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Charleston News and Courier, from the Exposition, mentions a map drawn by one of our pupils. The department of printing grows each year; it employs boys and girls; two of the latter are getting to be proof-readers, as well as good type-setters. Only the best work that the limited outfit can make is sent out: pamphlets of six or eight pages, the proceedings of church organizations, bill-heads, and now, each morning, there is printed the bill of fare for the Highland Park Hotel. While they are thus trained in character and habits, lessons go on regularly, and our thirty boarders are fed in the old school-house, many of them young men who have no chance of going to school until twenty-one, when they start out to earn their own living and save for an education. They are willing to be put in classes with children of eight and ten years, as it is a graded school, and no skimming over the rudiments. Some have come from poor country schools, “ can read in Third Reader,” and not know a figure. One young man saved for two years, and began at twenty-three, could not make a nine or an eight, but the energy and perseverance were in keeping with the good in the character, which is worthy of all we can do for him. The first time he wrote his name Without a copy was to sign a paper, drawn up by the boys, not to use any bad language, and in this respect we have very little trouble, the first offence being firmly dealt with, and the use of tobacco is entirely prohibited. MARTHA SCHOFIELD. Aiken, S. C., Second mo. 13th, 1885.

EXTRACTS FROM LETTERS.

I HAVE great interest in every movement that has for its object the growth and improvement of the Society of Friends, and therefore watch with anxiety the proceedings of the Association lately formed in Philadelphia. I have entire unity with the First-day School movement, and think it needs in many places, the fostering care of the Society; yet I think I see a need that the young beinfused with a spirit of greater reverence for Divine things, and also greater respect for those who for so long have “borne the burden and heat of the day.” Longfellow truly says:

“A generation

That, wanting reverence, wanteth the best food The soul can feed on,”

and this needs to be cultivated. We should not forget that many of these Friends have long given of their strength and their substance that our meetings be maintained, and good order and neatness observed, while others have taken their ease regarding these things. In these-later days, also, there has been neglect in the training of children in the way of simplicity and self-denial, and then we wonder why they do not love a Society whose testimonies are all on the basis of a self-denying Christian. I am no advocate for a severe life, believing that all the gifts of God are good and are ours to enjoy in moderation, but children must be trained in their homes and in their religious Society to understand this, and that to enjoy to the full the rich blessings

of God, they must deny themselves so they can aid others. Then will they love and cling to both home and Meeting, for in both have they been taught true wisdom.

A PRIVATE letter from England says: In numbers 40 and 42 of Friends' Intelligencer are two papers, “Retrospect and Prospect” and the “Ordeal by Battle,” read at Race Street Meeting-house. It may interest the editors to know that last First-day evening I read the papers at a Reading Meeting in the old Meeting-house at Norton, near Stockton, and that they proved highly interesting to the audience. The first paper seemed to me to be peculiarly appropriate to the place, as Friends probably nowhere suffered more persecution from civil and priestl power than they did at Norton from 1650 to 1690. Within a few yards of where I read there are the graves of martyrs who died in Durham Gaol and whose bodies were brought home for interment; and of others who died from ill treatment and hardship. There was a poem in Friends' Intelligencer a few weeks since, “Forgotten Workers,” which might have been written purposely for Norton graveyard. The evening when it arrived I was to give a short lecture on the Persecutions of the Early Friends at Norton, and took it with me to read at the conclusion. 12th month, 21st, 1884.

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WINTER is upon us in the country, and we must depend very much upon our home circle for entertainment, and the papers, which are always welcome; and as we read we feel almost neighbors to the whole world, so rapidly is the news transmitted by telegraph to all parts of the earth. We have been very much interested in the articles or essays read at the conference held in Race street Meeting-house, and think if they could be read in every Friends’ meeting they would do much to enlighten Friends upon the various subjects of which the Society has always been the exponent. I appreciate and feel grateful to those who do such noble work for the advancement of our religious principles, One of our oldest and most faithful attendants upon meetings has gone with his family to Baltimore to spend the winter, but expects to return with early spring. Another valued member has been removed by death, leaving near relatives and many friends to feel a sad vacancy at home and in our little meeting. The children keep well, and almost every morning may be seen wending their way to school, with basket and books passing through the same discipline their parents experienced many years ago. As eyes and thoughts follow them the desire arises that they grow up to be good and useful citizens, improving whatever talent may be given them, doing nothing they may live to regret, and appreciating their many blessings. ON the death of a valued minister in the Society of Friends, his youngest son, a small boy, seeing his mother very much affected, said to her, “Oh, mother, don’t do so; don’t thee know that our Heavenly Father gave father a body, and in that body He gave him a spirit to do His work, and when that work was done, he took away that spirit?”

