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between nations, to diminish their idle jealousies, nor to explain the real identity of their interests. It may even be said, without risk of contradiction, that whatever attempt has been made to further the cause of peace upon earth, or to diminish the horror of the customs of war, has come, not from the Church, but from the school of thought to which she has been most opposed, and which she has studied most persistently to revile. In respect, too, of the justice of the cause of war, the Church within recent centuries has entirely yacated her position. It is noticeable that in the 37th article of the English Church, whichi s to the effect that a Christian, at the command of the magistrate, may wear weapons and serve in the wars, the word justa, which in the Latin form preceded the word bella, or wars, has been omitted. Considering that no human institution yet devised, or actually in existence, has had, or has, a moral influence, or facilities for exercising it at all equal to that enjoyed by the Church, it is all the more to be regretted that she has never taken any real interest in the abolition of a custom which is at the root of half the crime and misery with which she has to contend. Whatever hopes might at one time have been reasonably entertained of the Reformed
Church, as an anti-military agency, the cause of
peace soon sank into a sort of heresy, or, what was worse, an unfashionable tenet, associated with the other vagaries of the Anabaptists and Quakers." It would be difficult to find in the whole range of history anysuch example of wasted moral force. Voltaire had to regret it in the eighteenth century, as Erasmus had in the sixteenth. The former complained that he did not remember a single page against war in the whole of Bourdaloue's sermons, and he even suggested that the real explanation might be a literal want of courage.
For the Intelligencer and Journal. REFLECTIONS.
Two men went up into the temple to pray; one a
Pharisee, the other a Publican. The Pharisee thanked God he was not like other men, he was not an extortioner, he was not unjust, he was not like the Publican that stood by him, he could fast twice a week, he gave tithes of all he possessed; but the other, the despised Publican, could not so much as lift up his eyes to Heaven, but smote upon his breast, saying, “God be merciful to me a sinner.” “I tell you” said this anointed instructor, “he went down justified rather than the other. O what a rebuke to our selfrighteousness, what an incentive should this be to all to dwell low, to clothe or to be clothed with the spirit of meekness and self-renunciation that shines out so clear in the text, and in the whole life and ministry of Jesus Christ. When I reflect on my past life and feel how far I come short, I am humbled in the dust and say “Who is sufficient for these things?” By the rich promises are we induced to press on. “To
[l The allusion of the author, at this point, is probably to circumstances connected with the history of early Friends, though it is of course, uncalled for, even in that relation. EDS. INTELL. AND JOURNAL..]
him that overcometh will I give the white stone and new name written upon it, which no man knoweth save he that receiveth it.” How high, how deep is the blessedness of this new name. “Holiness unto the Lord.” This entitles to a place in the guest chamber of our all-merciful Father, with Cherubim, Seraphim and the angelic host that no man can number, that swell the anthem of Holy, Holy, to the just and true; the one Infinite, Eternal, Redeeming Power; the present Saviour and Ancient of Days. How trifling then will seem the trials and provings we have endured here. They will vanish away as the morning cloud and early dew. May the disconsolate lift up their heads in hope, the bereaved cling close to Christ Jesus the Rock of our strength, the benign spirit of Jehovah our everlasting Father. SARALI HUNT.
Seventh Month 18th, 1885.
For the Intelligencer and Journal. MID- WEEK MEETINGS.
