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Admitting that in this difficult work of giving a sys- and their fine physical development prove to the tem of instruction that will do these people who most zealous advocate of public schools all I have differ so much among themselves in habits, customs claimed. Often have visitors complimented me on the and thought, the most good, that all has been done fine appearance of my pupils. When I left the public that can be done, is it not reasonable to suppose that schools to teach for Prof. Lamb, I was surprised at this system is not the one that will benefit our child- the marvelous beauty of his pupils. This physical ren most? Is it not impossible for the public schools development of our schools is conducive to mental to educate our children as we can—we who can adapt and moral growth. the instruction to the wants of our children and not

MORAL INFLUENCE. to the wants of all the classes previously named ? As a student I attended both public and private

We are all more or less influenced by our associaschools; as a teacher I have taught four years in the

tion. Gradually we acquire the habits and manners former and five in the latter. The experience

of those around us, and like them talk, think and act. quired enables me to see both sides of the subject. I

How often we can judge of a child's home by observshall consider it under three heads—the Physical,

ing it. Moral and Mental.

The grand and majestic oak towering heavenward PHYSICAL.

in the valley differs no more from the dwarfed, disWithout speaking of any special arrangement for

torted, and useless scrub growing on the barren hill, the development of the physique, such as calisthen

than the man whose mental, moral, and physical naics, gymnastics, ventilation, heating, school furniture,

ture has been developed differs from him who has etc., (and yet there would be little difficulty in show

suffered the corresponding loss. ing the superiority of private schools in this respect,

As a sponge cast into the gutter absorbs the filth besides being cleaner, neater and more cheerful), I

and dirt, so a child cast among vile and corrupt comam willing to grant that public schools may use the

panions acquires vicious habits. same system and be governed by the same principles.

The theory of exposing children to temptation to But I would call attention to certain indisputable gain strength is most dangerous. Adults do not seek facts which will show from the very nature of exist

the companionship of the wicked to become morally ing causes, that it is impossible for children attend

strong. Our blessed Master taught us to pray, “Lead ing public schools to enjoy the same degree of health

us not into temptation,” and a wise man said, “ Train that private school children do.

up a child in the path he should go, and when he is Let us examine the two schools. In one we find

old he will not depart from it." children closely crowded together, so much so that

The wise in all times have understood this, and no known method of ventilation will keep the atmos

have sought for their children companions and inphere wholesome. The children have come from all

structors among the good and wise. parts of the city or country, including the alleys,

It is unnecessary to comment on the association slums and tenement houses-places most frequently

children will have in the two schools. One of the visited by the most dreaded diseases, scarcely ever

principal objects of public instruction is to hunt out free from contagion. Many of these children, owing

and improve the low and vicious, and to change this to the ignorance or indolence of their parents, attend

dangerous element into a law-abiding one. Unless it school with person and clothing unclean.

reaches this class it fails to accomplish its most imporNo sanitary precaution or regulation can remove

tant object. The good children attending these

schools must come in contact with this objectionable these dangers so long as children come from these

class. districts, and that they will always come is as certain as that our public schools will exist, for the public

A prominent physician of Washington says vice school is intended to reach and improve this class

of a nature to sap the mental and physical strength of and is a failure unless it does.

boys prevails to an alarming extent in some of the The room is both study hall and recitation room,

public schools; he withdrew his son from them.

Much more might be said, but enough has been and in consequence of this, and its crowded condition, an opportunity is not given pupils of changing posi

said to show the superiority of the moral training of

our schools. tions and of stretching out their tired and restless bodies. I must here emphasize the necessity of fre

Friends' principles have been the admiration of

the world on account of their purity and simplicity. quent change of position. In the other schools,, e. g., Friends' schools,-child

People recognize it, and many times send their chil

dren to Friends' schools in preference to others. In ren are much less crowded. They come from families who attend more carefully to sanitary arrangements,

consequence of this superior moral and physical trainand who, from the location of their homes and man

ing of the private schools, of which none are more

careful than Friends' schools, the intellectual developner of living, avoid many diseases. They are neat and clean in their habits. Here a system of class

ment is greater. room instruction prevails which constantly draws

INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT. children from the study-hall, giving more breathing But aside from these advantages there are others. space for those who remain, and removes the danger The principals and teachers of private schools exof confining children too long in one position.

