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MEYWEW& C0. ARTISTS and PHOTOGRAPHERS,
DNLY FIRST-CLASS WORK,
S. IV. COIP. FIRAN IX LIN A N D G I: E to N STS., I’11 ILA DEI, PHIA.
9 O S Arch Street.
D IX ON
F R/ EMDS' MARRIA GE GERT! FIGATES correctly and handsomely engrossed.
If $5.00 is sent to us, either by Regi.:ered Letter, Postal Note, Bank sileck, or Post Office Order, we will send either one of the following orders:—Order No. 1 : We will send 6 pounds of good Black, Green, Jipan or mixed Tea, and 18 pounds of good mild or strong roasted Coffee. Order No. 2: We will send 30 pounds of good mild or strong Roasted C offee. Order No. 3 : We will send 5 pounds of real good Black, Green, Japan, or Mixed Tea, and 15 pounds of sine mild or strong Roasted Coffee. Order No. 4: We will send 25 pounds of real good, mild or strong Roasted Coffee. Persons may club together, and get one of these Orders, and we will divide it to suit the Club, sending it all to one address. To those who wish to purchase in larger quantities, we will sell at much less reduction. The Tea and C offee will be securely packed, and sent by Express or Freight, whichever is ordered Samples of any of the above orders will be sent Free by Mail to examine. In ordering, please sly whether Order N 1, 2, 3, or 4, is desired. Call on or address W.M. 1 NGRAM & SON, Tea Dealers, 31 North Second Street, Philadelphia, Pa.
IS.A.A.C G-- *T*Too SOIN
NO. 848 ARCH STREET
30 Minutes from Broad St. Station, Philad’a.
Under the care of Friends, but all others admitted. Full college course for both sexes; Classical, Scientific and Literary. Also a Preparatory School. Healthful location, large grounds, new and extensive buildings and apparatus.
For catalogue and full particulars, address,
EDWARD H. MAGILL, A.M., PRESIDENT,
IER.C.E.E; ER"Is IEEIC as CP,
M A N UFA CTUR FR U F THE
THE BEST, most duralle and comfort-
Isair Mattresses, Cottoo and IRON AND BRASS BEDSTEADS
WAREROOMS, 225 S. SECOND ST., Philad'a.
WEST & HEST R, PA.
The Fall and Winter Term of this 1 nstitution will commence on the 14th of 9 in O. (Sept.) inext.
The sello, , llas a healthy and beautiful location, with extensive grounds, and has been uniformly successful since its establish inel it, twell ty-five years ago.
The advantages of an Academical and Collegiate education are fully secured, and Diplomas are granted.
Terns. $180 per school year.
For Illustrated Circular, and Catalogue giving full particulars, address the Principal,
- 1&ICII.AIRD DARLINGTON, PH.D., o o West Chester, Penn'a.
IMC. Y. IECCPU"G-EC, 1020 Arch Street, Phila., Pa
The INTELLIGENCER AND Journ AL and CHILDREN's FRIEND one year for $3.40.
A Teacher of French and German ; must speak them fluently
and in addition, be able to teach the common English branches. Testirnonials required. Friend preferred. Address, . THOS. W. SIDWELL. PRINCIPAL,
Friends' Select School, Washington, D. C.
VV armte Ci
A Kindergartner at Friends' Select School, S. E. Cor. Fourth and Green Streets. Address, ANNE M. G. RISCOM, 622 Marshall Street, or SAMUEL H. GARTLEY, 606 N. Seventh Street, Committee.
THE DEAL ER IN
Agricultural Implements, Seeds and Fertilizers.
The Cheapest and Largest Variety. At 2043 and 2045 Market Street, Philadelphia. Pa.
Reapers, Binders, and Mowers of the leading kinds Horse Rakes, Hay Tedders, Grain * Drils Threshing Machines, Agricultural Portà able Engines, Wind Engines of various kinds, to Force and Suction Pumps, Grain FeedMills of
à all sizes and kinds, Hay Forks and Elevators, Wagons and Carts, Chilled Steel and & o' xxo~ ‘’’’ ‘’’:s:... Cast Plows of all varieties and sizes, Belle City, Baldwin and Telegraph Feed Cutters of all sizes, also various other kinds, Barrows of every device conceivable. , Kemp's Manure and Philpot's Fertilizer Spreaders the Union Grain rill, and other kinds, Meat Cutters from the smallest to Junobo size; Farm Boilers and Hog Scalders, Corn Shellers, from “Pet” size to the capacity of 5000 bushels per day. I am in communication with all the Agricultural Implement builders in the United States,
&"Send for circulars of any kind of goods wanted.