CoMMUNICATIoss have frequently appeared in the organs of our Society discussing the propriety and necessity of observing the requirement of our Discipline in regard to the attendance of midweek meetings. In a late number of the INTELLIGENCER AND Journal, I notice a statement that “A majority of our membership believe their attendance on midweek meetings is not a necessity, and therefore feel willing to absent themselves whenever it is most convenient or agreeable to do so; ” and further: “A majority of those who do attend do it because a law of the church makes it a duty which they are not willing to neglect ’’; and suggesting as a remedy the changing the day of meeting to one more suitable and agreeable to the members. This, of course, is now the right of each meeting or congregation to decide for itself. Now, while I would gladly resort to any change of day that would tend to remove the cause of delinquency so much complained of, yet I fear the cause lies much deeper than any such change would reach or remedy. The institution of mid-week meetings by our early predecessors arose from a sense of the need of those seasons of retirement from our worldly concerns, and in a united labor to feel after the invigorating influence of Heavenly good, binding us more closely together; for “as iron sharpeneth iron, so doth the countenance of a man his friend.” Now it has been my lot to notice with sorrow that as any of our members have gradually neglected those meetings, they have generally more and more lost their interest in the Society. On the other hand, a faithful observance of this duty, (which becomes a precious privilege), has been blessed, and I know not of any one who has been faithful therein though leaving their outward affairs to do so, can look back and see wherein they have suffered loss, and I feel to encourage all my fellow members to faithfulness in the observance of this reasonable duty, believing as I do that no means of good can safely be neglected.
J. Seventh Month, 1885.
PRACTICAL SLAVERY IN AUSTRALIA.
HE British Friend for Seventh Month says: For many years the measures taken by the colonists in Queensland to obtain colored laborers for their sugar plantations have given occasion for loud Complaint both in Australia and here. The letter from Brisbane, published in the Times of the 18th ult, extracts from which will be found on another page, while giving unequivocal proof of the dark crimes connected with the labor traffic, and the reality of the slavery, by whatever name it may be called, which exists in the colony, also gives ground for the hope that the present government of Queensland is determined to put a stop to these enormities. “One of the planks of the platform on which this government stepped into power was the cry “Queensland for the white man and no black labor,” and in 1883 it framed stringent regulations to prevent the atrocious iniquities incident to the South Sea labor trade. These regulations having proved inadequate, a Commission Was appointed to inquire into the methods pursued by the crews of the labor ships in obtaining colored recruits, After three months of careful investigation this Commission has published its report, and great excitement has been aroused throughout the colony. It would have been strange had it been otherwise when the verdict of the Commissioners in regard to all the vessels engaged in the traffic which have been examined is, “that the natives were seduced on board under false pretences, or kidnapped,” and in regard to the history of the cruise of one of them, the Hopeful, they say, in their report, that it is “one long record of deceit, cruel treachery, deliberate kidnapping, and cold-blooded murder.” Nor is this all; it has been stated as some abatement from the horrible cruelties practised by Arab men-stealers in the Soudan, that those who survive are kindly treated in the homes of their Turkish or Egyptian masters. This, whether true or false, is no palliation for the crimes of those who stole them. But a fearful addition to the crimes of British traders in human labor, whether those who steal or those who purchase, is set forth in such statements as these: Of the recruits by the Ceara, 24 per cent. died within one year of their settlement in the sugar plantations; of the Sybil recruits, 16 per cent. died in four months; and of the Eleath recruits, 25 per cent. in two months and a half! It appears that for some years the sugar planters of Northern Queensland have greatly resented the restrictions placed upon them by the Government of the Colony, and, comparing small things with great, they wish to follow the example of the slave States of North America on the election of Abraham Lincoln to the Presidency of the Union. They claim that Queensland should be divided, and that its northern division should form a separate and independent colony.
