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Israel's Middle Ages..

The Good Old Way...

Moral Training...
The Paper is issued every week.

Proposed Alterations in the Discipline......
The FORTY-SECOND VOLUME commenced on the 14th of Educational........
Second month, 1885, at Two DOLLARS AND FIFTY CENTS to

Extracts from Letters.. subscribers receiving it through mail, postage prepaid.

Editorial: Changes in Discipline........



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REMITTANCES by Mail should be in CHECKS, DRAFTS, or
P. O. MONEY-ORDERS; the latter preferred. Money sent by Mail | Poetry: Trust-Love Brings us Unity.
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Local Information.....
AGENTS:-EDWIN BLACKBURN, Baltimore, Md. The Library.....

Current Events......
BENJ. STRATTAN, Richmond, Ind.

Entered at the Post-Office at Philadelphia, Penna., as second-

Notices ......... class matter.






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Read at a Conference at Race Street Meeting-house.


hopeless task was before the hosts of Israel who came, fired with a religious fervor, to obey, as they believed,

the commands of Jehovah. Joshua, the leader, was According to the rather dubious chronology of of the great tribe of Ephraim, a man of resolution Archbishop Usher, the passage of the hosts of Israel and a warrior, but in no sense a prophet or a thinker over the Jordan occurred near the city of Jericho, and dreamer. He was by experience as well as by in the spring time of the year 1451 before Christ. nature fitted to the unrelenting fierce conflict by The river at that season was broad and deep, and the which the domain of Israel was to be established in passage at that time and place has been held to be the land of promise. miraculous. But it may be that natural causes, Geikie speculates as to the priestly stamp which operating in providential accord, were sufficient. would have marked the future of Israel, had Phine

From a letter of an Egyptian officer (a tribute has, the warlike and fiercely zealous son of Aaron, gatherer, probably) journeying in Palestine during been selected as the Captain of the Host; or had a the reign of Rameses II (the Pharaoh of the Exodus) son of Moses been appointed successor to his father. we learn that in these ages fords were more common In the latter case a hereditary monarchy could than bridges; cypresses, oaks and cedars of stately scarcely have been avoided. growth abounded; there were many lions, wolves Spies had preceded the coming of the tribes, and and hyenas; the ways were exceedingly rough; and they well knew that both barley and flax were ripe robbery abounded. The country had wealth of gold, in the Jordan valley, and that they would find susglass, gums, cattle, male and female slaves, ivory, tenance abundant. In memory of the happy passage ebouy, horses, chariots, goblets, dishes with handles, over the swollen and tumultuous flood, twelve great collars and ornaments of lapis lazuli, silver dishes, stones were brought up from the bed of the Jordan, vases of silver, precious stones, honey, goats, lead, and raised as a monument on the upper terrace of spears of brass, colors, beer, bread, geese, fruit, milk, the valley, on the western side, at Gilgal, the center pigeons, all of which indicated a rich civilized coun- of the new camp, about 500 feet above the bed of try. Joshua was not to enter in and possess merely the Jordan. This circle of twelve great stones was a savage region, but to conquer a land full of people the first sanctuary of Israel in Palestine. Many and strongly defended ; and to encounter a race who, such rings still exist in Moab and elsewhere, and though idolaters, had marked culture, as well as such are associated with the earliest forms of religion regular government, for the libraries gave name to in many lands. For years this noble site remained some of the cities.

the center of the host of Israel. Here they were in A fearful, and to all buman comprehension, a a land of plenty, among watered pastures, fruits, shadowy trees, springs of water, and descending acknowledged, was directed not only against murder brooks.

