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arrival home being on the 26th of Sixth month. It oil will stir some messenger of the Gospel with power is but a slight matter to go now to what it was when to prepare a lesson leaf for our schools that will this was a wilderness country, when Friends then lead us into the truth !
W. C. STARR. could go and endure so much for the sake of fulfil
Richmond, Ind., Seventh mo. 14th, 1885. . ling their religious duty, even so now the reward is
ESSAY READ AT TRENTON.
THE TEACHING BY
[Read at the meeting of Burlington First-day School Green Plain, O.
Union held at Trenton, N. J., in Third mo.last, in THE FIRST-DAY SCHOOLS.
answer to the question, "Is it not the duty of
Friends to promulgate the principles of the Society in LESSON LEAVES."
our First-day Schools.” The press of other matter has Now let me add my feeble commendation of the editorial in your good paper of Sixth month 27th, crowded it out, until this time.-Eds.] and also of notice of same by “ R.," in the number While we may not think that it is needful to following. I desire not to be too conservative, and teach our children to adhere strictly to the style of become a fossil of tradition, but with my spirit to dress and address which are thought to be so requidraw in new life by every inspiration in daily life. site by many of our Society, is it not very important
The older we grow and we are many of us grow that we should teach them those noble principles ing old) the more we should attain of personal know which are contained in our discipline as regards ledge of spiritual things, leading us out from the Temperance, Peace, Honesty, Brotherly Love, Kind. teaching of schools and many times from accepted ness, Charity, and all the other attributes which conpoints of doctrine of so-called faith. In fact, a ques- stitute a consistent Christian ; therefore should they tion sometimes arises, Are we wise in believing any not be made a prominent feature in the instructions tenet of faith merely because it is "accepted ?” The given in our First-day school? What other princi
mind the light” rule will lead us to a bigher and ples can we teach that will be of greater benefit to better insight, a purer atmosphere of truth than the the children than the principles that are promulstudy of and attempt to believe the dusty and decay. gated by the Society of Friends ? Are they not the ing dogmas of the dark ages. Hence the use of any foundation for every consistent Christian, it matters of the “Lesson Leaves ” of the so-called Evangeli- not to what particular church creed he may subcal churches must tend to blind the user thereof as scribe ? Independent of that, there must be a living they are blinded.
out of the commandments of God, and the teachings In saying this I do not condemn their use by those and examples of Jesus. Is it not our duty to enfor whom they are written, because they are up to deavor to mold the children who are entrusted to their measure, and they are an improvement on Pa- our care in such a manner as will cause them to ganism (Patagonian I mean), but the dwarfing poi. develop into a manhood and womanhood that will son finds a lodgment in the spirit that is made mel- be a blessing to the different communities in which low and tender by the study of the beauty and truth they may reside, as well as being the means of their of pure living, The awakened emotions of love realizing the satisfaction to be derived from a wellwarm the weed germs into life, and they become a spent Christian life, which can be accomplished by part of us before we know it. I do not wish to ar- their fully understanding, aud then living out the raign those who differ with and repudiate) us, too principles of our Society. Should we not teach rudely, por would I recommend a pushing to the them that if they will heed the light, which lighteth front of the views of some of our own writers. They every one that cometh into the world, and allow the may be right, but they partake of temerity, and spirit of Christ to control them, it will lead them have produced darkness when I gaye them shelter. aright in all things, and they will thereby be enabled What to use in our First-day schools as text-books to know what their Heavenly Father requires of
The "leaves” furnished by the them. Jesus did not teach that Christianity conGeneral Conference do not seem to meet the wants sisted in a belief in any particular creed, for both by of our teachers, and we have waited patiently, hop- precept and example he showed that there was a ing an acceptable system would appear. The “In- work for us all to perform. If we would fulfill our ternational” and “ Berean” leaves are used by many mission while on earth, be true followers of him, we of our schools, not from choice, but for want of must show our love to God by extending it to our something better. One singular point continually fellow-men and women, and whatsoever we would makes faces at us. It is the fact that so few of our that they should do unto us, we should do unto them, approved” ministers take any part in our schools. for by our fruits shall we be known. It is not every
They claim a superior degree of anointing to one that saith Lord, Lord, that shall enter into the preach the Gospel. They (some of them) attend our kingdom of heaven, but he that doeth the will of the conferences and commend our labors, are profuse in Father which is in heaven. It is therefore important words of counsel and encouragement. Now, if their that we should thoroughly impress upon their minds “ feeling sense" approves of the effort made by the that the teachings of Jesus are intended for practice schools, why do they not “suffer the little children in all the relations of life. The idea has been too to come to them?” This is a
This is a “mystery of Godli prevalent that it is what we believe, not the lives ness” that is often inquired after.
