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soul, make ready thy heart for him, that he may vouchsafe to come unto thee, and to dwell within thee.— Thomas à Kempis.
MENTAL PHILOSOPHY AS APPLIED TO PRIMARY EDUCATION.”
Prof. Brooks defined Education as “the development of the powers of man and the furnishing of the mind with knowledge.” Education thus includes both culture and instruction, and culture applies to the physical, mental and spiritual powers. What is mind 2 This question, the speaker—with philosophers who have gone before him—was free to admit he could not answer; and the sages of the future will in all probability find their powers equally limited when they undertake to define that subtle essence. We know the mind, and may study it through its activities and its faculties. A mental faculty was defined as “a capacity for a distinct form of mental activity.” “The mind embodies itself in science;” “science is a product of the mind;” “it is an incarnation of the mind;” “the mind is studied from science and art.” The division of the mind into I. Intellect, II. Sensibilities, and III. Will, is a fundamental principle in mental science, though the philosophers were some years reaching this conclusion. The ancient metaphysicians, having united feeling with will, treated the mind in two parts. The modern division was suggested by Kant, but was first formulated by an American, Thomas C. Upham. “The intellect is the power by which we think and know.” “The sensibilities are the powers by which we feel,” as love, reverence, etc. “The will is the power by which we make our choices and perform our actions.” The activities of the three divisions of the mind were here simply illustrated : A man picked up his morning paper and, exercising his intellect, he read an account of the taking of Fort Sumter. As he read, his heart burned, his sensibilities and feelings became excited. Then arrived the time for the exercise of the will, when the man decided what he would or would not do. Prof. Brooks here traced a connection between the “Trinity of the Mind,” which is so universally accepted, and the “Trinity” of religious doctrine. Each of the mental divisions contains sub-faculties. Under Intellect, we have Perception, Memory and Imagination. “Perception is the faculty by which we obtain a knowledge of external objects.” It contains two elements, sensation and perception proper. Perception operates through a nervous organism, and the senses are the avenues to the soul. Through perception, the objective thing rises to the subjective thought.
* Before a gathering of teachers and Friends interested in Education, assembled in the lecture room at Fifteenth and Race streets, on Seventh-day, 7th inst,. Prof. Edward Brooks, formerly of Millersville, Pa., Normal School, now President of National School of Oratory, Philadelphia, and author of various text-books on Mathematics, Mental Philosophy, etc., delivered an interesting lecture, showing the importance of the Study Of Mental Philosophy to those who endeavor to educate the young.
which an Indian had hung in a tree to cure.
The most difficult problem of this study is at the ‘ beginning. Can we comprehend perception ? How does the concrete thing become the abstract thought? Mental activity begins in perception. In educating a child we should commence by training this faculty; we should use objects; attract the attention to qualities; in fact, make use of object lessons. Let instruction in Geography begin with the conCrete, because perception is the first power of the intellect. In the absence of opportunity to show the child the natural divisions of land and water, we may illustrate the subject by sand-moulding. Form may also be illustrated by clay-modeling. The perception should be appealed to in teaching Physiology. Teach the children practical observation, for it is possible for a student of a standard work on this subject to be ignorant of the fact that muscular tissue is simply lean meat. According to the common-school system, as practised in the recent past, the perception received no training. Nature has atoned in many instances for the lack of proper equcation. There is a growing interest in the new method manifested by the teachers of to-day. These were advised to employ nature as a schoolmaster, engaging the children in familiar talks on bees, birds, flowers, etc., abandoning the methods, until lately popular, of permitting books to shut out nature; under which system an ignorance of the commonest natural objects was prevalent, even among highly educated people. For it is deplorable that the educated observe less than the uneducated. This is apparent in the Indian, who is enabled to trace his pathway through dense forests by the observance of little differences in the size of twigs, the rowth of moss on the trunks of trees, etc. Let not the student of books seal his eyes to the beautiful truths ever exposed on the open pages of nature. How many, in a large audience, if called on, could tell the difference between the number of legs of a fly and a spider? Who could tell the differ. ence in the motion of cropping grass, between a horse and cow 7 Are the horns of a cow above or below the ears? Here was related the anecdote so familiar to those who handle school readers: some one stole * he Indian started off to find the trespasser. He inquired of those he met if they had seen a little, old man with a long gun and a short-tailed dog. He was asked why he had not caught the man since he knew so well how to describe him. But the Indian had not seen the man, he had simply observed the traces left by him and his belongings. He knew the man was small for he had heaped stones under the tree upon which to stand to reach the venison. He was an old man because his steps were marked on the sand as shorter than a young man would have taken. His gun was known to be long because of the distance between the spot on the ground marked by one end of the gun and the slight mark on the bark of the tree where the other end rested. The little short-tailed dog was known because he had left his impression in the sand, as he sat wagging his tail while anxiously watching his master dislodging the venison.