ercise more liberty in the selection of text-books and It needs only a visit to these schools to show that in the use of methods; they work not under the dithe cheerful and happy appearance of our children rection of some one who occasionally visits the school,

find it difficult to awaken much interest in subjects | THE renewed interest apparent in many places in

but, directed by experience, and exercising their own who are engaged in them,--for be it distinctly underjudgment, provide for the necessities of the pupils of stood, I would under no circumstances take from the that school.

poor this opportunity given them by the munificence Their work is an evidence of their ability. They of our government. I would have thein enjoy to its are responsible to every parent. The dull pupil must fullest the blessings of enlightenment, and would aid receive the same attention as the bright one. They them to resist any movement to deprive them of it, must exercise their intelligence in making use of but in all sincerity I have desired to show why it is agencies which will improve each child.

better that people who have the best interests of their As the wise farmer regulates his sowing, cultiva- children at heart, and who desire to do the best for tion and reaping by the seasons, conditions of the them, should send them where they will secure the soil, and markets, so the wise teacher in cultivating highest mental, moral and physical development and the intellect, governs his work by existing circum- the best preparation for time and eternity. stances.

Even those who have entered the profession for the monetary consideration will see the necessity of

INTELLIGENCER AND JOURNAL. doing their best in order to receive the highest compensation.

HOWARD M. JENKINS, Managing Editor. The plan in many schools of employing special

ASSOCIATE EDITORS: teachers for special work enables them to give better

HELEN G. LONGSTRETH. instruction. A teacher who has made especial prepara


SUSAN ROBERTS. tion to teach a few branches, for which he has a


LYDIA H. HALL, peculiar fondness and talent, will be able to teach them more successfully than one whose study has been given to many branches; the former finds little

PHILADELPHIA, NINTH MONTH 26, 1885. difficulty in awakening an interest; he has a storehouse to draw from, and imparts his zeal to others;

THE WORK OF REBUILDING. the latter, depending much upon his text-book, will

THE for which he has no fondness.

regard to the growth and continuance of our reAnother advantage our private schools have is

ligious society, should arouse us to earnest thought that of providing a teacher for every twenty or twen

and watchful care as to the best methods of rebuildty-five pupils, whereas the public schools allow one teacher for forty or sixty pupils.

ing. The atmosphere of private schools is more con

That we have passed through a period of inactivity, ducive to study. The students come from homes trusting for our perpetuity to the great value of the where important subjects are discussed, and in con- truths we profess as represented in what we are sequence, their conversation is instructive, English pleased to call our principles and testimonies, is begood, and manners more worthy of imitation.

yond doubt, and now that the awakening has come Private schools in following more closely nature's method of teaching, introduce many objects and em

and we see the poverty that exists in too many places ploy apparatus to illustrate many things which would as to spiritual vitality, it is our duty to ponder well as be imperfectly understood without. The instruction to the outward means and methods to be used in seekis not simply for the ear but for all the senses. They ing for a renewal of spiritual power. We well know can adapt the course of study to each individual

from wbence the “increase," if any, is to come, but pupil, taking into consideration his age, health and

we do know that there is “planting" and "watering" ability. The parent is consulted and a course pursued which in the judgment of those most deeply

too, ere it will come. Let us seek to know the best concerned will best ineet the case of each child. If

way to do this. the child is to be prepared for college or the uni- It is useless to dwell on the causes of our present versity, or for a profession, from two to three years condition of weakness longer than to satisfy ourselves time can be saved in the preparation. There is no

of a need and a desire to renew our strength. We necessity of overworking some or of retarding the

want to go to the root of the matter by each member progress of others. In the public schools this is unavoidable where

amongst us putting the queries to himself, Do I want all are required to do the same work. It also follows

our religious body to live? Is it still capable of nourthat some must have too little and others too much ishing my spiritual nature? and, What can I do to to do, and that there must be a sacrifice of health or promote its growth? the work done superficially.