that we live, that constitutes the true Christian, If the children were suffered more the church makes us acceptable in the sight of God, and will would suffer less. Oh! wo do pray that the vials of eventually secure us a passport to heaven. Those teachings have had a tendency to impress upon the book without some degree of spiritual harm. And' youth, as well as many who are more advanced in of course, the more such stuff he reads, the greater years, that the right kind of life was of minor im- the evil to his mind, heart, and whole character. As portance compared with their subscribing to certain Bishop Alonzo Potter says, “ It is nearly an axiom, doctrines considered essential to salvation, and almost that people will not be better than the books they all that was required of them to be a Christian. read." Educated with those ideas, when they have been If a whole summer of such dissipation must lead assailed by temptation how many are led astray, not to the moral debasement and spiritual degradation only in the ordinary walks of life, but those who are even of the strongest, then what must be its effects on holding high positions in our churches, and in the the young, on those whose tastes and characters are community at large. "As we sow, so shall we reap," still weak and unformed? Of what avail is the most then is it not evident that there has not been the careful guardianship and the wisest guidance at home, proper kind of instruction given in our homes, our if, during the weeks of vacation, all counsel and schools, or in our churches, or we would not have restraint be omitted, and the reading of our young such a harvest of dishonesty, untruthfulness, and boys and girls left to chance, or misdirected by careintemperance, with all the evils attending those con- less, evil example? Those few weeks of parental ditions as we are reaping, to the dishonor of this negligence will outweigh all the rest of the year's nation. If we, as a people and as a nation, are ever watchfulness and care. elevated to a higher standard of morality, and develop If care and affectionate oversight and guidance are into consistent Christians with strength of purpose to needed at home, they are needed even more when do our Heavenly Father's will, and practice justice, away from home and its wholesome moral atmosphere love mercy, and walk humbly before Him, it will and influences.
Hundreds of young have to be done by educating the youth to the im- people return from a summer vacation with their portance of not only believing in Christ, but in living literary tastes perverted, filled with unwholesome out his noble precepts and example while on earth fancies, a morbid sentimentalism the result of their ELIZABETH A. ROGERS.
upguided summer reading.
In reference to the great preference for that which SUMMER READING.
is new in literature he writes : In one of our exchanges (the S. S. Times) we note human mind how this literary prurience after new
“It is an unwritten chapter in the history of the a seasonable article with the above title, which is a print unmans us for the enjoyment of the old songs forcible presentation, coupled with a commendable chanted forth in the sunrise of human imagination." disapproval, of the too frequent custom of indulgence The best that has been written is by no means the in trifling reading, during the recreative days of a latest; the best poetry, biography, essays, history, summer vacation. The article too is suggestive of how few of our young people have read them! Why
humor, romances, -they are among the oldest. But what may be read, as well as what should not be not devote the summer leisure, for a change, to readread.
ing some of “the best," instead of “the latest," works As the counsel may not be amiss to some of our of light literature, about which everybody has read own “ household of faith.” We give the following and talks, but which ninety-nine out of a hundred
have never themselves really read ? Of old or new, extracts: EDS.