and idolatry, but disobedience to parents, inhumanity Says Geikie : "From their camp at Gilgal, the to the blind, to strangers, widows and orphans; or to eye wandered over a vast grove of majestic palms, the removal of a landmark of a neighbor. Says nearly three miles in breadth, and eight miles long, Geikie: “Mankind is slowly striving toward a standinterspersed, now in the late spring, with ripening ard so generous, pure, and lofty.” barley fields. The gray mountains rising behind, Another war of resistance, and conquest secured to only heightened the charms of the landscape by their Israel all south Palestine. Joshua was aged when dreary barrenness. At their base, and thus com- the next resistance of the native nations brought on manding the whole view, embowered in verdure, another war of conquest which ended with the watch were the temples and palaces of Jericho, a city tower of Mizpah, at the foot of Lebanon. The Batfamous for its wealth and luxury no less than for its tle of the Waters of Merom. position; and the object of the bitter hatred of Israel, Then followed the partition of the land among the as a centre of idol worship. It was, indeed the local tribes, the descendants of Joseph claiming the choice seat of the worship of Ashtaroth, the consort of Baal region in the center--the Ephraim of the antique --its very name meaning the City of the moon, which time, the Samaria of the days of Jesus. To the other is the symbol of that goddess." The capture and tribes were assigned other portions by the fatherly utter destruction of Jericho was the first step, and hands of the aged Joshua, or by lot. the strange miracle which facilitated it, makes the The Canaanites, not being utterly rooted out, record sound mythical.

gradually recovered from their overthrow, and were The heathenism of Syria seems to have been in at length able to hurl from them the yoke of Israel the highest degree degrading and foul, and its de in many places. The tabernacle was removed from struction was needful, that in this region might be Gilgal to Shiloh, a central locality among the hills established a reign of lofty ideas of an allegiance to of Ephraim; and Gilgal became a seat of Baal wor. the great omnipotent Jehovah," who loveth right- ship. The tomb of Joshua, who passed away at the eousness." Fifteen hundred years later its spread to age of 110, is believed to have been identified by a Rome was lamented by Juvenal as a calamity mark- traveler of our own times, Victor Guérin. ing the utter decay of the times.

Ephraim and Judah were the mightiest tribes, and The capture of the city of Ai by stratagem gave in time arose the office of Judge, drawn from the Israel prestige and a sure footing in the land. The example of the Phoenician tribes at the northwest. powers of Central Palestine fled before the Children Says Stanley: "From time to time deliverers in days of Israel, abandoning their pleasant villages and of trouble were raised up as occasion called, and the their fenced cities. At Shechem, in the centre of Spirit of the Lord came upon them: and again, on the land, all the people of Israel gathered between their death the central bond was broken.” We find the heights of Ebal and Gerizim. This valley was the corresponding office in the Carthaginian rulers the sacred place in Hebrew story, for here both at the time of the Punic wars. Othniel, Ehud and Abraham and Jacob had sojourned, and here Jacob Shamgar perhaps did not rule beyond the emergency had bought the burial place in which now was to be which called them forth. Not so with Gideon and laid the mummy of Joseph, as he had desired hun- with Deborah. In the career of both of these great dreds of years before. The well of Jacob was there, leaders and deliverers were indications of the coming and the oak beneath which he had buried the idols of hereditary monarchy. found among his people. The valley is esteemed the Stanley considers the long period of the “ Judges" most beautiful place in Palestine. It runs north and as analogous to the Middle or Dark ages in Christian south between the twin mountain ridges, the summits History, and adds: “I know not where we shall find of which are two miles apart. Rivulets, fed by eighty a better guide to conduct us, with a judgment at once springs, ran sparkling down the slopes and through just and tender, through the mediæval portion of the sunuy glen ; gardens of delightful fruits were Christian ecclesiastical history, than in the sacred doubtless then, as in later ages, flourishing around record of the corresponding period of the history of them; loveliest flowers perfumed the air, and the the Judges." whole scene was glorious when an abstract of the It was a time when “there was no king in Israel,” Law was inscribed upon slabs of stone made smooth and "every man did that which was good in his own with plaster. Then after sacrificial offerings from an eyes.” It was the long formative period of Israel's altar of unhewn stones, upon Ebal, the law was nationality; the time of evolution and development. solemnly read to the assembled tribes ranged face to This must account for the low ethical standard of face on the opposite slopes of the mountains. The many of the warrior chiefs, and hero women of the curses were responded to from Ebal, as were blessings times between the passage of Jordan by the host of for obedience by the host on Gerizim. The tribes Israel and the installation of Saul as monarch by descended from Leah and Rachel cried Ameu from Samuel, the last of the judges. It was 356 years, Ebal; and those descended from the handmaids 1451 to 1095. There was no regular succession of cried Amen froni Gerizim.

