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that the men's meeting underwent very similar changes. Some of you who only see our rugged country occasionally, and wonder how we make a living here, are not surprised that so many should want to move away, to find plainer pathways and an easier existance. It was customary at that time for those who had a prospect of moving away, to get the advice of their friends by laying the matter before the meeting; so that changes were seldom undertaken rashly, or without due consideration. Occasionally, however, one went away in her own will and wisdom, as was the case with Sophia Haight, who went to Newport, R. I. ; and when she wrote home asking for a removal certificate, the meeting would not grant her request, but instead, wrote her to come home as Soon as she conveniently could. The record is silent as to when she returned, but she evidently did take the advice of the meeting and came home, for a little farther on the record shows that she and One Israel Underhill propose marriage with each other, and that the marriage was satisfactorily accomplished at Chappaqua, according to the order of Our Society. Here are two familiar family names, I wonder if any of those now present, recognize them as the names of their ancestors ? There is a great charm in reading on these pages, yellow with age, the names and works of our grandmothers, our great-grandmothers, and even our greatgreat-grandmothers, if we happen to be so fortunate as to recognize their names when we see them. For instance, I find on the first page that my great-greatgrandmother asks for a removal certificate, recommending her to Saratoga Monthly Meeting. We are not to suppose that it was any prospect of gayety or society-life there which attracted her and her family So far away, one hundred years ago. We find that during these twelve years there were accomplished fifty-four marriages according to the discipline, beside a large number accomplished by the assistance of a magistrate, or a priest. At the time of which we are speaking, it will be borne in mind that the term priest signified a minister of any other denomination. Of course each one who married not in accordance with the discipline, or who married one not a member of the meeting, was an offender, and her case received the particular attention of the meeting: a committee was appointed to visit her, and un

less she gave satisfaction in the most humble and pen

itent spirit, she was disowned. During the twelve years under review, there are recorded forty-eight cases which came up for disownment. Most of these cases were for marrying not according to discipline; one for speaking an untruth, and a few for more reprehensible departures. It is continually evident that Friends in those days were very strict in their adherence to the discipline in every particular. To illustrate how slight a variation from the old established custom would be noticed and reported to the meeting, I will quote the report of the committee appointed to attend the marriage of John Fowler and Mary Quinby, which occurred in Tenth month 1786. The committee report

“that they attended the marriage and that it was l

Orderly accomplished, except that the young woman who sat with them stood up at the time of the ceremony, which was not agreeable.” We observe then, by this, that it was not customary among Friends at this time for the “waiters” to stand up with the couple during the ceremony. We find that in these olden days the meeting appointed a standing committee, whose duty it was to sit near the door, to keep the young women from going out to talk during business meeting. I doubt not there was also a similar committee in the men's meeting to guard the young men. One hundred years ago our women's meeting had three acknowledged ministers. Their names were— Elizabeth Halstead, Sarah Walters, and Phebe Wright. And at that time when traveling was so difficult—so different from what it is now, we find that this meeting was visited by ministering Friends from a distance as follows: Mary Mitchell, of Newport, R. I., Mary Leggett of Saratoga, Mary Swayne and Hannah Jackson of New Garden, Pa.; and of men Friends are mentioned, Hugh Judge of Wilmington, Del., and Daniel Offley of Philadelphia. The time of which we are speaking was just after the Revolutionary War, when the people were all in more or less straitened circumstances; situated as they were here, just between the lines, and plundered alike by the British forces on the south, and the Americans on the north ; but yet we find from the Treasurer's report, that the committee having charge of the poor would spend five or six pounds several times a year in their relief; and I doubt not that the men's meeting spent much more. On Twelfth month 12th, 1793, they report paying £10 7s. to the men's committee, to be forwarded to the yellow fever sufferers of Philadelphia. This is unmistakable evidence of large-heartedness, and truly Christian generosity. By the answers to the queries, we find that no member of this meeting held slaves; and that fact brings up feelings and reflections which are very grat1Iy Ing. In review it would seem that the Friends of one hundred years ago, labored to do their duty earnestly and unswervingly. Perhaps now and then their course seems severe to us of a milder age, but each generation must be the judge of its own time. J. C. PIERCE.

Chappaqua, Eighth month 8th, 1885.

CHAPPA QUA. Eighth month 8th, 1885.