there certainly is no lack of thoroughly enjoyable, There is no season of the year in which there is yet morally pure and wholesome, sunimer reading. more trash read than during the midsummer weeks " Where we go,” said a lady, "one has to read or months, when nearly every one takes some kind trash or nothing.' And it is only too true that, of a vacation. People seem naturally and willingly while of trash there is always an abundance to be to fall into a sort of literary demoralization then. had at our summer resorts, at not a few of them Just as, in too many other respects, they deem it really good reading is not as plentifully offered. allowable, and even necessary, to lay aside the re- That, however, is but a poor excuse, and no justificastraints of social propriety, morality, and religion,- tion for indulgence in the worthless, poisonous stuff I had almost said of civilization and humanity, offered. Every one prepares for his own and his during the weeks they spend in the mountains, the family's bodily comfort and convenience before he country, or by the seashore, so in the matter of their goes to the country or seashore. He makes provision reading during this season, they give full and free for the contingency of not being able there to get the run to their natural passions and propensities, and clothing and equipments they like, by laying in a with strange abandon Aivg away all regard for true, store according to taste, and taking them along; Christian culture, taste, and refinement. I do not
I do not Why not do the same for the comfort and health of speak of all, of course, but of very many, surprisingly the mind ? Why not all through the year gradually many, more than I would have thought possible, had lay up a store of books for summer reading?. They not experience and observation painfully convinced can then be chosen at leisure, intelligently, judiciously, me of the extent of this annual reversion to literary wisely, instead of, as too often, simply being left to barbarism.
chance. A great part of the evil that comes with so It may, I think, be confidently affirmed, that no much of the ordinary summer reading would be one, however strong in his convictions and thoroughly effectually avoided if only a tithe of the care, forefixed his tastes, - no one can read even a single bad sight, and expense devoted to preparing for our bodily
comfort and health during vacation were also applied SANITARY SCIENCE: SOILS AND HEALTH. to preparing for the health and comfort of the spirit. Surely, if the one is worthy of it, the other is not less The soil, especially the first few inches or feet worthy.
helow the surface, is the ante-chamber of life,—the
laboratory in which operate incessantly the proPOETRY.
cesses by which inert matter is prepared for the nourishment of life. It is this, because it is also the
tomb of all terrestrial living matter. Here is the STILL WILL WE TRUST."
realization of the Phoenix-myth; the slow combusStill will we trust, though earth seem dark and dreary, tion of organic matter leaving a residuum, from which
And the heart faint beneath His chastening rod; springs the new life of succeeding generations. Though rough and steep our pathway, worn and weary These processes of the transformation of matter Still will we trust in God!
are the work of the low forms of microscopic life Our eyes see dimly till by faith anointed,
which are known as bacteria, and are gifted with the And our blind choosing brings us grief and pain; capacity of enormous and immensely rapid multipliThrough Him alone who hath our way appointed cation. This world of microscopical life is vast We find our peace again.
regards the distribution and number of its living Choose for us, God! nor let our weak preferring,
entities. These minute organisms are known to be Cheat our poor souls of good Thou hast designed ; intimately connected with many of the fundamental Choose for us, God! Thy wisdom is unerring, processes of the organic world, and our knowledge of And we are fools, and blind.
their range of activity is constantly increasing. So from our sky the night shall furl her shadows, They may be considered practically to stand in
And day pour gladness through his golden gates ; close genetic relations to many diseases; but the Our rough path lead to flower-enamelled meadows, question of absolute differentiation of forms with Where joy our coming waits.
specific functions, or of the possibility of Protean Let us press on in patient self-denial,
functional characteristics among them, varying with Accept the hardships, shrink not from the loss; their surroundings, is one of the present great proOur guerdon lies beyond the hour of trial,
blems of biology. Our crown beyond the cross.
