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ple-our friends and neighbors, and the community build nests which contrast most markedly with what of which we form a part,--are trying to do the best we are accustomed to see in more northern localities. they can; and in hours of good temper and health life The great masses of a grayish-green fibrous lichen, wears a bright and sunny aspect.
which hang from tree and shrub in those sylvan Much of the friction which makes the machinery of marshes, are freely utilized by them, and its very naliving move rough and discordant is caused by things ture to mat, when pressed together, precludes the netoo petty to be noticed if we were in our normal con- cessity of using mud. dition. The basty word spoken in petulance may be In the summer of 1877 my attention was directed explained, forgiven and forgotten. But the letter
to a nest of this species which was built upon a railwritten in an ebullition of wounded feeling is a fact
road embankment. The ground had an inclination tangible, not to be condoned. There it lies with a
of forty-five degrees. To one not conversant with certain permanence about it. You have sent it to a
the facts, such a position for a structure of the kind friend, who, reading it half a dozen times, will each
these birds are known to make, would appear impostime find it more cruel and incisive than before. Let
sible. Difficult as the task must seem to be, when ters once written and sent away cannot be recalled.
viewed from a human standpoint of judging of the You cannot be sure that your friend(or enemy) will
builders' capabilities, it was nevertheless accomburn them. Hidden in bureau drawers or in compart- plished, and in this wise: A semi-circular wall of ments of desks, folded up in portfolios, locked in box
mud, some three inches in height, was, after much es, they will’ it may be, flash up again in sudden feud
labor, erected, and within the cavity thus formed and fire, months after you have ceased to think of the
was placed a coarse, substantial and bulky fabric. folly which incited them, or the folly which penned them. Never write an angry letter, or write a letter
Few birds are less regardful of position than the when you are angry.
wren. In June, 1882, near the town of Thornbury,
Pa., a pair of wrens selected the space in a stationary All heated feeling seeks the superlative as an out
block over a sheave in a derrick, as a site for a home, let, and superlatives are apt to be dangerous. So long
and therein deposited their favorite sticks and feathas we cling to the positive in speech, we are pretty
ers. A similar structure had occupied the same spot safe.
the previous year, and a brood of young ones raised. We all need to be cautioned against undue haste in
These nests, in the elements of composition, differed speech, but mothers most of all. It is so easy to misunderstand a child ; so easy to grieve a little person
not from the typical form. It is their strange and who is forbidden to answer back; so easy to leave a
anomalous situation, rather than anything else, that
excites our interest and astonishment. The matepicture of yourself in the plastic memory, which will
rials of the nest were so dexterously arranged as not be photographed there for the remainder of life, and
to interfere with the revolution of the wheel. The of which you would in coming days be ashamed.
entrance to the nest was on the side facing the rope
that moved the pulley. The opposite side could have RARE AND CURIOUS BIRDS NESTS.
been used for this purpose, and doubtless with less danger to life or limb, but a preference seems to have been shown for the other. Why this was so remained
an unsolved problem for some time; but when each NROM time immemorial, it has been the current
bird was seen to alight upon the rope at the top of
the derrick and ride down to the nest, the reason bepopular belief that birds of the same species never varied their style of architecture, but construct
came apparent. Never did linnet enjoy the rocking
twig with half the zest that these eccentric creatures ed the same form of nest, and out of the same mate
did their ride adown the rope. A hundred times a rials as their remotest progenitors did, instinct being the principle by which they were guided. This opin
day, when the necessity arose, they treated themion, though long since exploded by science, is still, I
selves to the same pleasure, the rope moving at the am sorry to say, entertained by those who should
rate of thirty-five feet in a second of time. Six days know better. An examination of nests from differ
out of seven, from morning until night, they had the
benefit of this mode of conveyance, and nothing ocent and widely separated localities affords evidence sufficient to convince the most skeptical of persons
curred to disturb their peace and harmony. In due of its erroneousness. The most marked differ
time a family of happy, rollicking children were ences will be noticeable in the composing materials,
raised, and the nest in the derrick deserted. as these will be found to vary with the environment,
Before me is a curious nest of the swamp blackand in a wider degree in the nests of some, than in
bird. This is a rather bulky affair for the species, those of other, species. Even the configuration, and was found built in top of a cluster of cat-tails. It which is less prone to change, is often influenced by
is firmly made of broad grasses, and securely fastened the circumstances of position and latitude.