The Friends' journa/.
INTELLIGENCER. Vol. xlii.—No. 22.
} PHILADELPHIA, SEVENTH MONTH 11, 1885.
JOURNAL. Vol. xiii.-NO. 650.
This is a subjeet which is now claiming much attention from teachers and committees having charge of schools. The importance of having a proper ethical code, and of making a judicious application of it to individual cases, in all institutions intended for the training of the young, is now very generally conceded. Those who have had least experience in the management of schools, will perhaps find least difficulty in preparing the code; as the simple principle of right must underlie all intention, and strict propriety must be the uniform rule of action. This seems to embrace all that is needed : a conscientious aralysis of the motive, and the application of the “Golden Rule” to the performance of the deed. But it will be discovered by observation, and confirmed by experience, that in the school-room, as in the great world, there is a practical as well as a theoretical view to be taken of the situation. There is a real condition of affairs, as well as a sentimental aspect. To harmonize—not to unify—these two elements should be the prevailing consideration in the preparation of any system of School ethics. It is to be regretted that there are to be found in the ranks of teachers some who are disposed to ignore all theory with regard to an ethical standard for the government of their schools. They insist on a strict compliance with the law as given forth from the platform, but they are unable or unwilling to give any satisfactory reason why such a law should exist, and the only reason assigned for its enforce. ment is the ipse dia.it of him who both proclaims and executes it. Such teachers often have the credit of being successful; they may have the ability to command, and the will to enforce obedience; and owing to these inherent qualities in the teacher, good order
may prevail in the school-room, and the pupils may yield to a semi-physical force, without having their judgment convinced that the command is just or that any principle is involved in the matter. In the opinion of the writer, theory is as essential in pedagogy as it is in the medical or the legal professions; and the attempt to govern a school without it is mere empiricism. It is presumable that this view is very generally entertained by those having the management of Friends' schools, and hence it is needless to dwell upon the necessity of having some theory as the basis of our moral code. This theory should be reduced to language—terse, simple and easily retained by the memory. It should be stated to the pupils so clearly that all could comprehend it, and then they should be informed that the rules and regulations of the school have been framed with reference to the greatest good of the greatest number as well as justice to each individual; and that when carefully examined they will be found to rest upon the foundation of abstract right, as laid down in our theory. In framing a system of rules for the moral government of a school, two points should be kept steadily in view. Is the rule in entire accord with our theory 7 and, Can it be practically applied to the
daily routine of school affairs? If it meet both of .
these requirements, well; but if it fail in either, rule it out. The practical part may have to be tried before its feasibility can be determined ; but in the theoretical there can be no wavering, for it is based upon an, immutable principle. Unless the teacher be possessed of sound views and be guided by en
lightened judgment and by some experience (either
his own or that of another), he will be likely to make many mistakes in the preparation of his ideal ethical code; and often with mature judgment and large experience, it is found difficult to make rules to meet all cases, that will at once conform strictly to
our theory and be feasible in their practical application.
For the fundamental tenets of a code, I would recommend a faithful observance of the laws of truthfulness, kindness and justice ; believing that a character reared upon these three will be likely to exhibit in the superstructure of conduct the qualities which are essential to the welfare and harmony of a community — candor, courtesy and consideration.
| A pupil who conforms his conduct to a course of ac
tion having such a basis will not be likely to go far astray from the path of rectitude; and if it should happen that he violate some technical rule, it might be well to consider which is more at fault, the pupil or the rule.
If the teacher, in his intercourse with the pupils, exhibit these three qualities, he may observe the force of the old proverb that “example is more powerful than precept.” A teacher who practises deception, or resorts to artifices for any purpose whatever, is likely to forfeit the confidence of his pupils, and ultimately to lose their respect. A person who is destitute of refinement or a stranger to the ordinary usages of good breeding, had better select some other vocation than that of instructing the young; and he who fails in consideration for the comfort of his pupils or who cannot enter into sympathy with them, may expect to find them violating the proprieties and manifesting a general disregard for the fitness of things.