The new education is based largely on perception. Should it continue there? The new education covers only a small portion of the ground. The elements of all branches should begin in the concrete. The physical sciences should be first taught by perception. A full development of most subjects will lead to much that is abstract. We have a knowledge of God, yet we do not see Him. We came to such knowledge through abstract thought, farther on in the development of mental processes. A mental faculty had been defined ; yet what does faculty mean? Here the lecturer dwelt upon the point that the full meaning and strength of the word faculty appeared to him long after he had become familiar with its use, and only when he stopped for a moment to consider its derivation from the Latin factum, meaning to make. A mental faculty, then, is a “maker of mental phenomena.” The mind is a factory. The word percept was explained. A percept takes cognizance of the form, color, size, etc., of an object. A percept can always be described by particulars. As illustration, a familiar friend was called by name, The idea of that individual is a percept. We could describe his height, complexion and general appearance. The aphorism, man is mortal, was quoted. The word man in this sentence does not express a percept. There are no particulars by which it can be described. Most of our conversation is not in percepts. Perception is the basis of good literature. Great writers are found to be good observers. Shakspere, who was great as a philosopher, great as a poet, but greatest as an observer, has made his pages a reflection of English scenery, wherein the leaves seem to rustle, the winds blow, and flowers bloom. The characters in Dicken's works were referred to as being almost copies of persons with whom the author was familiar; so Cruikshank, in illustrating these productions, makes use of character in manhood and womanhood, as manifested in England. Both the author and artist were keen observers. Micawber was a study from the author's father; Mrs. Nickelby was his mother, while Skimpole, in Bleak House, was Leigh Hunt. By some, George Eliot was considered the greatest of novelists, yet up to 1856 she believed she could not write a novel. Her first effort at writing was description. The second sub-faculty of the intellect, the memory, is defined as the power by which we retain and recall knowledge. Memory contains four elements: I. Retention. II. Recollection, by which we bring out of unconsciousness into consciousness the knowledge which we have retained. III. Representation; that faculty by which we bring up in the form of images the ideas we have gained. IV. Recognition ; by which we know that the ideas are the same which we have previously held. The third sub-faculty of the intellect is imagination, which is subdivided into combinations and creations. One may call up a picture from memory. With closed eyes, may see the house, the barn, the trees, a field of waving corn, the cattle, etc. Now burn down the house and change the features of the landscape. In imagination, one can immediately create another picture on the same ground, with larger, finer house; the trees removed or others upon the
ground. This is imagination, and it should receive a fuller cultivation than is usually accorded to it.
A painter travels. He will sketch here a tree, there the clouds, and again a meadow, or mountain view. He comes home to work, and with the tree, the mountain, the clouds, he makes a new picture. It is a combination of old things. A higher artist produces an entirely new picture, with nothing copied; the ideas seem drawn from within his own mind; showing the great difference between combining and creating.
There is a tradition that the Greek sculptors gathered together the beautiful women for a study. The artist would copy a head from one, a hand from another, the nose, the poise of the head from others; and combining make a perfect figure. This, however, is not believed to be the source of their greatest productions. Great artists have ideals; they use the creative power.
Mozart and Beethoven drew not their grand compositions from others. It is as if they drew their sounds from above. The sixty minutes assigned for Professor Brooks's lecture having expired, he was obliged to leave us without enlarging upon the Sensibilities and the Will.
Second month 16, 1885.
EXTRACTS FROM LETTERS.
A ForMER Philadelphian now in the far West, writes:
“I am glad to see that Philadelphia Friends seem to be alive to the importance of doing something “to strengthen that which remains and is ready to die,” but I have been unable as yet to see the drift of their movements. If it is to introduce emotional exercises and sweep away the old land-marks, it were better to consolidate with orthodox Friends at once. I know there are many of this opinion, and who look forward to a reunion of the different branches of Society as a thing of the not distant future, as we have so many of our testimonies in common, the main difference being one of doctrines, and when it comes to be sifted out there is not so much even here, as our branch seems largely to be approaching the evangelical theology of the day, while ritualism and emotional devotion appear to be moving on the top waves of popularity.