to the stems of the reeds, some eight in number, by Among the thrushes, the robin is the most addict- the same kind of material that enters into its compoed to variation, and this is not wholly confined to
sition. the constituents of his usually mud-plastered domi- Icterus spurius, ofthe sub-family oforioles, constructs cile, but is frequently to be observed in the arrange- a truly characteristic nest, pouch-shaped in form, and ment thereof, and in the contour and position as well. either pensile or built upon a branch. Soft and flexIn Southern New Jersey, where low marshy woods ible grasses, neatly and compactly woven together, abound on the outskirts of towns and villages, robins constitute its outer fabric, while within there may
BY PROF. THOMAS G. GENTRY.
exist wool, either vegetable or animal, or a lining of found in the attic, which he fitted up, furnishing it fine grasses mixed with horse-hairs.. The band- with a large branch for a perch, and with the necessomest nest I have ever seen was found by Richard sary materials, in the shape of new white strings, for Christ, in the vicinity of Nazareth, Pa., in the season nest building. The female now entered into her volof 1883. It is of the usual size, being five inches in untarily imposed task with the most determined height, and three in external diameter, but different zeal and alacrity, and at the end of a week had confrom the typical form in the materials of composition. structed a domicile which her wild, untamed protoInstead of the leaves of grasses, which one naturally types of the fields and the roadsides would strive in expects to see in such a structure, this was exclusive- vain to excel. ly built of the stems and heads of a species of grami- In Eastern Pennsylvania rare, curious nests of neous plant remarkable for its golden brightness in a the Acadian flycatcher are often found. Such a state of dryness.
one was discovered by the writer in June, 1882. It was A more remarkable nest of this oriole was found
placed upon the forked branch of a small red oak. built upon a few small branches of a maple, at an ele- The dried blossoms of the hickory, which are the vation of nearly thirty feet from the ground. It is a
sole materials of the ordinary structure in this latidouble affair, composed of long, flexible grasses, and
tude, were here altogether wanting. In lieu thereof, securely fastened to its support. The larger nest is
long fibres of the inner bark of some herbaceous inversely sub-conical, while the smaller, which is
plant were substituted. These were compactly modjoined to the other by ribbons of grass, is somewhat
eled into a shallow, saucer-like cavity, from which similarly shaped, but less compact in structure. A
depended a gradually tapering train of the same subcircular opening, one inch in diameter, is a noticeable
stance, for nearly twelve inches. feature of the latter. That this additional structure
A pair of kingbirds once took a fancy to an old served some purpose cannot be questioned. I am in- apple-tree that stood a few yards from the writer's clined to think that it was constructed with the view
Germantown home. It was certainly not a place of of accomodating either parent while the other was
quiet and retirement. Scores of noisy children daily sitting. The aperture alluded to served, doubtless,
resorted to its shelter for coolness and pastime, but for the head of the non-sitting bird, who, from this
the birds were not uneasy. They bad fixed their position, looking away from the main building, could,
minds upon the spot, and build they did. The nest like a sentry upon an outpost, detect with compara
was placed upon a forked branch just out of reach of tive ease and readiness the approach of enemies.