prophetic teachers, and frequent lapses into CanaanThoughtful and careful travelers assure us of the ite idolatry are recorded. remarkable acoustic qualities of this amphitheatre of The removal of the tabernacle from Gilgal and the the sacred mountains, and have tested it by reciting setting up of the santuary at Shiloh took place about the commandments antiphonally from the sides. 1444 B, C., just three years after the crossing of the

This scene of national consecration is unique in the Jordan. world's history, and the law of Israel here solemnly In all that period the one person plainly gifted

with prophetic instincts and heroic faith was Debo- thou not read lessons to our latest age, as to the God rah, the wife of Lapidoth. This family dwelt under given rights and duties of the mother in Israel, the a palm tree of Mount Ephraim, between Ramah and Prophetess, the Patriot unto whom the word of God Bethel, "and the children of Israel came up to her came? In her strong consciousness of the Great for judgment." This was about 350 years after the Deliverer she exhorts the host of Israel to " Praise crossing of the Jordan, and the conquest of the Jehovah." Neither does she claim any portion of country by Joshua. As might be expected, the the spoil, but calls upon Barak to arise and lead cap. Canaanite princes had recovered gradually their tivity captive. We hear no more of this great hero powers, and a second Jabin had established his sov. woman, and may believe that she returned to her palm ereignty in the castled city of Hazor, overlooking the tree house in the hills of Epraim to the home of her Waters of Merom above the Sea of Galilee.

husband Lapidoth, whence she judged, as before, her The Israelites were laid under tribute by this countrymen, in virtue of the divine unction which King of Canaan and in their misery “they cried abode with her, until her appointed years were done. unto the Lord.” The heads of Israel had ceased And for 40 years the land had peace. There are and ceased, until that she arose, “ Deborah a mother always lessons of instruction for every age in these in Israel.” The leaders came for counsel to this Records of Ancient Israel, when they are contemprophetess of the Palm, to whom, in those days of plated with due consideration of the stage of ad

“the word of God came.” vancement of the people, and of the circumstances It is given her to see that the true leader was to be which were about them. But if every act of Rulers, found far away in the north, in the country of Naph. beloved of God, be looked upon as an example for tali, in the sanctuary city of Kadesh Naphtali. Here the future imitation of mankind, we would have lived the chieftain Bárak, whose name indicates | justification for every crime. Slavery, murder, polyPhoenician origin, and him she summoned to come gamy, human sacrifice, revenge, hatred might all be to her, to hear and to obey the oracles of Jehovah. justified, if these writings were held to be the rule of

It is written, that Barak shrank from the duty practice as well as of faith. We do not hold ourpointed out, unless the seeress would go with him to selves dependent on these valued books, written by direct his movements. “I will go, I will go!” cried the devout and the gifted souls of the long ago, Deborah. Not Naphtali alone, but other tribes — though we perceive their instructive character and Zebulun, Issachar and Ephraim were soon in revolt; their high value. But the fountain of light and life and the war-cry of “After thee, Benjamin !" was which is within the soul of the pure in heart is the raised from that tribe, and lordly champions from eternal word of God. This is the constant affirmaManassah came to the gathering of the clans. De tion of our Church, and the principle for which we borah, herself traveled northward to Kadesh Naph- stand is growing more and more into favor with the tali, rousing to a burning enthusiasm the peoples wisest and the noblest throughout the earth. This among whom she passed.