But if the Society of Friends should be swept out of existence, the work for which they were raised up will still go on, as many of their views and testimonies have been embraced by the public to a large extent, and have had an important effect in modifying the laws of the country. This is largely true of the West of to-day, probably from the fact that it is settled by the younger and more advanced element of the Eastern States, and though we have considerable of an ignorant foreign population to deal with, my experience is (that outside of cities) if the natives take the proper course, they can lead these along gradually and almost imperceptibly in the work of progress. But then it will not do to stand idly by and let things run themselves, but we must put forth a hand to help them in the right direction for good government.”
PHILADELPHIA, SECOND MO. 28, 1885.
WE are in receipt of many interesting communications from correspondents who have a right to be heard. But the press upon our columns is so great that we are obliged to defer much to another week. Our substantial enlargement is not enough for our present needs.
WE feel safe in calling the attention of our readers to the lecture of Mary A. Livermore to be delivered on Third-day, Third month 3d, at the Baptist House of Worship, Eighteenth and Spring Garden streets. The topic is “Boys of the Period,” and the proceeds of the lecture are to be applied to the needs of the Home for Aged and Infirm Colored Persons, for which so many of our members have long labored. The tickets are 50 cents and are for sale at Friends' Book Store, 1020 Arch street. Mary A. Livermore gives her lecture for the cause.
CHANGES IN DISCIPLINE.-We publish in this issue the alterations in the Discipline which areaproposed by the Monthly Meeting of Friends' of Philadelphia, (Race street). They were read at our late Quarterly Meeting and referred to a joint committee, and they will, in all probability, come up before the Yearly Meeting for final consideration. It is proper that we should all have a clear understanding of propositions which may become rules of Discipline and our decisions ought to be more wise and intelligent if we have a full comprehension of all the details of the proposed changes.
Some Friends object to changes in the Discipline regarding it as complete and finished, and that the only desirable change would be to carry out its present regulation more earnestly. The history of the Discipline shows that it was an outcome of the needs of the people; it grew with the growth of Friends, testimony after testimony was added and advice after advice as occasion came, so that unless we have stopped thinking and growing and have decided to live in the past upon the thoughts and deeds of our predecessors we shall do as), they did, make discipline to meet our needs. Changes in outward circumstances of necessity alter our rules, as for instance the query of 1743 “Are Friends clear of depriving the King of his duties.” All the great exercise of our faithful fathers and mothers on the subject of negro slavery, which little by little modified the discipline and represented the growth of a sentiment of strict justice has fulfilled its mission and is
now only of historical value. Many Friends now feel that we need to be more faithful to our testimony, to a free gospel ministry, rather than to testify against an hireling ministry, and therefore it is proposed to make a change in the sixth query and also to omit the word “hireling ” wherever it occurs. This word is objectionable to many sincere Friends, when it is used to designate all who receive compensation, for it thus includes many earnest and faithful men whose good works we honor and who do not come under the condemnation which the term implies. Says George Fox, “Friends, my desire is that ye may all be preserved in the Lord's power and in His everlasting Seed; in the order of the gospel and in the government of Christ Jesus of the increase of which there is no end. And that ye may keep up your ancient testimony in the power and spirit of God against tithes and for Christ your high priest against the hireling priests and their old temples, manifesting that ye are the temples of God.” But these hirelings whom he rebuked and urged his fellow-believers to bear testimony against were very different from the paid ministers of this day. Liberal thinking has grown to be the prevailing habit of men's minds and the requirements of those who assumes to stand as teachers before the people have changed and practical earnest piety takes precedence of dogma.
We have spoken of the Discipline as a growth representing the thought of the different generations of Friends, but the testimonies mainly originated in the great mind of the founder of our Society. The rules of Discipline were not collected into one code until 1703. As George Fox gave them forth they appeared in the form of Epistles to the various meetings, embracing the subjects which are still found at the heads of the paragraphs in our present book of Discipline.
THE Friends’ Review, in a notice of the editorial on “Fresh Life,” which recently appeared in our paper, expresses the wish “that the desire” manifested in this essay “may be fulfilled,” and adds, that as “many of those referred to are our kinsmen according to the flesh, with a common history and traditions down to a time within the memory of some now living, half a century ought not to be enough to obliterate the interest belonging to such associations.”
We heartily respond to the thought expressed in the above, nor do we believe this would be possible if all who bear the name of “Friend’” were gathered, as in the rise of the Society, to the one principle of life and light—the Divine indwelling.
