for the absolute correctness from wrath and uncharitableness, from ambition and of the belief held regarding doctrine. We cannot lust, from vanity and weakness, from godlessness and

self-will? "He that loveth is born of God:' whatalways command belief, but we can subject our own

ever in theology obscures that divine declaration is an wills to a divinity within us, that controls our lives adumbration from our pagan sensuousness and selfishin a way that the result can be pronounced good. not be for me to judge him if he had passed through

It is not for me to judge your boy. It would We may not fully understand this, or be able to every ceremonial of every Christian communion, Proacknowledge it in any formulated set of words. We longest creed, and had professed what we call his

testant and Papal, had accepted every article in the miss much joy in an inability to express this inborn Christian experience to every church official and in faith, so we should seek to know and understand every church meeting: “Not every one that saith

unto me, Lord ! Lord ! but he that doeth the will of what God is, and to know His will concerning us my Father which is in heaven." Life is the only and knowing it, try to impart this knowledge to test. Fruit is the only evidence. The fruits of the

Spirit are not catechisms and creeds and professions others, especially to our children, that they too may and baptisms and prayings and meetings. They are walk in accordance with it.

love, joy, peace, long-suffering, gentleness, meekness,

temperance. There can be no fire without oxygen. But in judging others, let us judge them by the Our tests may not show it, but the blaze is demonstrafruit their lives yield, and rejoice that there is One tion. There can be no noble, true-hearted character infinitely wise, who will judge them righteously when and ceremonial may not show it, but nobility and

without the Spirit of God. Our clumsy tests of creed called before His tribunal. This being our faith, truth in the heart are its demonstration. we can rest content, trusting our loved ones to His

Thus we rejoice to see rational views gaining keeping.

ground, and though some may be disturbed who have But, though slow, the religious world is surely settled into a false rest, yet little by little a knowlgrowing broader in this regard. In a recent number edge and appreciation of a just and loving Father of the Christian Union there is placed before us the will obtain, and will bring peace and joy to many a picture of a bereaved mother, whose beloved son, sorrowing heart. with a character spotless in its purity, had lost his life in the laudable attempt to save that of a comrade. The grief of this mother is augmented by the come, and to let go as they depart, has mastered one

TAE man who has learned to take things as they uncertainty she feels as to bis salvation, for she says, of the arts of cheerful and contented living. The

no one ever tried to lead him to Jesus by personal fatality of chasing after happiness, and the fatuity help.” That is, by the outward expressions she of clinging to sorrow, are illustrated on every side. deemed essential for his acceptance with God, though from trying to fly kites after the string has brokev,

A good many of the disappointments in life come if bis character were spotless, there must have been or from looking for gold in the fabled pot at the base within him a high ideal of goodness implanted there of the rainbow. Vision that takes in the far-off and by divinity, and possibly aided by her example, and far-up is a compensation for many lacks; but the in striving to attain it, lo! his character became per- gift of seeing what is near, and utilizing that which fected. We quote a portion of the very forcible is within reach, is more valuable for every-day use. reply to this mother who so pathetically says:

A great many people are sighing for the measureless

opportunities of eternity who don't know the value "I want to know that God will not punish my noble, of an hour. The boon of a new chance in the other true-hearted child for his mother's unfaithfulness !'' world is craved most by those who have thrown What kind of a God do you worship? What sort of a God do you believe in? What notion of God do you away their chances here. The unreasonableness of entertain? Are you a pagan? Is your God a Siva? human expectations is only equaled by the neglect or an Alriman? Is he an infinite inquisitor? a di- of human opportunities. Lowell says of Chaucer vinely powerful Lord Jeffreys? You clearly do not that he was the first great poet who treated To-day believe that God is love; do you even believe that he is just? or that it is just to punish the innocent for the as if it were as good as Yesterday.” It is an even sins of the guilty ? You need to go back to first prin- more admirable thing to treat To-day as if it were ciples, to shut up your New Testament, and learn better than To.morrow.- Exchange.

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