WEET morning fair, and sweet the air, Nature's repose profound, As ‘mid the hills of Chappaqua a kindred band is found— A multitude is gathered from homes afar and near, From train and winding roadway, the embassies appear. A hospitable welcome under embowering trees, (This pleasant “nook of greenery" is sentineled by these), Dispensed in royal fashion, and the social hour is sped— The ample baskets emptied, and the multitude is fed. The pauses in the busy hum, tho’ no signal bell intrudes, Lengthen and deepen gently to thoughtful interludes, Insensibly, with graver mien, the hum of voices ends,

And the old historic meeting-house invites the “friendly.” Friends. Fathers and Elders of the church, mothers upon whose face, The “dove sits brooding visibly,” touching to Saintly grace— The strong in years, fair youth and maid, and happy childhood there, With one according spirit feel the sacred hour of prayer. Thro' open sash and doorway and filling all the space, Flows the cool breath of the mountain, into the peaceful place. Fresh and restful all the influence, e'en the hard, graceless slab Invites to quiet comfort in the newly cushioned drab. Neat and sweet the plain interior, tho' it needs must be confessed, The “Modern Painters ” have been honored, as the panels all attest. We gather with the reverent throng in silence met, to raise Unto the heavenly Father a centennial hymn of praise. The words are read, an offering said, the record of the past Unrolled, and lo, a hundred years, behind us lie at last! Quaint and olden are the pages but fresh with sweet amends— The fragrance of the righteous lives of these ancestral Friends : As beautiful upon these hills the coming of their feet, As in spirit thro’ the letter to-day with us they meet. Bend low the sweet, glad heavens, while at the ancient door, These friendly forms we welcome in, where once they stood before. Not shadows dim of perfect saints, but people such as we, With errors, sorrows, joys and tears of frail humanity, Yet strong and bold of spirit for their “testimonies’” sake, And for the everlasting truth self-sacrifice to make. Faithful to fresh revealings, unto themselves a law, They broke the yoke, seeing the wrong the righteous Woolman Saw, (Such ensign, not a christian church had dreamed of, ere before), And blotting out the evil things, their stainless raiment WOre. Be glad ye Sons and daughters that such have lived and died. Ever a worthy ancestry must be a people's pride, Hold fast the rich inheritance, the lesson of their lives, In characters illumined, for you, for all survives.

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The “light'’ that up the steep ascents shone for our “early
On paths made Smoother by their feet, for us safe guidance
The trial scenes, the test they bore, we know not of to-day,
Since prison-bar and dungeon-bolt are haply rent away.
But in these times called common-place, and in each daily
We too may make heroic the struggle and the strife.
O not upon their fair renown seek we a drugged repose,
“Speak to my people '' everywhere, forth still the message
g0eS, -
“That they move forward, journeying, obedient alway
To the heart-voice—our lives not theirs, we live to-day.
Low rest the heroes of the past—we may not think their
Yet in the spirit of their work may be our action brought,
In loyalty to truth and right “as 'tis given us to see "—

In patient bearing of our cross whatever that may be.
The artist's paint upon the plaque, baptism of the fire
Must suffer, ere the golden band of beauty can transpire.
O, thus by life's stern discipline must be the aureole won,
With saintly “charity for all—with malice unto none.”
True to their lesson we may leave a worthy page behind,
Extending still their service in our service to mankind.
Many homesteads fair of Chappaqua nestled in waving
Crouched on the breezy hillsides or set in vales between,
Where pleasant, peaceful orchard trees these rural king-
doms crown,
Dropping alike their curtain-shade and mellow bounty
In homes of simple beauty, where door-yard plots find room,
Trained by sweet household daughters to fragrance and to
Within such pleasant borders, our grateful memory rests
With friends, who kindest welcome gave unto the stranger
guests. -
As ocean-ward we wend our way, the pleasing trust attends,
That we may ever worthy be to claim them still our friends.
While we bless the sweet occasion, we recall the thought of
Whose spirit mingled with us in that grand centennial
Who crowned with benediction in which soverign wisdom
With words of tender caution, this peace congress of the
Whom we saw in loving vision as the message sweet was read,
With the white resplendent pinions above that reverend
And we lift our hearts in gratitude unto the Father's throne,
And register, with these dear friends, a white, memorial