It was not that which had been written aforetime, around which these children of the light and of the day, rallied, but that which they felt and knew to be the movings of the Holy Spirit on their individual consciences. Not Jesus of Nazareth, whom wicked men put to death, but the power of God and the wisdom of God that dwelt with, and in him, and made him pre-eminently the son of God, which, through the influence of his teaching and his example, gave to them who received him, “power to become the sons of God, even to every one who believed in him and were born not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God.”
They to whom Jesus came—his brethren according to the flesh—in their zeal for the observance of “the traditions of the elders,” proscribed and condemned him, and he was nailed to the cross, but the indwelling Christ, that was his “without measure,” was never crucified, and this God in the man is the only Saviour. It was to this Saviour that our fathers called the seekers in their day, the Saviour that liveth and abideth forever, and it is to this same Saviour that made Jesus the perfect type of perfected humanity, that man must look as the author and finisher of the faith that is saving. If we would be the disciples of Jesus it is by taking him as our pattern and, looking unto him as our example, to his obedience,—to the cross that he bore, -to the sacrifice of his life, we will be preserved in the same simple faith that gave our predecessors strength and courage to live up to their convictions and when persecuted and cast out, made them willing to lay down their lives rather than deny or be untrue to the manifestations of the Divine Spirit in themselves.
This is the doctrine of the cross, as we understand it; the cross on which is slain every unholy thought, every base desire, every imagination of evil that comes as a cloud between the soul and the inshinings of the Light. Beliefs and opinions are but the operations of the intellect and are formed through education or association, and ought to be left to each to settle for himself according to his own understanding of them.
It is the unity of the spirit that is the bond of peace, and into this unity are gathered the true Friends of God and man, whether known as Orthodox, Liberal or Evangelical.
EVERY signal act of duty is also an act of faith. It is performed in the assurance that God will take care of the consequences, and will so order the course of the world, that, whatever the immediate results inay be, his word shall not return to him empty.
" I HAVE been driven many times to my knees by the overwhelming conviction that I had nowhere else to go. My own wisdom and that of all about me oned insufficient for all that day.—Abraham LinC0/70,
COALE.-Suddenly, of heart disease, on the evening of Second month 15th, 1885, at the residence of Edward Coale, Benjaminville, Ill., George Coale, of Richmond, Ind., aged 59 years; a member of White Water Monthly Meeting of Friends.
The deceased had been visiting his relatives and friends in Illinois, and this particular evening had been spent in pleasant social converse with his brother and family, indulging in reminiscences of Old times; he complained of no sickness; stepped out of doors, and in a few minutes, not more than five at most, one of the family, hearing a slight noise, his brother went out and called him; he received no response, but caught the sound of his last gasp, and saw him stretched on his back in the snow; life Was extinct ,and there had been apparently no struggle.
Of latter years he had manifested a deep concern in the interests of society, and had frequently appeared in the ministry, very acceptably, giving promise that though late in life, a career of usefulness in this direc: tion was opening before him ; but in the twinkling of an eye, as it were, he was translated into the Spirit world, the glorious realities of which, we feel, he was fully prepared to enjoy.
BIUNT.-On Second-day, Second month 16th, 1885 in West Chester, Pa., Lydia Hunt in her 79th year.
KEMP-On Second mo. 14th, 1885, at her residence, Easton, Md., Elizabeth Remp, aged 77 years; a member of Third Haven Monthly Meeting.
LIPPIN COTT.—On Second mo. 21st, 1885, at the residence of her mother, Mary S. Lippincott, Camden, N. J., Jane S. Lippincott, in the 50th year of her age; a member of Chester Monthly Meeting, N. J.
She passed from life after a long season of great suffering, endured with patience and submission, blessed with tranquil faith and joyful trust in Divine acceptance. Her life was full of loving kindness and unselfish devotion to duty. She diffused happiness round her and was mindful of the lowliest as of the most favored. She was greatly beloved in life, and we can bear witness that in her were manifest the unmistakable fruits of the Spirit: “love, joy, peace, gentleness, goodness, faith, meekness, self-control.”
PASSMORE.-On First-day, Second month 15th, 1885, at Atglen, Judith, widow of Andrew M. Passmore, formerly of East Nottingham, Pa.
PENNELL.-On Second month 21st, 1885, at her residence, Media, Pa., Elizabeth, widow of James Pennell, in her 79th year.