“ Word of God" came with mighty power to the The muster was at Mount Tabor, with its broad Prophets of Israel and clothed them with unction green summit and marked by its isolation, while the and authority, such as no other power can confer. Canaanites encamped upon the fruitful plain of “But,” says Barclay, “the letter of the Scripture is Esdraelon with their chariots and cavalry, just in outward, of itself a dead thing, a mere declaration sight of Tabor. Deborah was with the host of Israel of dead things, but not the things themselves. Thereon Tabor, and Sisera the captain of the army of fore, it is not, nor can be, the chief or principle rule

in Arise Barak !" was Deborah's signal of the onset, and down from the wooded heights came Barak with his ten thousand of foot soldiers to meet the army

THE GOOD OLD WAY. with banners which opposed him on the plain below. Then, as we learn from Josephus, a tremendous storm “Except the Lord build the house, they labor in vain who of hail and rain burst over the plain, with biting build it. Except the Lord keep the city, the watchman waketh cold. The slingers and arches are disabled by the rain, and the swordsmen by the cold. “The stars in I have been led to refer to this Scripture declaratheir courses fought against Sisera," the River Kishon tion from reading the article in regard to the gathbecame a broad roaring torrent and the plain was ering of Friends in Philadelphia to consult as to the flooded, and the Canaanite army was overwhelmed means of keeping the members together, and while I and routed. Sisera fled for his life, and sunk a sup- unite with the expressions used, I feel that there can pliant, in the tent of Jael, Bedoin's wife, only to die be nothing better devised than the keeping to the smitten through the brain by the tent pin in the hand good old way, which is the life, light and spirit of of the matron who had feasted him" with curds from Christ in the heart, as other foundation can no man a lordly dish.”

lay than is laid, which is Christ. The story ends with the triumphant chaunt of the This leads away from outward formalities into the Seer Deborah as she pours forth the enthusiasm of plain, simple path of self-denial— away from any her heart over the deliverance of Israel. I have dependence on man or man's inventions. As the never read any war song in Homer more powerful or mind becomes outward, looking to outward means, it grandly inspiring than this; and it was carried is darkened; a vail, as it were, is over the eyes, and downward for many generations in the sacred and in the imagination of his own heart he builds up grateful memories of the Hebrew nation.

towers which end in confusion and captivity. O! wild barbaric Israel of the early times ! canst While Friends kept to the plain and simple way,

For Friends' Intelligencer.

in vain."

they were a united people, living in that love which more, the college is designed to minister to other is the badge of true discipleship, and as this is still than the demands of the intellect, if its purpose is abode in, there will be a drawing together. The broader than to afford facilities for the gaining of language heard by the Apostle to the Gentiles was knowledge and mental discipline, then, plainly it

My grace is sufficient for thee," -- that grace of becomes the duty of the college to train the moral God which hath appeared unto all men, teaching character of its students. Whoever, we are assured that, denying ungodliness and the world's lusts, they either knows the history of American colleges, or should live soberly, righteously and godly in this considers the fundamental characteristics of human present world.

nature, and especially the demands which our modern Man is the only rational, intelligent part of the life makes upon educated men, will be more than creation of God that is accountable to Him, there willing to grant it is the duty of our colleges to disfore is it necessary to know where and on what cipline the moral as well as the intellectual character ground he stands

of their students. God is unchangeable, He is the fountain from Yet, despite these axiomatic considerations, it is whence flow all our sure mercies, and He is ever evident a tendency exists among our colleges, either ready to receive all who come to Him with true re- to minify this duty or to neglect its performance. pentance and sinceriiy of heart. All have sinned The enlargement of the courses of study over the and come short of the glory of God, and nothing improvement in the methods of instruction has . but true and unfeigned repentance can effect a recon- seemed to degrade those characteristics of a college ciliation. He is no respecter of persons, whoever education which are not strictly intellectual. Refeareth Him and worketh righteousness is accepted, ligious impulses and influences have probably less and this is only known as His love takes possession strength than they have possessed at many periods. of the heart, leading into the innocency of "the Endeavors to surround the students with a pure moral Lamb of God which taketh away the sins of the atmosphere have in certain colleges lost a former world."