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HY do Friends bear a testimony for silent worship, when assembling themselves together, and reject all pre-arranged service 2 Because the light of the Sun of Righteousness that only sheds its effulgence upon the heart of man, has evidenced unto him that in the silence of the “hour'' is the most favorable opportunity afforded for direct communication with God, the substance of all true worship. A failure to recognize this spirit of Christ through patient waiting, for ability to perform true spiritual worship, will have a powerful tendency to carry the society rearward to the rudiments of the world, to a condition of “lukewarmness and cold formality,” out from whence our forefathers were mercifully redeemed. In all ages, a covenant with God, agreeable to the precepts of the prophets, has been that silent waiting upon the Lord was the only essential for the renewal of spiritual strength. The intercession and practice of vocal exercise in meetings for worship tends to dispel the power in silent worship, with the view that meeting together to “watch one hour” in the silence and presence of the Divine Father, cannot be in spirit and in truth unless some vocal exercise be heard. To adopt such measures as a part of worship, would it not seem to be a lapsing into, or nearing a state of relinquishment of that Very important and vital testimony, “the immediate teaching of the Holy Spirit 7” May we not fear that such introductions will ultimately lead to a less dependence upon the fresh openings of the spirit of Christ in the heart, and ere we are aware, the foundation of our Christian compact be shattered, and mark us a degenerate vine 2 None can worship the Father acceptably, except they enter into the closet of the heart, and close the door, and there “be still and know that I am God.” “I waited patiently for the Lord and HE inclined unto me and heard my cry.” No, nothing short of these undisturbed silent meetings will ease the seeking mind, or satisfy the cravings of an immortal spirit truly athirst for the living spring which the Saviour told the woman of Samaria should “be in her a well of water springing up into eternal life.” And there is but one way by which this spring may be reached and that is through Self-examination and obedience to the cross of Christ. But let all who drink of the waters of life fill their measure with that love that knows no limit, and by precept and example extend unto the honest and sincere laborers love and charity.

CHAs. A. LUKENs. Boopeston, Ill., Eighth month 22d.

For Friends’ Intelligencer and Journal.


HE article entitled “A Symbol from Ezekiel,” in the INTELLIGENCER AND Journ AL of Eighth month 22d, has arrested my attention. For as one to whom the command—“Do the duty that lies nearest thee '’ comes with literal and almost constant significance, I watch, from amid the surroundings of home, the progress of the cause of truth, as reports of different laborers in that cause reach me through the medium of the printing press; and in no one of these, perhaps, have I been more interested than in the new life that has been manifested in our religious society during the past few years. In the contemplation of these things I too have been frequently strengthened and encouraged by the prophesy contained in the 37th chapter of Ezekiel ; and learning that another mind has been similarly impressed, I feel constrained to record a few of my own thoughts upon the same subject. That we may be favored to move fast enough, and not too fast, in these, our well-meant efforts, relying implicitly upon our unerring Guide, is my earnest and constant prayer; hence the communications of both radical and conservative Friends upon this subject are of equal interest to me, believing, as I do, that the same sincere and earnest desire for the promotion of practical Christianity, actuates both elements alike. Among the latter class are mostly to be found our more elderly Friends, calling us home to the one eternal source of light and life, and bidding us beware lest our zeal outrun our understanding. On the other hand are our middle-aged and younger members, who, believing that “new occasions teach new duties" are earnest in the advancement of Christ's kingdom, not only within the pale

of our own Society, but in all philanthropic labors throughout the world. That amid so much diversity of sentiment our late Yearly Meeting should have been a season of so great harmony, is conclusive evidence that all are acting under the influence of the same divine spirit; and that this shaking among the dry bones of our valley has been produced by the hearing of the word , ef the Lord. “All are but parts of one stupendous whole,” and as each part performs willingly and faithfully its of fice, “with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right,” these bones shall yet live, and stand upon their feet, an exceeding great army, in the defence of those heaven-born principles which the Society of Friends has ever striven to maintain. L. W. H. Norristown, Pa., Eighth month 25th.

For Friends' Intelligencer and Journal. SILENT SPIRITUAL WORSHIP.

HAVE been impressed with an article in this paper of Eighth month 15th, over the signature of “H. A. P.” in reference to “Exercises in our Religious Meetings,” and of “adhering to the customs of the past.” The views therein presented are in consonance with some other articles of latter times in favor of having some exercises in our religious meetings, where there is no vocal ministry. I have regretted to see these, feeling it is striking at the ground of our testimony to a silent Spiritual worship, which has been one of the most vital principles ever held by the Society of Friends. We assem

ble in our meetings in public acknowledgment of

the goodness of God, and for the professed purpose of offering worship to Him, and in order to perform the latter there must be a preparation of heart, and this is only to be known as the thoughts are turned inward and centered upon Him, waiting in silence for the manifestation of His Holy Spirit, which, as it arises in the soul refreshes and strengthens it, and enables it to offer acceptable worship. Under this feeling there is the acknowledgement that it is good to meet together, although no vocal word has been offered, for the “minister of ministers has been in the midst.”