The great majority of pathologists now consider -Selected.
the infectious, and most of the contagious, diseases to
be dependent on these low forms of life; and the THE POWER OF ANOTHER'S FAITH.
tendency is, to consider that certain diseases or groups
of diseases are produced only by specific
forms of bacteria. She looked upon me as a little child,
These organisms are wide-spread, especially the And praise and confidence were in her eyes, various forms that are associated with putrefaction Some simple word she said of future worth: My heart received it with a glad surprise,
and mould. Only on high mouutains, and far from
land on the ocean, is the air practically free from It was not any studied word she spoke;
them. Elsewhere the air, water, and soil teem with ' Save as the faith of all great love forebodes;
them. Their abundance is necessarily proportionate But nought may measure now its power on me.
to the amount of decomposing organic matter in the
neighborhood, since they are themselves the scavenAnd, ever since, that glance and kindly tone
gers, on which the processes of decomposition depend. Have been my inspiration and reward ;
Few people realize what an important part the Through weakness, failure, and all wayward sin, The hope to some time merit that regard
soil plays in our lives. The water we drink (unless
from cisterns) has leached through it. The air we Reproves my wrong, nerves my forgetful hand, breathe is frequently loaded with its dust. It is in
Persuades me ever this low life above, Waiting before me as a calling high
our food. Projected there by her far seeing love.
The soil is highly porous; and the interstices be
tween the grains are filled with water or with air, When shall I reach that height of noble worth, "ground water” or “ground-air." The ground air
Risen higher now with her translated soul? For still I only fail; and those expectant eyes
fluctuates with the varying barometric pressure, and Still see me yielding to life's low control.
with the rise and fall of the ground-water in rainy
and dry seasons. The ground-water flows according I never may. Yet would that every child
to the common laws of hydrostatics, but with a moveMight see such radiance gleam upon his youth, Might feel the thrill vibrating through his life,
ment retarded by friction. When one so rests her faith upon his truth!
A town on a river-flat is built over a continuous
sheet of slowly moving subterranean water, and most Though far, so far, that true life still appears,
houses are built where water is accessible within a I would each child might know the saving power Of one whose faith strikes through the tempting years, few feet from the surface. In view of the fact that And bodes fair fruitage in his opening hour?
our wells and the cellars of our houses are in more — Christian Register.
or less close proximity to these centres of pollution, it was thought desirable to ascertain to what extent
the different soils act as filters in arresting the spores He who waits to do a great deal of good at once of bacteria. This investigation, which was carried will never do anything.--Samuel Johnson.
out for the National Board of Health by the writer,
BY E. C. L. BROWNE.
assisted by Dr. Smyth, brought out very clearly natural topography is disregarded. Lowlands and three facts:
marshes which are traversed by sewage.fed brooks I. All soils finer than very coarse sand have are covered with a network of high-graded streets, practically a continuous capacity for arresting the which convert the blocks into sewage basins, which spores of bacteria from infected air filtering through come, in time, to underlie blocks of dwellings of all them.
classes. II. No soil, no matter how fine, can arrest and In other cases, low or marshy ground is made the hold back the spores of bacteria contained in water. dumping-ground of the city, and receives the sweepThe experiment on which this statement rests con- ings of the street, the contents of the ash and garbage sisted in filtering unsterịlized water through one barrels --everything, in fact, that cannot pass through hundred feet of pipe filled with fine sand which had the sewers or be sold. The entire material is loaded been sterilized by heating to a red heat. This pipe with organic matter which is kept in a state of very was connected by an air-tight joint with a flask of slow decomposition by moisture. sterilized beef-infusion, and the whole apparatus left Some of the costliest dwellings of our cities rise for several weeks before use. The first drop of water upon such soil. We may take every precaution to that passed through these hundred feet of sand avoid in our homes the dangers that arise from a infected the beef-infusion, causing it to putrefy. polluted soil, and may yet fall victims to the filthy
III. Neither bacteria nor their spores can detach condition of remote places, over which we have no themselves from a liquid or from a wet soil, and pass control. into the air, except through the conversion of the Among many others there are two exceptionally water into spray, or through the formation of dust by frequent sources of danger of this kind. One of these evaporation.
is the farmer's well, which is rarely safe, and, when The chief practical inferences from these results not used to adulterate milk, is used to rinse milk are, that distances, even of hundreds of feet, between pans and cans, and leaves upon their surfaces a wells and cesspools, are no protection against infec- source of contamination. The other frequent instance tion, and that a dry or an alternately wet and dry is the use, by druggists, of water from wells or from cellar may be more dangerous than a permanently cisterns, which are often anything but sewage-proof.