NATHAN SMITH. vigor and constancy. But the increasing custom of Greensboro, Ind.

the selection of teachers and professors chiefly or

merely upon intellectual grounds is, perhaps, the MORAL TRAINING.

strongest indication that the colleges are abdicating

their throne of ethical instruction. It is not to be The need there is that moral training shall keep said that those whose habits are corrupt or corruptpace with the cultivation and development of the ing would be selected as teachers in any college ; but intellect is a subject that is claiming increased atten- it is to be said, and with emphasis, that teachers tion. Our own Educational Committee is giving impressing moral ideas and ideals upon young men,

are not chosen on the ground of their capacity for much thought and labor in this direction, and not considered in some degree this capacity may be, but without hope of a greater degree of interest on the the degree is confessedly slight; the tendency is to part of teachers and school committees than has of regard the professor as a mere teaching machine, late years been manifested.

who hears ten or more recitations a week, who sets. In colleges and other institutions of learning, out

certain examination papers, and

papers, and assesses certain

"marks" upon them. The professor should be a side our limits, the same earnest interest has been man who lives such an earnest and vigorous moral awakened. In a late number of the Independent. life that his scholars will be attracted toward it; he: The question is very ably considered by Charles F. should be one who entertains such ideals of character Thwing, from whose essay we copy the following as that his students will be urged toward their attainshowing the tone of sentiment on this important eminent professors do thus influence the members of

ment. The last would I be to deny that not a few branch of human culture.

their classes ; but the evidence is conclusive that the Whoever admits that the moral character of the drift is toward the elimination of the element of the individual is as important as the intellectual, would forniation of character from the list of the duties of probably also admit that it is the duty of the college the college. to train the moral, as well as the intellectual char. The remedy for this condition of affairs lies in no acter of its students. If any one was prepared to revolution of the organization or work of the colleges. deny that the college should endeavor to instruct and It is found simply in a change of the emphasis of the to improve the religious nature of its students, he duties of the colleges and their officers. The relawould certainly not deny that the college owes a duty tions of the intellectual purpose of the colleges, and to those moral elements of manhood which are even of the general aim of the development and discipline more fundamental than the religious instincts. If of all the capacities of their students, should be careany one should argue in favor of the removal of all fully adjusted. The college should be known those college laws which usually exist as aids in the as an institution not only for making scholars, but control of students, and should affirm that complete also and more for making men. English schools liberty was the best condition and means of pro- have turned out as good and as great scholars as moting this control, he would, as the very basis of his those who graduated at Rugby, under Dr. Arnold ; plea, grant the importance of the moral character. but no English school has, in fourteen years, turned İf man is more than a mere knowing animal; if he out so many lads of vigorous, noble character, who has feeling, appetites, desires, affections, instincts, have influenced the English nation for righteousness. passions, and the power of making choice; if, further- | The reason lies not so much in the wealth of the


members on

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intellectual graces of Thomas Arnold as in the great-| their testimonies, expects to attend our meetings, and ness of his moral nature; or, perhaps, the reason is is desirous of retaining a right of membership, found rather in the fitting union of intellectual gifts Monthly Meetings may be at liberty to retain such

a satisfactory report from the comwith moral greatness, and in the power of impressing mittee.'' the character thus formed upon the young men who

5th. On page 54, modify to read as follows: “If any delighted to recognize him as their master. But member of our Society accomplish his or her marbeneath all was the definite moral aim of Arnold, riage without the approbation of the Monthly Meetwhich he made the supreme factor in his manage- ing, and it shall appear by a report from the overseers ment of the school. Such an aim should be the con- has taken place, and that the party is desirous of

that no improper conduct or breach of our testimonies trolling purpose of every institution.

retaining a right of membership, Monthly Meetings In the making of this needed adjustment in collegiate may be at liberty to retain such member without readministration, it should be noted that character and quiring a written acknowledgment. But when it is the ability of forming character ought to be regarded found that any who have married out of our order do as a most important element in the selection of tutors leased from membership and furnished with a copy of

not expect to attend our meetings, they may be reand professors. It should not be subordinated, as the minute releasing them; or, when both parties are too frequently in practice, it is subordinated to intel- amenable to our Discipline, and, after care has been lectual considerations. Not, of course, be it said, extended, they are not prepared to make satisfactory that professors shall have an intellectual armor less explanation in writing, they are to be released from