I have feared of latter times that this is being too much lost sight of, even by our own members, many who have not yet come to fully understand what silent worship is. When assembled there is too much looking for words, or something whereby to be interested or entertained, without themselves, and when ministers are present there is an expectancy to hear what may be said which takes away from the soul being centered upon God. Hence they fail to find that which gives life and strength, and they go away from the place of worship feeling no good has been attained, and become discouraged, and often lose their interest thereI Il.

However good a true gospel ministry may be, and helpful for the time and occasion in which it is delivered, the same sermon, read in another meeting, may have no place and may have lost its unction, and thus

be only as any other “interesting” document, which might be read, and be of no vital value in a Friends' meeting. I therefore cannot unite with these being read therein, but believe they may be interesting and profitable in the home circle, or when gathered for social or instructive opportunities. In conclusion I revive the declaration of Holy Writ which has ever been a prominent one held by the Society of Friends in their meetings: “They that wait upon the Lord, shall renew their strength.” H. M. L.


[In answer to a request for a concise statement of the ground of scripture study in the First-day schools of Friends, the following has been prepared by a teacher of experience, whose activity and earnestness in the work give his view weight.—EDs.] THE reasons for teaching the scriptural basis of the principles and testimonies of Friends have so strongly impressed themselves upon some of our members that we deem it proper to present some of them for the consideration of Friends in general. There is a large class of young people among us, both members and professors, who attend more or less frequently the services of the various churches in the vicinity of their homes, and there hear eloquently and earnestly advocated the doctrines of such denominations. The prominent tenets of the evangelical churches, so-called.—Original Sin, The Trinity, The Vicarious Atonement, The Vengeance of an Offended God, and various other themes are graphically portrayed, and the “utterly lost " condition of those who do not accept these views is feelingly declared, and texts of Scripture are quoted in confirmation thereof. Strong impressions are thus made upon these young minds, and they are led to believe that such are the teachings of the meek and lowly Jesus. Before the First-day schools were established, our young members—especially in the towns and cities— were carried off in large numbers and made to swell the membership of the churches, because they had not been impressed with the truth that Friends are, in fact, the real followers of the great Pattern; that their views are in accord with those taught by Him, and that the best exposition of Friends' principles is that set forth in the words and deeds of Jesus Christ himself. While Friends are willing that their principles may receive the closest Scrutiny, in comparison with those of our blessed Example, our young people are made to believe that they are in exact opposition thereto. In the language of Robert Barclay, “Because we tell people that it is the light and law within, and not the letter without, that can truly tell them of their condition, and lead them out of all evil; hence they say, we vilify the Scriptures, and set up our own imagination as above them. Because we tell them, that it is not their talking or believing of Christ's outward life, sufferings, death, and resurrection, no more than the Jews crying ‘the temple of the Lord, the temple of the Lord,’ that will serve their turn, or justify them in the sight of God; but that they must know Christin

them, whom they have crucified, to be raised, and to justify them, and redeem them from their iniquities; hence, they say, we deny the life, death, and sufferings of Christ, justification by his blood, and remission of sins through him.” Of our members who have never been under the church influence, many are unable to give a “reason for the faith that is in them,” and when they are asked by members of their own denominations what the belief of Friends is, or why they hold certain views, they are unable to give an intelligible answer. While this state of things exists in a large part of Our body it cannot be expected that inquiring minds will be satisfied with it, or that others not of our fold will be attracted to us. We hold certain fundamental principles without which a person cannot truly claim to be a Friend; prečminently the guidance of the light and the Superiority of the spirit over the letter, therefore why not strengthen our position among our children and others, by showing clearly that Jesus and the early Friends taught exactly the same views that we now hold. While Friends were zealous and active in spreading their views, both from the gallery and in printed books, they grew in strength and influence, and it is only since they have ceased to call the attention of people to the great fact that Jesus Christ is the acknowledged head of our meeting, that we hear of a decline. Friends are as nearly united in doctrinal views now as they were in the days of Penn and Barclay, and our belief is so clearly defined that it is high time for us to awake and hold our light before the world.

RELIGION is living all the truth we possess-Bristol.