Throughout the country, and often in the cities, the These results emphasize the importance of an in- use of only distilled water in compounding medicines telligent survey of the condition of the soil in select- is far from universal; and I have had analyses made ing a home, and of a legislation prohibiting the pollu- of lime-water bought at a druggist's, which was tion of the soil.
highly contaminated with organic matter. The In many towns and cities, the privy-vaults and druggist's well, moreover, is the source of most of the leaching cesspools of every house draiu really into the soda-water throughout the country, as well as in many sheet of ground-water; the soil arrests the coarse cities where the water-rates are high.
A person havmaterial, the grease and slime; but the swarming ing a harmless disturbance of the bowels, arising bacteria diffuse with ease, as much as the soluble from a cold, is just in the condition to suce b to chlorides and nitrates, and follow the flow wholly the dysentery or typhoid-fever lurking in the medicine unobstructed. Into this same soil are sunk or driven or Vichy-water from the too-much-trusted druggist. the wells; and the water that is drawn for use is -Raphael Pumpelly, in Science. polluted in proportion to the number and proximity of the vaults and cesspools, on the one hand, and the
SHOULD A COLLEGE EDUCATE ? thinness and sluggishness of the water-sheet, on the other. In the worst wells in daily use, the water In meeting the public on this matter of the course is distinctly colored with sewage; but the most of study, the college finds itself confronted with two deadly water may carry only the germs of typhoid or three false notions, so inveterate that they may fever or of dysentery, and be otherwise sparklingly well be classed as popular delusions. Each of these, clear, and so pure as to pass unchallenged through like most popular delusions, has crystallized round the most searching chemical analysis.
& convenient phrase. If the soil is polluted and very coarse gravel, this One such notion is that the choice of studies for indraught, loaded with the spores of bacteria, will any given youth should be governed by his own flow through the cellar to the warmer rooms. If the natural predispositions. In other words, he should soil is polluted and fine, and the ground water-surface “ follow his bent." This has a plausible sound, yet rises at any season to the level of the floor, or higher, to apply it to the college course would be to ignore it will evaporate as it oozes into the cellar, and leave the very purpose of the college. When it comes to an infected dust to be taken up into the circulation selecting a life occupation, a specialty for study or of the house-air. Similar results will follow from the practice, such as the various schools of the university leaching of the cesspool toward the cellar-wall, or undertake to furnish, a youth should, no doubt, from the filtration through the soil of sewage from a choose according to his taste and talent. But to broken or leaky drain ; which is very apt to exist in choose on that ground alone in his preparatory culture or just outside of the foundation-wall. The pollu- course would simply magnify any lack of balance in tions of soil and water already mentioned are of such bis original nature. As well might one advise a boy a general character, that, with ordinary forethought, at the gymnasium to devote himself to those exercises they can be guarded against; but there are others of in which he naturally excelled, to the neglect of a local character which are not revealed to a general all that found out his weak points; if the arms were survey. In the growth of many of our cities, the feeble, to use only the muscles of the thighs; if the thighs were undeveloped, to use only the arms. The unpractical study, no matter how useful it may be purpose of the college is to do for mind and char- for other purposes, if it is ineffectual for this. The acter what the gymnasium does for the physical real virus of people's misuse of this word lies in their powers ; to build up the man all round. If the taking it to mean, not effectual for one's end, student" hates mathematics,” it is probably because whatever it be, but effectual for that particular end his mind is naturally weak on the side of abstract which to them happens to seem the chief end of man. reasoning, and the hated study is therefore the very If a man's one aim is to have a successful farm, he study he needs. If he has a lofty disdain of litera- is apt to consider all studies unpractical that do not ture, it is very likely only an evidence of some lack bear directly on agriculture. If the great object of of that side of culture somewhere in his ancestry. another is to gain public office, to him that study There is nothing sacred about a " bent." So far from alone seems " practical" which directly subserves being an indication of Providence, it is apt to be a this end. Accordingly, there are always found wellmere indication of hereditory defect. If we look at meaning persons, not conversant with educational it from the side of its being a predisposition to weak- affairs, who consider the best studies, and those which ness in some particular directions, a bent away from for college purposes are most practical, as being comcertain lines of study (the form in which it chiefly pletely unpractical ; and who will always be trying shows itself in college), we can see that the sooner it to crowd in upon its courses those so-called practical is repaired by a generous mental diet, the better for studies, which, for the ends the college has in view the man and for the race to whose ideal perfection he would prove as unpractical as studies could be.—E. and his posterity are to contribute. Perhaps the R. Sill, in Atlantic Monthly. greatest danger to which the higher education is at present exposed is that of spreading before the