The Brisbane letter referred to contains the following details. They are obtained from the report of a committee of the Queensland Parliament. The laborers are obtained from the islands of the Pacific, being chiefly the natives of New Guinea, the Louisiade archipelago, and the D'Entrecasteaux group of
islands. The report gives an outline of eight voyages by six vessels—viz., the Ceara, the Lizzie, the Hopeful, the Forest King, the Sybil, and the Heath, and the verdict of the Commissioners on all of them is that the natives were seduced on board under false pretences or kidnapped; that the nature of the so-called engagements to go and work in Sugar plantations in Queensland was never fairly or fully explained to them; that the “recruits” had little or no comprehension of the kind of work they had to perform, and that the period for which they did agree to serve, when any real engagement was made or appreciated, was in no case three years—the orthodox term of a kanaka's hire. Where not forcibly kidnapped, the islanders would seem to have been decoyed on board the labor vessels under pretence that they were going to “sail about,” to “work the ship,” to “go to white man's country to walk about,” to “go and see white man's island,” to “go and fish on the reef for beche-demer; ” vaguely, to “go and work in Queensland ;” very seldom were they told they were to be employed in hard and continuous labor on sugar plantations. The periods of time which they were informed they would be absent from their islands were very diverse, ranging from a night up to thirty moons, but generally it was never more than two or three moons. While the record of any of the voyages is sufficient to condemn, in the judgment of impartial men, a system built up on deceit, cruelty, and treachery, there is one which especially is a disgrace to the fair fame of British seamen, of any British colony or dependency, and even to humanity itself. The voyage of the Hopeful will, I venture to say, form the blackest and most villainous tale of the sea and of the traffic in human beings read for nearly a century past. Captain Shaw, the boatswain Williams, and the recruiting agent M’Neil, appear to have started on their voyage with their minds made up, come what would, that they would return to Queensland with a good cargo of “boys.” They had a useful assistant, in a certain colored missionary teacher, Eponisa by name, who is evidently an adept in all the arts of persuasion. This man would make tempting displays of tomahawks, tobacco, and calico; would promise these either to the “boys” themselves or to their parents, and would assure every laborer that he “would be back in two moons.” But deceit had very soon to be supplemented by force. Natives coming up to the ship's side in their canoes and holding out their hands for tobacco were caught and dragged on board. Others were ordered into the boats under threats of being shot; and when M’Neil, returning to the shore for a fresh supply, found the remaining natives fled, he punished them by setting fire to their houses. After about a fortnight of this sort of work the captain of the Hopeful began to be disgusted with his slow progress, and thought it necessary to adopt more decided measures. It was then that the scenes took place, the story of which was incompletely told at the trial of M’Neil and Williams. When the canoes from Ferguson Island came out to trade with the ship, two boats were lowered; the natives became alarmed and turned shorewards; and the boats tried to row them down. Finding that he did not gain upon the canoe, M’Neil deliberately shot the steersman, and, terrified by his fall, the other natives leaped into the water. How many were drowned does not appear, but four were “rescued ” by the boat's crew ; that is to say, were saved from death and reserved for slavery. The achievements of Williams and his crew Were even more horrible; one islander was shot, another had his throat cut in the attempt to escape, and “a little boy, being of no use as a recruit, was cast adrift on two cocoanuts, which were tied together and placed under his arms. The little fellow was seen to slip from the cocoanuts, and was drowned in the Surf.” A few days afterwards, at Normanby Island, the same heroes pursued a company of natives into the bush, and shot three or four of them. At another place in the same island some natives were forcibly kidnapped, and about the 10th of June, at Harris Island, the murders took place for which M’Neil and Williams were afterwards tried. A week later, at the island of Coiawata, two canoes were “cut” by M’Neil, and nine natives had the alternative of drowning or being taken on board the ship's boats. In these ways the ship returned in July to Queensland, having at one time had no fewer than 150 captives on board, though of these it is satisfactory to learn that twenty-eight had at one time escaped by swimming ashore, a distance of two miles. To complete the story it may be added that two of the interpreters deserted on the voyage, and that the remaining one was schooled as to what he was to say to the Polynesian inspector on arrival in the colony. He was to declare that there had been no kidnapping, no shooting, and that all the boys had come willingly to work in Queensland for three years.
THE FIRST-DAY SCHOOLS.
FNCOURAGEMENT FOR THOSE IN THE WORK.