FRIENDS INTELLIGENCER.

PHILADELPHIA, SECOND MO. 21, 1885.

A FRIEND in Illinois expresses a desire that We shall invite communications from the younger members, expressive of their needs and aspirations at this season of awakening.

We always welcome brief, thoughtful and deliberate utterances from any of our members, old and young, but must reserve our right of judging in regard to suitability.

PRACTICAL WORKERS.–The need of more practical workers is felt in every department of charitable and philanthropic labor, and many of our religious services fail of accomplishing all that is expected from them, for want of the earnest, practical co-operof those appointed to the work. There is in a large proportion of workers a lack of fixedness of purpose, of getting down to the actual drudgery, so to speak, that is necessary to the successful prosecution of any enterprise, whether for gain or for the general good. In all the channels of human endeavor the ability to perform steady, systematic work is a real necessity on the part of those who undertake to lead the effort, no less than those who follow. Especially is this the case in the organization of charitable associations. Many are drawn into the new, because it is new, and work with enthusiasm while the newness lasts; but when the solid earnestness of the undertaking is reached, and the real labor must be entered upon, there is a falling away that goes on until only those who saw in the beginning what was involved, who remembered “to count the cost,” are left to bear the burden and the responsibility. The motive of the unpractical worker is doubtless good and the intention is to continue and take a full share in its prosecution, but the want of stamina—of that old-fashioned grace of holding on to the end— stands in the way and blocks the progress. This is mainly due to defective home-training. There must be instilled into the very grain and fibre of child-life a sense of duty and obligation, in regard to the little things that go to form character and habit and which make up the sum of what in the fully developed human being constitutes the highest ideal of greatIleSS, Little duties that involve some responsibility, possibly some self-denial, yet are entirely within the range of the child’s faculties, call out the thought

and exercise the judgment, and lead to the formation of habits useful and educating, and give a stimulus to greater and more important aspirations towards true and noble living. The child who is thus trained gets much more real enjoyment out of life than the one that is allowed to squander his earlier days in frivolous and irregular pastimes.

We do need practical workers, and we can only have them through a training to useful industry around the domestic hearth, and continued until the habit becomes a second nature.

A late number of The Friend has a wise and timely article on this subject, from which we clip the following paragraphs:

“With the habit of working should come the training of the judgment. ‘To judge wisely and well take both labor and time.” “When men attain a true Conception of the knowledge, thought, and wisdom, that are required to form wise opinions or draw correct conclusions upon even ordinary subjects, they will be in less haste to proclaim their ignorance by forming rash judgments; and when they realize the importance of bringing energy, patience, and Self-abnegation to the task, they will become better fitted to bear the responsibilities that life requires at their hands.’ Too many jump at their conclusions first, then seek facts to support them ; they should be trained to observe facts first, and let the conclusions work themselves out slowly, and then the chances are that they can be depended on more surely.

“In the pursuit of business, of whatever kind, whether large or small, the habit of working and the habit of thinking are essential; there must be industry, there must be watching for the weak points that need strengthening, the points that waste more than they increase, the avenues that must be developed, and without these habits there should be little business assumed.

“In all the fields of labor presented by social life, in civil, benevolent, and to a certain extent in religious work,+there is a loud call for practical workers, and for this there must be practical training, and it should begin in the homes.”

INDIAN SCHOOLS.—This subject is again brought to our notice, through a communication from a friend now in that service, who writes: “There has been some discussion among Friends relative to starting an Indian school somewhere in the West, but no action taken as yet. Wealthy Friends in Philadelphia have given liberally to the support of Carlisle, and the credit of the work goes to the Superintendent. The query arises, why cannot our members band together and contribute sufficient funds to buy and equip a farm with comfortable accommodations for fifty or sixty pupils.”

And this is a question that many another has asked again and again. Friends have slways professed to feel a deep interest in the welfare of the Indians, and now that an opportunity they have never until very recently had, of working for their permanent good, is offered, there is an apparent unwillingness to enter upon the work in a Society capacity.

The Government pays about $150 a year for the maintenance of each child, and this with the products of the farm, would very nearly if not entirely cover the current expenses of a school of the size named by our correspondent, and “reclaim from vagabondism many little boys and girls now running wild over the prairies.”

We are deeply interested in this work, and believe Friends ought not to feel themselves excused from it. Our brethren of other denominations are lending a helping hand, and the way is as fully open to us as to them.