SHARPLESS.–On Second mo. 20th, 1885, in West Chester, Pa., Sidney Sharpless, in her 93d year; a member of Birmingham Monthly Meeting.
SIDWELL.--On Second mo. 6th, 1885, at her residence, near Brick Meeting-house, Cecil co., Md., Elizabeth Malinda Sidwell, in her 54th year.
TAYLOR.—Suddenly, on the night of Second mo, 13th, 1885, at Kennett Square, Pa., John Yerkes Taylor, son of J. H. and Sarah C. Taylor, in his 20th year.
VANHORN.—On Second mo. 13th, 1885, of pneumonia, in Newtown township, Bucks co., Pa., Moses H. Vanhorn, aged 74 years; a member of Wrightstown Monthly Meeting.
WELLS.—On Second month 17th, 1885, at his residence, Springfield, Delaware co., Pa., James B. Wells, aged 78 years. Interment at Darby Friends' ground.
WEST.-On Second mo. 21st, 1885, at his residence, near Chester, Pa., William West, in his 87th year. A member of Chester Monthly Meeting.
WILLS.—On Second month 18th, 1885, at Mount Holly, N.J., Rebecca B., widow of James B. Wills, in her 84th year.
From our Special Correspondent.
SOUTHERN HEALTH RESORTS.
Believing that many of your readers, especially among western Friends, would be interested in hearing something of this part of the country. I will endeavor to furnish the little information I have gathered in the few weeks of our stay here. If I seem to be somewhat personal I hope it will be excused, as I may in this way reach many Friends who have expressed a desire to hear something of our experiences of the climate, accommodations, etc.
Citronelle is a small station on the Mobile and Ohio Railroad, about thirty-three miles north of Mobile and three hundred and sixty feet above sea level. To quote from the Railway Guide: “It lies in the heart of the turpentine distilleries, which not only yield the finest turpentine in the world, but at the same time are filling the air with a balsamic fragrance which soothes and heals the lungs of the consumptive. At Citronelle a hotel has been built with ex
press reference to the accommodation of patients suffering from diseases of the throat and lungs. The proprietor, himself a physician, makes the ailments, the needs, the comforts and fancies of his guests, a special and careful study. The atmosphere of Citronelle is as pure as that of a mountain, without the disadvantage of mountain fogs; and malaria is unknown. The bracing, benignant air induces the desire for deep respiration, and the genial climate makes out-door exercise practicable at all seasons.” What has been said of Citronelle with the exception of its excellent hotel is true of other places scattered over the table land that lies north of Mo bile. The health advantages and railroad facilities are identical. There are various private houses where excellent board may be had at moderate rates; and cottages for the reception of families who prefer to have their own domiciles are in process of erection in the vicinity. Of course our experience is confined to this place, and though I have found the statements true, so far as made, yet there are some things of course unsaid. In the first place the houses are all built for summer comfort, high thin walls, ceiled mostly with pine; very few are plastered. They are set up two or three feet from the ground and open underneath. Many doors and windows, always “galleries,” as they are improperly called, I think, (porches or verandas we would say) upstairs and down, and for some reason always on the south side of the house, so that warm days they are too hot to sit in. There may be shady porches, but if a house has but one it is facing south. We found the same fashion obtained in Arkansas, much to our discomfort when we were seeking a shady place. Every room has an open fire place; and wood is abundant and freely supplied. It is a pleasure to kindle a pitch-pine fire, as it burns up so quickly even when wet. As to climate, the air is certainly delicious, we can almost taste it, and it is always a pleasure to breathe. The hotel accommodations are quite good, though limited to forty or fifty guests and include a few double, or two room cottages, the rooms communicating, but each having its front door opening on the porch. Dr. Michael expects to double his accommodations the coming year. We are in a grove of beautiful, tall, southern pines, through which the breezes make music nearly all the day. The doctor and his wife give their personal supervision to affairs, and set a generous table, Mobile supplying them with such articles as their own garden or fields do not. They raise their own poultry, and have fresh eggs for the table. The pork is raised in the vicinity too, and though the pigs look rather thin when on their feet, their meat is very sweet, fed at large on pine mast, etc. The oysters from the bay or gulf are excellent, tasting altogether different from the canned article in our inland home. We have an overabundance of hot bread, but there is always good cold bread so we are not compelled to use the other. Plenty of milk is supplied for the table, the doctor having several cows. Beef and mutton are generally good. There is a gymnasium, tennis ground, croquet, etc. Horses and vehicles, such as they are, not like our northern horses and equipages, but answering for the