EAR FRIENDS: For a long time it has been the feeling of my mind to speak through our valuable paper in regard to First-day schools, and also in giving space to First-day school work. In the first place I and much pleased and encouraged to read, (as it is almost the first thing I do), of the good workings in the different schools. I believe it is the stepping stone to the upholding and upbuilding of Society of all kinds to educate the minds of the young in the way of said society, and moreover in behalf of our beloved religious association. We are told that just as the twig is bent the tree is inclined, and so the young minds are bent by the simple and plain teachings of our Blessed Master, (through our instrumentality, who said: “Suffer the children to come unto me and forbid them not.” O, dear Friends, shall it be said that we forbade them to come, by making so light of this matter? In my mind it is the most essential point, for in the future, on the young depends the strength of our Society, for truly the older ones are fast passing away, and who will hold the “building” up, if the young are not hewn out and shaped to take the places of the older and faithful pillars? In the second place, I do love to see a certain amount of room in this instructive sheet set apart for First-day school talk. It encourages me, and I
think all who delight in and enjoy the work of being instrumental in the hands of the All Wise Teacher, to instruct the minds of the young in the way of the truth, and thereby open before them the simple, plain and true religion of Jesus Christ. I have taken some space in your paper, but I trust it may be a seed of encouragement to SOme. W. D. WILLIAMS.
HACKETTSTown, N.J., 7th mo. 20.
PREPARATION OF THE LESSON LEAVES.
According to adjournment, the Literature Committee of the Executive Committee of the General Conference of First-day Schools, met at Plainfield N. J., 7th mo, 25th. Three sessions were held. Lessons for the smaller children were adopted and will be published in Scattered Seeds, commencing in the Ninth Month. Lessons for intermediate classes were also adopted, and will be published in a supplement to Scattered Seeds.
The Committee, in accordance with the wishes of very many First-day School workers, have decided to issue Friends' lessons upon the subjects contained in the International Series, commencing with 9th mo. 13th. The subjects for the remaining lessons of this year are as follows.
The Shunamite's Son; 2 Kings, 4; for 9th mo. 13.
For 9th mo. 27th and 12th mo. 27th, schools will take up special subjects, no lessons being provided for those dates.
The teaching in these lessons will be based on the principles and testimonies of the Society of Friends. A series of Bible Lessons, to begin with the Creation, is in course of preparation, but to meet the imperative demand, particularly in the West, it was deemed best to adopt this plan, corresponding to the “International,” for the remainder of the year, and if the lessons should prove satisfactory they will be continued.
The Committee fully realize the responsibility and labor necessary to the proposed work, and urgently request all interested and concerned friends to aid by contributing ideas, suggestions, &c.
JNo. W.M. HuTCHINson,
225 Waverly Place, N. Y. Clerk of Committee,
NEW YORK TEMPERANCE WORK.
Tag report of the Temperance Committee of New York Yearly Meeting refers to two very interesting conferences held,—one at Plainfield, N. J., and one in New York city. Both were well attended. The report states: “From information so far as received from our several Monthly Meetings, it appears that but few of them have given any particular attention to this subject, but we have been encouraged with the many evidences that have been furnished us that there is a growing interest on the part of a large number of our members, and a desire to do something in the furtherance of this good cause. We would encourage our Monthly Meetings to look carefully into the subject and see if a way does not open for them to appoint committees to labor as truth may unfold; for we believe that labor thus sought after and entered into, will tend to the accomplishment of much good. “One way through which we believe much useful labor may be accomplished is through the medium of conferences held in Our Several meeting-houses, where the different phases of the subject may be considered and plans of work arranged for. Where such conferences have been held, they have always been found to be suggestive and beneficial. * * * “In addition to the distribution of literature, we have sent out during the past year a number of carefully selected books and pamphlets to the several First-Day Schools and Monthly Meetings within our limits. “In making this selection of literature we were guided by a desire to provide some works of a standard character that could be profitably used in their respective libraries. “In addition to these we have also furnished to the several secular schools under the care of Friends a copy of a standard work entitled ‘Alcohol and Science.’” Aro It was recommended that $150 be appropriated to the use of the committee.
A MODERN CASTLE OF INDOLENCE.
“Come Sleep I O Sleep, that certain knot of peace,
“Of all the thoughts of God, that are
Along the Psalmist's music deep;
‘He giveth His beloved sleep.’”