membership.'1 complete or less brilliant or less modern, but that

6th. Modify the last paragraph of the article on they shall have a character more thoroughly fitted to marriages, beginning at the bottom of page 54, to read arous3 moral earnestness among their students. as follows: “If any person not a miember of any reliIn a few colleges it may be felt that the professor is gicus society proposes to marry one in membership overstepping his proper functions in either aiming at with us, he or she shall make application to the men or endeavoring to give more than an intellectual which the member belongs, when, if the overseers are

and women overseers of the Monthly Meeting to training. With such a feeling, we believe that no satisfied, the proposals of marriage may be laid before parent or guardian of youth sympathizes. The the meeting in the usual form, and the meeting shall father sends his son to college less, far less, to read make inquiry, and have the same care and oversight Greek and history, to study philosophy and mathe- of the marriages, and proceed in the manner pre

scribed by Discipline where both are members of the matics, than to fit that son to occupy with dignity same Monthly Meeting. But these proceedings shall and usefulness any position to which he may be not give a right of membership to such persons or to called. Every father knows that in the acting well their offspring.” his part in life the general character of his son is 7th. Change the first paragraph on page 108 to read more important than any one element of that char- as follows: . In all cases where a meeting is about to acter, even if that element be the intellectual. In- occasion and his or her situation will admit of it, be

release or disown a member, let such member, if the stead, therefore, of doubting as to their right to previously informed thereof, and when the judgment influence college students along the line of moral of the meeting is issued let a copy thereof be delivcharacter, we venture to believe that it were well for ered to the party released or testified against, with noprofessors to realize the duty which they thus owe not tification of his or her right of appeal.

8th. Strike out the words, “ Priest's Wages or Hireonly to their students, but to the entire collegiate con- ling Ministry," on page 91, and substitute therefor stituency, and so to the nation.

the words, “ Free Ministry of the Gospel.” Cambridge, Mass.

9th. Change the last paragraph on page 91 to read as follows: "And it is advised that when any of our

meinbers contribute to the support of a ministry at PROPOSED ALTERATIONS IN THE DISCIPLINE. variance with this testimony, and vindicate their

conduct, they be tenderly labored with to convince The following alterations in our Book of Disci. them of their error, such conduct being opposed to pline have been approved by the Monthly Meeting our testimony for the free ministry of the Gospel, of Friends of Philadelphia, and are now under con

which is without money and without price." sideration by a committee appointed by Philadel words, sleeping and of other," so that the last clause

10th. Modify the First Query by striking out the phia Quarterly Meeting:

thereof will read : “And are Friends clear of all un1st. On page 43 of the Book of Discipline, in the becoming

behavior therein ?" paragraph marked “Thirdly," substitute the word 11th. Change the Sixth Query so that the first two

discourage” for “discountenance," in the first line paragraphs thereof shall read as follows : “Do you of the paragraph.

maintain a faithful testimony for the free ministry of

the Gospel ; against oaths, etc." 2d. On page 48, in paragraph marked "Fourthly,'' modify to read as follows: To maintain our testimony for the free ministry of the Gospel, by avoiding the assistance of priest or minister in accomplishing self to things inward, and thou shalt perceive the

LEARN to despise outward things, and to give thythis solemn engagement. 3d. On page 53, strike out the whole of the third kivgdom of God to come in thee.

“For the king: paragraph.

dom of God is peace and joy in the Holy Spirit, 4th. Modify the paragraph commencing at the bot- which is not given to the unboly. Christ will come tom of page 53 so that it will read as follows: "When unto thee, and show thee his own consolation, if thou any of our members accomplish their marriage with prepare for him a worthy dwelling place within thee. those not in membership with us, by the assistance of all his glory and beauty is from within, and there the violation of our testimonies. If it shall appear, and hath with sweet discourse, pleasant solace, much a priest or minister, they should be treated with for he takes delight. The inward man he often visiteth, from the report of a committee appointed for the pose, that the party sympathizes with Friends in peace, familiarity exceeding wonderful. O faithful

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