USE the temporal, desire the eternal.—Thomas à Rempis.

A MoRE glorious victory cannot be gained over another man than this, that, when the injury began on his part, the kindness should begin on ours.--Tillotson.

IN the nature of things a permanent newspaper cannot be made. It must grow from Small beginnings. It must have its tap-root planted in some real need, and draw its inspiration from some great convictions.

“THERE is many a joy in the path of life If we would but stop to find it.”

“The soul that walks with God upon the heights

Hath secrets voiceless to the alien ear;

To him who is of God, the things of God are clear. —Mary W. Plummer,

TEACH me to live! no idler let me be,
But in thy service hand and heart employ:
Prepared to do thy bidding cheerfully,
Be this my highest and my holiest joy.


HowARD M. J.ENKINs, Managing Editor.



TRAINING FOR SERVICE. N all of the vast industries in which mankind are engaged the world over, those who perform the work therein are trained in some practical way for the service. The professional man, the merchant, the farmer the trader, each at the head of his own business, desiring it to be successful and continuous, sees to it that there are those employed, and being well trained in the necessary labor of conducting this business to be ready to succeed him, and those near to him, when the inevitable changes of life come. Every wise mother of a household judiciously trains the daughter step by step in all the mysteries of housekeeping till she is able to take that mother's place and relieve her of care, or goes forth well equipped to take charge of a home of her own. Even the Indian woman, knowing her child is doomed to a life of toil, begins little by little to place burdens upon it, till it at length becomes able to bear the inevitable weight. We can all see the wisdom of this in the business affairs of life and recognize in it a vital principle. Why then do we not apply it to the business meetings of our religious Society 2 Failure in this reSpect is one of the causes for the lack of interest manifested by so many of our members in the business affairs and the perpetuity of our organization. They feel that in this they have no lot or part. That “meeting work’ is for the few, and they come to regard these few as peculiarly called, when all should feel it a blessed privilege to maintain a Society whose rise and continuance has been a blessing to mankind. And if its members are still faithful to the simplicity of its belief, simplicity of worship and simplicity of living, not only will its present testimonies be upheld, but new ones will be given us,the bearing of which will bless the world and those who bear them. That this want of training to service in the church is felt, is evident from recent confessions by lukewarm members, and we can see where errors have been made in not dividing the work so as to share it with as many as possible. Too often we have been slow to see that beneath an unpromising exterior there dwells a spark that if quickened into life by the touch of love and some active work, kindles to a

flame that would cheer and brighten many a dull COrner of Our heritage. * If all who now faithfully perform the Services of our meetings fully realized that herein lies a weakness and see to it that the work is divided, or create new avenues of labor for the benefit of others, much good would result. The “whitened fields” of Sorrow and wrong-doing still cry out for more laborers, and the “little children” still come, to be taught to follow in the true path, and are too often “forbidden.” What we need is a gathering together for Our Common good, all ready to sink self, and to work, with those who are qualified to give, these trusting the hands that are ready to receive. Then will the work of rebuilding, if pursued in conformity with Divine law, go forward to His honor who in all ages and forever, will draw near to His dependent children when they seek to be guided by His unerring spirit.


WE find in a late number of The Independent, some interesting details of a religious movement, in the direction of Christianity, among the Jews of Southern Russia, under the leadership of Joseph Rabinowitz of Kischneff, who is said to be “a learned and pious lawyer.” The adherents “are as yet comparatively few in number.” The official documents of this sect or body have been published in Hebrew and German. The statement of their position and prospects is contained in thirteen theses, which have been translated and are given in connection with the account of the organization. The first reads as follows: “The present moral and material condition of the Israelitish brethren in Russia is a decayed, disordered and discouraged one.” The 6th declares “The material condition of the Jews cannot be improved, unless it is preceded by an improvement of the moral and spiritual status of the people.” The 8th : “In order to attain such a regeneration we need a helper, a physician, whose person and medicine have been found reliable.” The 10th: “The man who unites within himself all these characteristics” [enumerated in the two previous propositions} “we have, after a thorough examination of all the books of the history of our people, the children of Israel, found in the one Jesus of Nazareth, who was killed at Jerusalem before the destruction of the last temple.” The 13th and last is one in which all who are concerned for the spread of truth and righteousness in the world can heartily unite, It reads: “We confidently hope that the words of our brother Jesus, which aforetime were spoken to our Israelitish brethren in justice, love, and mercy, may take root in Our hearts, and may bring to us the fruit of righteousness

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