—E. B. B.
HE surrounding circumstances of this place have a gently soothing influence on wearied nerves and tired brains. The long warm bath enjoyed every day, the social accompaniments, the retired, cozy, cottage, the unlimited leisure, the entire freedom from care, in short the abounding comfort of the Warm Springs, induce most restful and oft repeated sleep. One might venture to recommend watchful
temperance in eating, in this place and at this time, when much physical exercise is quite out of the question. Late in the afternoon we quietly walk down the valley, following the course of the brook which flows from the wonderful Springs. Soon the little village of Germantown is reached and a short additional stroll takes us to a cottage-crowned summit from which we have a view of the Valley for many miles and of the sunset heavens. The softness and richness of the landscape are remarkable, and from this site there are to be defined many truly perfect scenes to delight both painter and connoiseur. Some years ago, we are told, an artist, grand-daughter of John Tyler, decided on the purchase of this spot with the view of making of it a £ummer home, but a farmer bid a little higher for the ten acres of land, and, very naturally, obtained it for his center of farming operations. As we consider the question of real estate, down sinks the sun behind the everlasting hills, and we promptly return in the gloaming to the home shelter, hard by the spring of healing whose waters are smoking down the meadow pathway. Shall we stroll up the meadow by the margin of the brook, attempting to botanize a little? The deep grass is unmown and one shrinks from the possible covert of poisonous snakes. The rattleSnake is the terror of these mountains, tho’ there are perhaps not many lives lost by the bite of this rather sluggish creature. We have not heard of one here. Doubtless the universal dread of a poisonous snake is well founded, and the only path of wisdom in the Spongy meadows of the Warm Springs is to give a wide berth to the loathsome and venomous reptile. Within a few days a rattlesnake of pretty large size was killed in the public road very near the village of Germantown, and not very long ago a moccason was encountered On the road to Milboro. The fuller cultivation of the land and the use of the mowing machine, it is believed, will greatly diminish the number of snakes which now endanger human life in these mountains. Most of us have never seen the deadly moccason of the South, which is said never to get as far north as Pennsylvania. It is an ugly, malignant creature of which a great fear is felt. The negroes, who, from poverty, are apt to go barefoot, are the most liable to their bites, and as they are found in marsh lands, the person bitten is advised to keep the bite in water and tie a ligature tight between the wound and the heart, and remain in the water to allow the wound to be as fully washed as possible. When a person has a very sharp knife and sufficient nerve it is advised to cut away the part right around the bite. A lady of South Carolina who is now a fellow guest of ours tells us with a shudder how a moccason on one occasion dropped into her boat on the river, probably from an over hanging })ranch. Her husband said that if he were confronted with such a dread and loathsome death, he should have thrown himself into the river, leaving the snake in undisputed possession of the boat. But the lady immediately siezed an oar and attacked the snake with such energy that he was killed. Then the blows were continued with such a will that she almost shattered the bottom of the boat, and yet the heroine assures us she would run with terror from a no-horm-cow. In the old rice fields or savannahs near Charleston, S. C., the moccasons are very numerous, and those who seek huckleberries in the Swamps are specially in danger—many being fatally bitten every year. It seems right to kill as many as possible of these enemies of the human and other nobler animals. There are estimated to be 179 varieties of snakes in North America, of which 27 are venomous. Of these, 18 are rattlesnakes, three are moccasons, One copperhead and five harlequins. But a far pleasanter theme for me are the darlings of Flora which nestle lovingly among the luxuriant meadow grasses. The wild rose is about done its work for this summer and just fades away in its beauty, while the Asclepias tuberosa, richest and gayest of its numerous family, is sending forth its splendid head of orange bloom. It varies in color, deepening from a delicate pale tint on first opening to an intense orange as the flower develops. There is no fragrance, though the plant is deemed of value medicinally and is known, locally, as pleurisy root. As its name indicates it has