If in any locality there are the "two" I have now tried to give some reasons why per

“three” who feel it a duty to gather for the worship sons.of ineans should place their children in private

of the Father, and for moral and religious improveschools. In doing this it has been my desire not to

ment, there is a nucleus whereon to work, and if only stand as one opposed to the public schools; not to claim, as some, that it would be better if they did the right work is done, this duty will soon become not exist; not to find fault with or to criticise those a blessed privilege that few will willingly surrender.

or the

The need of our continuance is as a religious body, and all of our movements should be based upon this fact. First a recognition of our allegiance to God as given forth so earnestly in the reply of Jesus to the lawyer in Matthew, 22;37,38 verses. Then in the next commandment which quickly follows we can embrace the whole range of work needful to be done for the improvement of others.

in bringing in close connection the First-Day schools and reading classes with our meetings for worship, let this devotional feeling ever be kept prominent, for it is this element we must foster if we expect solid growth. It is by the performance by each one of us, at our home meetings, of our religious duties that the rebuilding will be of value. We are apt to over-estimate the work and influence of others, especially those called to the ministry. These have a place, and an important place, but it is only one place. Often we see in meetings where gifted speakers dwell there is not fulness of life. And why? Because there is too much dependence upon the spoken word, and not enough on each one doing his part for the general good. Let love for one another's best welfare, and a desire to do the right, (finding some service wherein all can work) actuate us, and the rebuilding will be effectual.

If we could, like Joshua of old, exclaim with an earnestness born of conviction, “as for me and my house we will serve the Lord” and not give so much of our time and thought to minor matters, however good in their place, we should advance in a knowledge of the things of the spirit and be able to do our part in the advance of the world towards the truth.

In meeting affairs we are to strive to be “empty vessels” waiting to be filled with the Divine influence; but when our measure, be it great or small, is filled up and we long to work under this leadership are we to understand that the impulse to offer intellectual and moral help to those whose spiritual natures are dormant is out of harmony with the Divine plan?

We must acknowledge that whatever works in the direction of goodness is good, even though it be not the highest good. There are but few who attain to the perfect and uninterrupted communion with the source of spiritual life, but many have sights or glimpses which comfort and encourage them. When Jesus went up to the Mount of transfiguration he took but two with him, and they were the most advanced spiritually, and even these tarried but a little while. Though the spirit is the highest, the most divine part of man, yet his moral and intellectual and even his physical nature are altogether indispensable in the working out of the problem of a revival of Quakerism. We find a large body of people amongst us who have not become interested in the society to which they belong by birthright, and the question is how to awaken an interest in these. Certainly not by offering them that which finds no response in their hearts.


IT is to be hoped that Friends will not feel them

WHILE we are considering what are the best means of promoting the welfare and continuance of the religious society of Friends we find presented two lines of thought from two distinct lines of thinkers; and, interwoven between them, the various gradations and mixtures of both. Of one extreme we would say a word.

Starting out with the wish to propose the right and best course to revivify the lukewarm members amongst us, the accepted principle that “God is the teacher of his people himself” is brought forward as the unanswerable argument against attempting anything beyond inward and individual work. We all agree to the proposition that each one is to be taught of the Lord; but after we have received our lesson, what then? We are told to practice introversion of spirit, to withdraw our thoughts from worldly things, which we grant to be most helpful to the spiritual nature, but we ask how long can the average man or woman sustain a complete withdrawal and introversion, and after we come down from the heights, what then ?

selves ready to abandon the colored people of the Southern States. The work of education there is itself enormous, and must be aided in every possible way by all who can give aid, if it is to be successful. But there accompanies it other work of equal or greater importance—that training and development of character without which education is an injury rather than a help. This is especially needed among the colored people. Their own leaders see the need, and are anxious to have it supplied. They see that a great mass of people, so recently freed from bondage, must be helped to go forward in the paths of industry, sobriety, and virtue, or the blessing of freedom will be only in part realized.

Within the past fortnight, two appeals have come from the South, in behalf of work already well begun, but now urgently needing assistance. The destruction of the school-house at Mt. Pleasant, S. C., and the weight of the burden upon our friend Martha Schofield, at Aiken, join in time and circumstance to press the whole subject upon Friends' attention. Both of the schools, we believe, well deserve the help ofthose who wish to see the southern colored people aided in the maintenance of intelligent and virtuous conditions, and it is to be hoped that the reproach will not rest upon us of neglecting to respond to their call.