Our simple faith is in harmony with the highest and best thought of God, among the Indians, and the habits of thrift and honest industry which make us the practical people that we are seem eminently the

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YEATMAN.—On Second mo. 7th, 1885 at Kennett Square, Chester co., Pa., Joseph R., son of John C. and Margaret L. Yeatman, in the 21st year of his age.

From our Special Correspondent. THE NEW ORLEANS EXPOSITION.—NO. 5.

The educational exhibit at the World’s Fair is so divided up that a good general idea of its scope can scarcely be obtained. Some States prefer to keep the educational display down stairs within their own borders, especially if their showing in other directions is poor; and some make no attempt to have one at all. Such as are willing to combine with other States have a space allotted to them in the gallery of the Government building, a space that was gradually filling up and presented a very busy appearance when I last saw it. The portion that would be most interesting to the readers of Friends' Intelligencer and that was farthest advanced was the booth of the American Missionary Association, presided over by Professor Hitchcock, President of Straight University, New Orleans. Both Indian and colored schools, to the number of twenty or more, were represented in this small space and every bit of room bade fair to be utilized. Among the institutions contributing are Fisk and Straight Universities, Hampton School, Atlanta University, Stow's Kindergarten of Atlanta, Gregory Institute, and Wilson Normal School of North Carolina, and many others of less fame, but doing equally good work. They send examination papers, maps drawn from memory, specimens of penmanship, letters, compositions, plain and fancy needle-work, etc. There were also drawings and paintings in oil and water-colors by self-taught pupils, and designs copied. The penmanship was especially good, and in this the colored students excelled the Indians. One school showed chemicals from the students’ laboratory, tinware made by the scholars, also agricultural implements. The Indian Schools sent specimens of handiwork such as models of furniture, brick, iron work in the shape of nails, chains, hooks and staples, shoes, needle-work, and the like. Among the letters from colored pupils was one from a boy in Honduras, about fifteen or sixteen years of age. It was beautifully written and wellexpressed for the most part. He had been a pupil at Straight University for two years and wrote that he was anxious to spend another year there. At the time of his entering the school he had not known a word of English and so was obliged to begin at the beginning; and in two years' time he had gone over the nine years intervening between the primary and collegiate grades. He was of mixed Spanish and African blood, a type that produces better intellects in the main than either the French and African, or pure negro, according to Professor Hitchcock. The French negroes have very quick perceptions, but are neither profound nor persistent; the full-blooded negro is slower, but keeps a dogged hold on his work that stands him in good stead; while the Spanish negro is quick, thoughtful, and persistent. The Valedictorian of the class of ’83, at Straight University, is now Superintendent of the Public Schools at Wicksburg, and they are in better condi

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tion than ever before, owing to his good management. We saw several photographs of graduating classes from this and other institutions and with scarcely an exception found the faces intelligent and selfrespectful. Straight University is one of the notable buildings of the city, standing in large grounds on Canal street, surrounded by trees. One of the buildings is called Stone Hall, the money for its erection being a legacy from Valeria G. Stone, the benevolent Boston woman, through whose munificence Stone Hall at Wellesley College was built and endowed. It has accommodations for one hundred girls and for the teachers. Whitin Hall is the boys dormitory, where one hundred young men , are housed. Besides boardingstudents, the University takes day pupils from the aprimary grades up. The first site of the University was on Esplanade street, where a building was erected in 1870, which was destroyed by fire the same year. The present better location was chosen and a new school built in 1878. A library principally of reference books and encyclopedias has been started and a free readingroom opened in each of the dormitories, but there is great and increasing need of books and periodicals. The University is not a charitable institution, but the expenses are as low as they can well be made,board, washing and tuition costing twelve dollars a month in advance. A specially commendable feature of the University is the Normal course, by which teachers are instructed by precept and practice in the art of teaching. A law department is in successful operation, a course of two years and a satisfactory examination entitling the candidate to the degree of B. L. The theological department has consisted mainly of young men already holding licenses as local preachers, or Evangelists, and only a small number wishing to enter the regular ministry, the University is not yet warranted in giving a full theological course. I inquired if the Southern churches could be depended on for help, either financially or otherwise, and was told that none had ever been offered by them toward the great work being done in their midst for the freedmen, and that, while the laborers were tolerated, they were not encouraged. The greatest obstacle in the education and Christianizing of the colored people will be overcome when they have enough teachers and religious workers of their own race to aid in their uplifting; and each year is bringing nearer this most desirable consummation. Mew Orleans, First mo. 31st, 1885. MI. W. P.

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in reach is more valuable for every-day use. A great many people are sighing for the measureless opportunities of eternity, who don’t know the value of an hour. The boon of a new chance in the other world is craved most by those who have thrown away their chances here. The unreasonableness of human expectations is only equalled by the neglect of human opportunities. Lowell says of Chaucer that he was “ the first great poet who treated To-day as if it were as good as Yesterday.” It is an even more admirable thing to treat To-day as if it were better than To-morrow.—Eacchange.