the urchins. It was a curious affair. Roots of vaBut nothing can exceed in beauty and cosiness
rious kinds constituted the bulk of the fabric; but, the nest of a female Baltimore oriole in my possess
as its completion was near at hand, the opportune ion. It was built under peculiar circumstances, the
discovery of a bunch of carpet rags was hailed with author being a prisoner, having been taken from the
delight, and they were promptly adjusted to the outparental hoine when quite a fledgeling. A male com
side, a number of ends being allowed to depend from panion was captured at or about the same time. The
the margin and bottom, for a distance of fourteen birds are the property of Dr. Detwiler, of Easton, Pa., inches, whether for ornament or protection I cannot and are a source of pleasure to this elderly gentleman
say, but I am half inclined to believe that the latter in bis leisure moments. Though becoming quite
was the object uppermost in the minds of the buildtame under the careful and kindly management of
ers, for, looking from below at the nest, it seemed their keeper, the female manifesting greater familiar
merely a mass of rags that had been thrown into the ity than her associate, it never occurred to the Doc
crotch and become lodged. tor that either would become so accustomed to the
The common ruby-throated humming-bird of the situation as to evince a desire to build. When alone,
eastern half of the United States is known to make he allowed them the freedom of his studio, in or out
a nest which is not easily imitated by another speof season. One lovely June morning in 1883, the out
cies. Nests have been found by the writer, formed side world being full of joy and life and sunshine, he
of the yellowish wool of the undeveloped fronds of threw open the door of their cage, aud settled him
the fern, and others of red shoddy—the refuse of self for reading. Hardly had he read a dozen lines
some woolen factory-instead of the soft down of the when he felt something pulling at his hair; on look
seeds of the poplar. But the most remarkable structing up he descried the offender flying towards a dis
ure of all was found in Germantown, in the summer tant part of the room with something in her bill that
of 1883. It was saddled upon the horizontal bough resembled a hair. When the Doctor had resumed
of a white oak, and is peculiar from the nature of the his reading, she stole cautiously forward, seized an
inner fabric. This is a brown woolly substance other hair, and was off in a twinkling. Permitting plucked from a species of fungus, possibly a Sphæria, these liberties for a while, and noticeing that bits of
wl for softness and pliability is admirably suited strings were, when placed in positions to be seen, as
for nest-building. Nothing of the kind, I think, has much the objects of interest as the hairs of his head,
ever been recorded. he was not slow in divining the motive which led to this strange and unexpected proceeding. Convinced
The greatest man is he who chooses right with the by actions as significant as words themselves could
most invincible resolution.-Seneca. be, he at once entered into the idea of his little feathered friend, and began to look about for a room where she might carry out her plan for the future, free from The greatest of faults, I should say, is to be con: human interference. In a short time a place was scious of none.-Carlyle.
INDIAN RIGHTS AND WRONGS.
AT this time when there are mutterings of discon
Department can only alleviate, and not extirpate, for the case rests with. Congress, and legislative action for the Indians is always delayed and postponed until the mischief of a costly Indian war compels some activity in committees, and cominands some time in the House and Senate. The Indian Rights Association is organized for the purpose of awakening in the people of the United States such correctly instructed public sentiment as will force upon the Congressional representatives in Washington the necessity of giving heed to the counsel of those who have studied Indian affairs from the standpoint of disinterested good-will, and can demonstrate the justice and reason of what they ask the government to do.-Philadelphia Ledger.
tent on the part of certain Indians who have been peaceably inclined of late, it is well to consider the information we have on good authorities as to the real condition of things in the threatened district. The Indian Rights Association, of which Mr. Herbert Welsh is the leading spirit, has been formed in this city as its headquarters, with local branches in other cities and states, to disseminate a knowledge of the actual condition of the Indians, their number, their needs and their possibilities. From those who have long been engaged in charitable and religious work among the Indians, good inen and women of all creeds, Mr. Welsh has received hearty support. At a recent meeting of the newly formed Indian Rights Association of Newport, R. I., the principal.-speaker was General Armstrong, of the Indian School at Hampton, Va., a man who has given himself unreservedly to the education and improvement of the Indians entrusted to him, being a colleague in this with Captain Pratt at Carlisle, who began with the Modocs, and has now representatives of the wildest and most savage tribes of the Northwest at bis school. General Fry, of the United States army, was present at the meeting—a representative of the best type of the army so honorably famous in such officers as General Crook, General Terry, Captain Bourke, who with many others, are the men best suited to be entrusted with the charge of the Indians, so as to rescue them from the present unsatisfactory dependence on political appointments. The Indian Rights Association proclaim their mission to be the securing to the Indians the rights of individual citizens, by abolishing their tribal relations, their independent sovereignty, and their exemption from laws and the conditions of white citizenship.