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which so many of the freed people, especially the THE reopening at Swarthmore, on the 10th inst.,

Several considerations unite in bringing the whole PHILLIPS.-At Newmarket, on the 22d of Sixth month, subject very forcibly to the regard of our religious of paralysis, John. D. Phillips; elder of Yonge Street

Monthly Meeting of Friends, Canada. body. No other was more earnest or more persistent

SHOEMAKER.-On the morning of Ninth month 17th, in asking for the emancipation of the colored people,

1885, Rachel Mather, widow of Charles Shoemaker, in her and it would be a surprising inconsistency for us to rist year; a member of the Monthly Meeting of Friends cease our interest in their welfare when their liberty of Philadelphia. has been accomplished. It is, too, a work particularly

TYSON.-Ninth month 16th, at his late residence, Absuited to the temper and character of Friends, who

ington, David Tyson. have always been strong in the patient training to in

SWARTHMORE COLLEGE. dustry and morality. It is the good habit of life


was very satisfactory to those connected with younger amongst them, need, and such work as is

the institution. The number of students in the Coldone at the Mount Pleasant and Aiken schools, eleva

lege classes shows an increase over last year, and ting the character, developing the better elements, while the total number is somewhat less, this is exrepressing vice and sloth, encouraging industry, show-plained substantially by the omission of the lowest ing the way as well as the beauty of a clean life, is a

class—C—in the preparatory department, and the work that appeals most powerfully to the sympathies

advancement of the admission age to fourteen years. of those of us who believe that true religion must

The number reported at the opening was 240 (this

will show some increase as later arrivals are added), show itself in good works, and a well-ordered course.

and it is quite curious to note that not only is the Whether there should not be a more general, sys- number equally divided between the College proper tematic, and persistent labor by Friends for the col- and the preparatory school, but just one-half the ored people we submit as a query to be now consid

whole are children of Friends. The Freshman Class ered. The question was suggested in Philadelphia

shows about 40 members. The Senior Class, to gradYearly Meeting, the present year. Our field of phil

uate in Sixth month, 1886, has eight, wbich will be

double the size of the last giaduating class. anthropic work is now limited, since the labors for

Numerous important improvements have been the Indians have been curtailed under the later pol- made in the system and course of study. The corps icy of the Government; and it will do our Society of instructors has been strengthened, and a new degood to keep its benevolences at the fullest practica- partment established, that of Biology, being an exble outflow. Such giving is twice blest: it is the giver

tension of the course formerly given in Natural Hiswho profits, as well as he who receives,

tory. A Biological Laboratory has been opened un

der the direction of an experienced instructor just It should be explicitly understood that the editors do

from Zorn's Biological Laboratory of Naples, to be

furnished with dissecting tables, microscopes, etc., innot accept any responsibility for the views of corre

cluding all of the best modern appliances for carrying spondents and contributors who sign their articles.

on successfully this important study. It is made an The signature—whether by a full name, initials, or elective branch for all the students in the College, other charactersmust be the voucher for an inde- and is sure to become a popular one, being of especial pendent expression. We do not intend publishing

service to all young men and young women who inanything which, in our judgment, would be harmful

tend, after graduation, to pursue the study of medi

cine. In connection with this work the complete to the interests of our religious body, but, while avoid

courses in the Chemical Laboratory, already estabing this, we wish to give a fair representation of the

lished and fully equipped with apparatus, will be thought of its membership.

found invaluable. The College has also during the

past year greatly added to its efficiency in the DeDEATHS.

partment of Mechanics and Engineering by the ad

dition of several instructors, and our young men need BIDDLE.--At the residence of her son, Joseph W. Biddle, near Mansfield, N. J., Ninth month 12th, 1885, Sarah T.

no longer go to Troy or Hoboken for a thorough Biddle, in her 83d year.

course in this Department. The excellent facilities

now offered to students of Swarthmore in all of the CRONK.-On Eighth month 16th, in Pictou, Prince Edward county, Ontario, Mary, wife of Jacob S. Cronk; a life

branches of a scientific course, and the success in long member of West Lake Monthly Meeting of Friends.

practical work of a number of her graduates, should

encourage the friends of the College, and bring to it ERVIEN.--Near Shoemakertown, Pa., Ninth month

students from far and near to prepare for the increase 17th, 1885, Mary L., wife of J. Howard Ervien and daughter of the late Watson and Mary G. Comly, in her 34th year.

ing number of positions of trust and responsibility

opening.to our young men in the development of the PALMER.--On the 5th instant, of typhoid fever, Katie

almost boundless resources of our growing West, May, daughter of T. Ellwood and Hannah L. Palmer, of

Nor are the students of Science alone well provided New London, Chester county, in the 15th year of her age.