a tuberous root. The Asclepias purpurescens is also very prevalent though far less elegant both in form and color. The familiar ox-eye daisy finds a foot hold everywhere and asserts itself by its hardy beauty. The Cimicifuga racemosa, very common in these regions, helps to decorate this valley of the hills. A Euphorbia of delicate form, the Cynoglossum officinale and others of homely pretentions adorn the waysides, and the golden rod is just opening its earliest blooms. Up on the hillsides and fringing the mountain ridges the blooming chestnuts “spread their palm, like holy men at prayer.” How elegant are the long graceful tassels of sterile flowers and how beautifully too, the fertile flowers show the purpose of their life work under the dissection of the prying pin. The curious and showy kalmia is about closing a most brilliant season, and the yet more regal rhododendron conserves a few sheltered clusters on lofty boughs to show how glorious was the spring time blooming. Species of this splendid shrub come from the loftier heights of the White Mts., from the Himalaya Mts... from Asia Minor, and from Java—and these give the many shades and the combinations which are the pride of the landscape gardener. A friend brings us the “Indian Physic,” as it is called; an elegant plant which I had never seen before. It is of the vast rose family and is of the genus Gillenia trifoliata. It is a handsome shrub 2 to 3 feet high, slender and nearly smooth. It has rose colored or nearly white petals, and a root with emetic and cathartic properties. But the drowsy air of this somnolent place is not favorable to botanic research. Perhaps it is enough to add that multitudes of our most familiar plants, are at hand everywhere, and there are abundance of patient bloomers of well known kinds that do not tax our skill in finding their names. We find the Lysimachias, Campanulas, Monardas Houstomias and many other fair sweet sisters that have only beneficent qualities, and a quiet tender beauty. It must be well for us to cultivate what germs there may in us of a love for Nature—simple and
So years ago I called one afternoon at a house where there were several daughters and one son —the youngest of the family—ten years of age. During my call upon the mother of this family her boy, full of life and vigor, came in from School, shouting, “Where's mamma 2° and a conversation like the following took place: “Ma, I’m going Over to play with the Beebe boys in the next street—can't I?” “No, James, you must stay at home and play near, where I can know just where you are.” “Oh, no, ma; I don’t want to. There’s no fun in our old yard, any way; besides, I told Henry Beebe I’d come.” So far.the conversation had gone on while the boy stood in the hall. The combat deepening, he walked into the parlor, was bidden to speak to me and to ask if my Charlie ever teased his mother, a question which he evidently thought superfluous to put, and not at all to the point. This small ruse on the part of the enemy was not to foil him, and he renewed the attack with greater energy, as if conscious that he was needlessly losing time. “I Say, ma, let me go.” “What are you going to do over there 2 You know I don’t like to have you go with those rough boys.” “Oh, we're just going to have some fun. I’ll be home to supper. Say quick, ma, I can go, Can’t I?” “Well, go along; don’t bother any longer,” and she added before the boy was out of hearing, “I Suppose you'd go, anyway, whatever I said about it !” This incident happened six years ago. The boy is now sixteen years old; has been Out of School—mnch against his parents’ wishes–-a year and a half, because he would not study—“All the boys were leaving school and getting places,” he said. And “you know,” said his mother to me, “you know it is hard to expect a boy to keep to his books when the whole influence of his companions is in a different direction.” Of course, if mother's are not to see to it that the home influence is stronger, Sweeter and higher than the outside force, thought I. “We are a little worried over James,” she continued. “What worries you?” “Oh, I don’t know that we have much reason to worry, only he never wants to spend his evenings at home. He is'nt out very late, and, of course, after business all dayf which is pretty dull for a boy, he must have some recreation.” “Do you know where he spends his evenings?” “Oh, he always says he's with the ‘fellows’.” “Could you not hove “the fellows', as he calls them, come to your house occasionally, and So make a pleasant evening?” “Dear me!” she replied, “James laughs at that proposal, and says, “Why, ma, we should have a gay time here. You don’t know boys'.” A few days ago I met a gentleman of business and said: “What do you know about the young men in