General Armstrong says there are 260,000 Indians in the United States now; of these 15,000 are east of the Mississippi, of the rest a large body of civilized Indians live in the Indian Territory, but even there the land is held by the old tenure in community and without individual ownership, free from taxes, and the civilization is a mere shell. The fighting tribes are the Pueblo Indians, thought to be the oldest and purest of all our aborigines, with well marked traces of their Asiatic descent; the Apaches of Arizona, a crafty and murderous set, needing the sharp hand of the military to keep them in subjection; the Navajoes, who are increasing in number, the Jews of the Indian race, enterprising and energetic, and the Sioux of the Northwest, brave and hardy. The great defects of the present system are mainly these: If the Indians are. quiet the white men crowd in on them, and the agent must choose between being honest, poor and helpless, or untrustworthy, corrupt and the curse instead of the safety of both white and red men. Once defeated in battle, the Indians come under the severe but just and uniform rule of the soldiery, and such of them, old or young, as are brought to Hampton or Carlisle, become amenable to education and are eager for it. The present troubles are traceable to abuses which even General Sheridan and the War
CURRENT EVENTS. -The private funeral services of General Grant took place at Mt. McGregor, on 3d day of this week, and the body was then removed to Albany. After lying "in state" there and in New York, the interment will take place at Riverside Park,(above Central Park, on the Hudson on this date, 8th instant, with an extensive civil and military procession through the streets of New York.
-In Westminster Abbey, London, on 3d day, a funeral service was held, at which many Americans attended, and the Abbey was crowded. A sermon was preached by Canon Farrar.
-Heavy rains, especially one on the 3d inst, have reliev. ed the draught in the neighborhood of Philadelphia very completely. On that day, a hurricane on the Delaware river did serious damage at Camden and in this city, causing the loss of six lives, and the injury of about one hundred persons.
A tremendous rain storm visited Chicago on the 2d inst., the fall during the twelve hours ending at midnight, being 5.58 inches.
-Rain storms, doing much damage, have occurred in Maryland. They were especially severe in the wesvern section of the State, and great damage was done by submergence of the crops and washouts in the railroads. Near Boonsboro a man was killed by lightning. The latest reports indicate that the damage in the State will reach $150,000. A tornado in Cecil county leveled houses, mills and bridges.
-General Sheridan has returned to Washington from the Indian Territory. He had an interview with the President on the 2d inst., but declines to make public the tenor of his report on the Cheyenne question.
-At Raymond, Mississippi, W. R. Farr, white, convicted of marrying Sarah Williams, colored, was sentenced to the penitentiary for nine years. The woman was also convicted and sentenced to the penitentiary for three years.
-The deaths in this city last week numbered 575, which was 120 less than during the previous week and 121 more than during the corresponding period last year. The city is free from any unusual diseases.
--A census of the Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indians, just taken by Inspector Armstrong, shows the population of those tribes to be 2167 and 1207 respectively. They had been drawing rations for ten years for 3769 and 2198 members respectively.
It is announced that the general elections for members of the English Parliament will take place in the third week in November. Mr. Gladstone, it is expected will take the stump in Midlothian, (Edinburgh), of which he is representative in the House, in the preceding month.
A furious rain and hail storm in Sargent county, Dakota, on the evening of the 2d inst., damaged 2000 acres of wheat.
-Monday was the hottest day ever experienced in the San Joaquin Valley, California, the thermometer at Merced registering 114 degrees in the shade.
-The British bark John Gibson, from Cienfuegos, arrived at the Delaware Breakwater the night of the 3d inst., with yellow fever on board. Her captain died at sea and one man was sick.
-The disputes between England and Russia over the Afghan frontier have not been fully settled ; they now hinge upon the possession of the Zulficar Pass.