for; but the Classical Department has been strengthPARRY.—Ninth month 21st, Lydia Parry, of Horsham ened by the appointment to the Professorship of LatMonthly Meeting, in her 71st year,

in of a valedictorian of Amherst of five years stand

or who

ing, who brings to the College the fruits of two years' Court, and report whether this provision of the law travel and study abroad, and three years' experience has been complied with. as an instructor in a sister institution; and who is Third. That the present form of the blank to be ably assisted by a former graduate of Swarthmore, used by Committees having the oversight of marwho brings to his Alma Mater as a contribution the riages be modified so as to include a report upon the results of more than ten years of successful experi- | subject of the last recommendation. ence as an instructor elsewhere. Among the various recent improvements we must

The personal license granted to the couples who are not omit to mention the establishment of a course of

married according to Friends' ceremony, Practical Physiology and Hygiene, to be given in lec

marry themselves by declaration in the presence of tures during the winter to the young men and wo

witnesses, is as follows: men in separate classes; and which will be a valuable



and adjunct to the "Sargent" system of gymnastics, which was established last year. We may also men

Legal evidence having been furnished me in accordance

with the act of Assembly approved the 23d day of June, tion courses of Home Lectures, upon various subjects,

1885, this certifies that I am satisfied that there is no legal to be delivered during the year by the different mem

impediment to your joining yourselves together in marbers of the Faculty; and others by speakers of dis

riage. tinction from abroad.

This is then signed by the Clerk of the Orphans'


Having made themselves husband and wife, the

pair first sign copies of a formal certificate, and keep MINUTE OF THE REPRESENTATIVE COMMITTEE.

one themselves, and file the other or duplicate in the

office of the Clerk of the Orphans' Court within thirty a law on the subject of marriage, to take ef

days. This form of certificate reads as follows: fect the 1st of Tenth month 1885, monthly meetings

NOM are desired to give attention to the necessity of pro- We hereby certify that on the

-one thou. curing the proper certificate from the Clerk of the Or- sand eight hundred and eighty we united ourselves phans' Court of the county where the marriage is to

in marriage at
in the county of

having first be performed, and to see that the certificate is re

obtained from the Clerk of the Orphans' Court of said turned as directed by law."

county a declaration that he was satisfied that there was no Extracted from the minutes of the Representative

existing legal impediment to our so doing. Committee, or Meeting for Sufferings, of the Yearly

[Witnesses] Meeting of Friends, held in Philadelphia.

We the undersigned were present at the solemnization CLEMENT BIDDLE, Clerk.

of the marriage of and as set forth in the foregoNinth month 18th, 1885.

ing certificate.

“THE Legislature of Pennsylvania having passed

day of

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This was held at Moorestown, N. J., occurring on the The Committee to whom was referred the matter 17th of Ninth month, 1885. of the recent legislation of the State of Pennsylvania The day was of exceptional beauty and pleasantupon the subject of marriage, report:

ness, and an unusually large body of Friends gathThat in accordance with the provisions of an Act ered on this occasion. A goodly number of acknowlof Assembly lately passed it is the duty of persons edged ministers were in attendance and participated contemplating marriage after the first of Tenth month in the exercises. next to obtain from the Clerk of the Orphans' Court Thomas Foulke, of N. Y., early in the meeting, for the county in which the marriage is to be per- spoke earnestly and forcibly of the faith which he formed, a certificate that there is no legal impediment had ever held in the value of the human soul, the suthereto, and after the solemnization thereof to file preme work of the great Creator. It comes into exwith him a certificate of such marriage signed by the istence, not bearing a tainted nature, but enters life parties and attested by two witnesses.

innocent of sin, yet with tendencies to sin which may, The Clerk of the Orphans' Court for the County of if not controlled and guided by Divine grace, lead it. Philadelphia is prepared to issue the certificate re- from its original innocence into positive sin, which quired from him upon proper application therefor by kills the spiritual life. The speaker bore witness to either of the parties interested. The Committee rec- the eternal and blessed truth, that the spirit of God ommend :

is the inheritance of all his children, and this high First. That it shall be the duty of the Commit- gift is adequate for the salvation of every human tee appointed to inquire into the clearness of the par- soul. ties to proceed in marriage to ascertain and report Mary S. Lippincott expressed the conviction that whether the certificate required as a pre-requisite to-day, as in the days of old, it might be seasonable to thereto has been obtained.

call a solemn fast, when the elders should mourn beSecond. It shall be the duty of the Committee to tween the porch and the altar and the ministers have the oversight of the marriage, to see that a cer- should say, "Spare thy people, O Lord, and give not. tificate thereof is filed with the Clerk of the proper | thy heritage to reproach." This solemn feeling of

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