THE CUNNING OF BIRDS. student a vast number of miscellaneous subjects, all reoommended as equally valuable, and inviting him An interesting thing happened to me to-day, alto choose according to his bent. The result naturally though it was nothing novel in my experience. I is that the average boy follows that universal bent was walking through a sandy bit of ground near the of human nature towards the course that offers him river, hoping to catch a duck or two napping in the the easiest time. If this course happens to include weeds under the bank, when up from my very feet strong studies, easy only because he is specially jumped a sandpiper, a bird so dreadfully crippled interested in them, the harm is not so great; but if it that it was nothing short of a miracle that it lived. consists chiefly of light studies, introduced into the One wing utterly refused to perform its office, having curriculum only because somebody was there to evidently been broken at the shoulder; one leg had teach them, and somebody else wanted them taught also apparently been shattered; the creature's feath(and perhaps a little, too, because each counts one ers stood out every way, and altogether a more in a catalogue), then the harm is enormous. This miserable fowl was never seen, It squeaked wildly becomes evident enough if we use (as we may for as it hobbled out from under my feet and fluttered brevity's sake be permitted to do) the reductio ad and staggered painfully away before me. It tumbled absurdum of an extreme illustration ; if we suppose and rolled about in a fashion calculated at once to that some language håving a great history and a excite all a man's sympathy, and a full determination great literature, the Greek for example, is rejected to run and catch it. Animated by these emotions, in favor of some barbarous tongue embodying neither and particularly the latter, I set out at once in purhistory nor literature ; say for example, the Pawnee suit, dropping my cap as I did so for a reason that or the Eskimo; or if we suppose that for exercises will hereafter appear. After a step or two the bird in writing and reasoning is substituted the collecting lay as if wholly exhausted, but as I put out my hand of postage stamps of all nations, or practice on the to take it, it gathered a little strength and feebly guitar. Far short of any such violent extremes, evaded my grasp ; I followed and again essayed to there are perfectly well recognized differences capture it, but again missed it by a foot or two, and between the efficacy of one study and another in this operation, with like result, was repeated a dozen educating a college student. And it would seem times, until at last, when I had chased the sandpiper wiser to trust the choice to the governing body of about a dozen rods, it pulled itself together, ejacuthe college than to an inexperienced lad, swayed by lated “peetweek" in a mocking tone a number of some momentary whim, or by the class tradition of times, and flew away miraculously recovered, as
easiness” of one subject or another; in other sound and lusty a bird as ever was known. I drew words by his natural bent.
bead upon him with my gun, to show him how easily Another popular delusion concerning the college I could have paid him for his cheat if I had a desire course hinges on a common misuse of the word to do so, and then went back to pick up my cap. practical. It properly signifies effectual in attaining This done, I looked carefully about the ground and, one's end. So transferring the term to persons, we as I expected, found a nest scooped out in the sand call him a practical man who habitually employs with five olive-colored, mottled eggs in it. So I such means.
A "practical study," then, is in reality compromised by taking the eggs, well knowing that a study which is calculated to affect the end we have as many more would be laid within a week, and went in view in pursuing it. And since the end in view away, pluming myself that this old trick had grown of a college study is purely and simply the develop too thread bare to take me in at this late day, ment of the mind and character, any study is a Nearly all our earth building birds are acquainted practical study just to the extent that it is effectual with this artifice, and I have had them all attempt for this end. And any study is a completely to play it on me-sandpiper, sparrows, and the