-Cholera has again appeared at Marseilles. It continues very bad in Spain. On Third-day(4th inst.), there were reported 3718 new cases and 1501 deaths.
-Nearly a million copies of the penny edition of the revised New Testament have been sold in England.
-A Belgian manufacturer named Rey, who employs 3,000 people, retains 3 per cent. of their wages and agrees to provide a physician when they are taken ill. While unable to work from illness, the employe gets half pay and a supply of food, if necessary. If a workman dies his widow gets a pension of one-third of his wages if he had been in the works for ten years, and one-half the wages if over ten years. A pension for life is given to all invalids who have been fifteen years in his employ.
NEWS AND OTHER GLEANINGS. -Over 3000 women are employed in the railroad offices of Austria. They get from $15 to $30 a month. Nearly all of them are widows of men who have died in the railroad service.
-The Panama Canal directors have asked the French Government to sanction a new issue of 500,000,000 francs worth of bonds. Premier Brisson opposes the demand, on the ground that there is a deficit in the budget.
-There is a feeling of universal satisfaction among the Cheyenne Indians at the action of the President in appointing a new agent from the army to take charge of their affairs, and his proclamation ordering the removal of the cattlemen has practically removed the discontent.
- A despatch from Washington to the N Y. Post states : "The State Department is believed to be in possession of more information than it has permitted to be made public about the Congo country. There is reason to suppose that our Government has been advised of facts iu connection with the management of Congo affairs by the Belgian Association which corroborates many of the details of the sensational despatch recently cabled from London. It is kuowa from several sources that before any one enters the service of the Free States of the Congo he is required to sign an obligation, and to give bond that he will under no circumstances disclose to any one any information relative to the country or to the affairs of the company. Copies of these contracts, which have been guarded in Europe with great care, are known to be in this country. The latest official and private information received here indicates very clearly that the representations which were made on behalf of the Congo Association at the Berlin Conference were, to say the least, of the most extravagant character.
-The following letter, written by General Grant, two weeks before his death, was found secreted in his robe, enveloped, sealed, and addressed to his wife:
“Look after our dear children and direct them in the paths of rectitude. It would distress me far more to think that one of them could depart from an honorable, upright and virtuous life than it would to know that they were prostrated on a bed of sickness, from which they were never to arise alive. They have never given us any cause for alarm on their account, and I earnestly pray they never will.
• With these few injunctions and the knowledge I have of your love and affection, and of the dutiful affection of all our children, I bid you a final farewell, until we meet in another and I trust, a better world. You will find this on my person after my demise.
"Mount McGregor, July 9, 1885."
*** Quarterly Meetings in the Eighth Month will occur as follows:
13th. Shrewsbury and Rahway, Shrewsbury, N. J.
** Circular Meetings in Eighth Month as follows:
16th. Roaring Creek, Pa., 11 A. M.
***The Sub-Committee of the Yearly Meeting's committee to visit the meetings in Abington Quarterly Meeting, expect to attend the meeting at Stroudsburg, on First-day, the 9th inst., and at Warminster, on First-day, the 16th inst,
***A meeting will be held in the Friends' meeting-house at Woodstown, N. J., on Seventh-day, the 22nd of Eighth month, at 10 o'clock A. M., in commemoration of the erection of the house one hundred years ago. Interested Friends will be welcomed.
*** Young Folks' Temperance Mass Meeting at Solebury Deer Park, Bucks Co., Pa., to be held on Third-day, the 11th of Eighth Month, commencing at 10 o'clock A. M.
A variety of exercises will be presented by the First-day Schools, and Thomas E. Taylor, of Loudoun Co., Va., and Joseph Shortlidge, A. M., of Delaware Co., Pa., will address the Meeting. Free admission to Park for everybody. Come! Invitation extended by
FRIENDS' TEMPERANCE COMMITTEE.
**The Caleb Clothier Memorial Teachers' Library was closed for the summer on Seventh-day, the 18th inst. It will be re-opened on Fourth-day, Ninth Month, 2d.
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