In order to insure candor there must not be too much fear. A proper respect for authority is a mental condition very different from that of abject fear; the former being entirely compatible with self-respect and candor, while the latter is one of the most fruitful sources of deception. Tyranny in the family, the school-room or the nation is almost certain to beget either servility or rebellion, according to the temper of the subjects over whom it is exercised; while the wholesome restraint which is necessary to preserve good order in every community, is regarded as a trust voluntarily placed by the governed in the hands of the governing power. Such at least is the republican idea of a government and a ruler.
Courtesy must be manifested by acts rather than explained by words; and where it is properly attended to at home, the teacher has little diffiqulty in cultivating it in the school, provided he be himself an exemplar of refinement and good-breeding.
Consideration is not so easily maintained; in fact, it seems almost antagonistic to the free impulse of youth to stop long enough to consider consequences or proprieties before proceeding to act. The pupil who would scorn to be found derelict in candor, and to whom courtesy has become as a second nature, often fails to regard the time, the place, the circumstances, and even the property by which he is surrounded. He does “not mean to be naughty,” but just at the critical moment his “love of fun,” or some other sudden impulse, overcomes his consideration, and hence the misdemeanor is committed. In dealing with offenses of this kind, the teacher should be able to discriminate between the motive and the result; for while the latter may cause great annoyance and even serious inconvenience, the former may be free from any taint of malice or evil intention. In eases of this kind, it is very desirable to have some time elapse between the commission of the of. fense and the administration of the discipline. This affords an opportunity for the youthful impulse to subside, and for the teacher to muster all his forces for self-control. Then the matter may be approached rather in a business-like way, and the offender be asked how he purposes making good the damage? Whether property or feelings have been marred by his thoughtlessness, he must endeavor to place matters on the same footing as they occupied before the offense occurred.
The distinction between misconduct and disorder should be well defined; the latter being merely some
thing out of place, while the former is that which is wrong at all times and in all places. It must be constantly borne in mind that the formation of character is a matter of far greater moment than; the orderly appearance of a school-room. The more responsibility is placed upon a pupil, the more frequent are the opportunities to discover latent traits of character, and to develop the good that is in him; while the more he is compelled to yield to the force of mere authority, the less likely will he be to respect himself or the governing power. The logical relation of penalty to offense is a matter that has received much attention in our normal Schools, and it is gratifying to note that it is probably as nearly reduced to a science as is anything in the entire range of school government. The right .# appeal, which is allowed a criminal in a court of justice, should certainly not be denied a pupil in a well-ordered school. But I would encourage an appeal to the teacher rather than from him. When a direct command has been given in the class-room, “'Tis not to make reply, 'Tis not to reason why, 'Tis but to do—” and if the pupil have the knowledge and assurance that before the close of the day he can have an opportunity to approach his teacher and make such explanation as he feels quite sure will be satisfactory, he will cheerfully obey the command or even accept a reprimand—knowing that it is the result of a misunderstanding, and that in the course of a few hours he will be windicated. These private interviews between teacher and pupil have a tendency to bring the two very near together; and, when conducted in a proper spirit, they afford an excellent opportunity for a word of advice or caution on some subject other than that for which the interview was called. The spirit and the letter of Friends’ Discipline
would afford an excellent study for the young teacher
who desires to deal with offenders in the right spirit,
“in order for their help.” The whole subject is one of great breadth, and to
treat it exhaustively would be to write a book. In
fact many books have been written on the kindred
topic of School government, which to be wise and judicious must be based on school ethics. In summing up these desultory suggestions, I would say: First, have a theory on which is based the moral code of the school. Second, let the observance of candor, courtesy and consideration be the general law of conduct. Third, endeavor to practise what you preach. Fourth, make a broad distinction between disorder and misconduct; theating the former as a venial transgression and the latter as a grave offense. Fifth, have the pupils govern themselves, by placing responsibility upon them. Sixth, observe carefully the logical relation between penalty and offense. Seventh, let your pupils find you easy of access, after school; so that no one need go home feeling that he has been unjustly treated, and has had no opportunity to state his grievance. Eighth, after the settlement of a difficulty by a private interview, try to turn the opportunity to good account for the inculcation of some moral lesson. This being done, drop some word or perform some act of kind