ORIGIN AND HISTORY OF THE WEST CHESTER FIRSTDAY SCHOOL.

Read on its Twenty-first Anniversary.

As the subject of the First-day School is now coming up for general consideration with a view to establishing its proper status in our religious Society all information that is reliable and helpful is in place. We therefore present a history of one school, which, from a simple beginning and by the faithful labors of those in charge, has grown to be a large and valuable adjunct of the meeting ; and it is just this point upon which Friends need to be informed, for those who are not now in sympathy with this movement would certainly give it their cordial support if it could be clearly shown that the object sought by the active workers has been attained, which is, addition to the strength and numbers of the Society of Friends.—EDs. w

One day, during the pleasant weather of the autumn of 1862 there were seated on the door step of a house on Walnut street, in our quiet borough, three small children with a young girl as their care-taker. It was during the War of the Rebellion, when thoughtful care and religious oversight were rightfully exercised by the ladies of our town for the welfare of soldiers, their families and particularly their children; and if in their zeal, it happened that they were sometimes mistaken as to those needing attention, it did not occasion surprise. So these children were accosted by a lady, and queried with, as to whether they attended any Sabbath School. On receiving a negative reply she invited them to a school connected with a neighboring church, requesting them to be in attendance the next day adding “it is wicked not to go to Sunday School.” After she retired the children ran to their mother, who was busily engaged in household duties within doors, and with countenances alive with interest, related what had occurred, and asked eagerly “can’t we go? She says it is wicked not to.”

This incident, trifling as it may seem, awakened the thought that subsequently ripened into action and resulted in the establishment of our present First-day School. That mother thus aroused to consider the question of religious instruction for her children, began to query whether in the religious society in which she was reared, and to which she was greatly attached, there was not a need that the

children should be gathered and taught, not only Scripture truths, but the principles and testimonies so precious to Friends. Fully recognizing that parents are the natural guardians of their children and might be capable of instructing them in religion and morality, and trained in the belief that there should be perfect freedom of thought on religious matters, it was very seriously considered ere a willingness was felt to enter upon such a new field of labor among Friends. But the thought once awakened into life would not die, and hearing that some years previously a few faithful Friends here had started a school of the kind, which for some reason was suffered to drop, counsel was taken of these ; learning also, that a few such schools already existed, one at Reading, Pa., one at Green Street, Phila., one in Salem, N. J., and one at Germantown near Philadelphia, inquiries were made as to their methods. The last one mentioned was visited and such encouragement was received from the Friend in charge of it (that beloved minister William Dorsey) that the parents of these children felt it right to proceed, and on the afternoon of the 3d of the Fifth month, 1863 in their own home were assembled nine children, and the work began. Simple were the lessons, with two central thoughts, the awakening of the religious and devotional natures of the children, and the highest cultivation of their moral qualities. As to the last, there never was admitted a doubt as to the course to be pursued, but the means to be used for the accomplishment of the first has always been a serious subject, and, one of continuous growth, for it has long since been acknowledged that all of truth has never yet been revealed, and that God still leads onward and upward His dependent children. The school soon outgrew the private house, as in a diary bearing date Fifth month, 31st, 1863 is found this record:—“Our little school removed to-day to Friends' school-house on the hill. We were assisted by Ann S. Paschall, had 19 children and feel quite encouraged.” Thus in a month other children came and from that time to this the increase has been steady, with a succession of earnest workers, making Some mistakes, but we trust profiting by them. It must not be supposed that there were no difficulties to overcome. These were many and serious. Valued spiritually-minded Friends looked with distrust upon our work, fearing lest we should teach for sound doctrine “the commandments of men.” We had very few books adapted to our needs. Jane Johnson the pioneer worker in Green Street School, who in her advancing years received the blessing of many a teacher, issued her “Scriptural Watchwords,” also other little books and cards, and later, her “Talks for Children.” Thus she became indeed a “helper in a needful time.” We now numbered over 60 pupils. We wanted a paper, and knowing the intellectual ability of our townswoman Esther K. Smedley, we solicited her to start a monthly. Other schools were springing up, and there seeined an opening. She consented and went bravely to work and in Fifth month, 1866, the “Children’s Friend’ was the result. It, however, did not fully meet our want. Not being designed wholly for the use of First-day Schools, her taste

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leading her to make it a magazine and give it a wider scope, the expense of it was such as to preclude a general distribution to all the children. Always good and pure it has been more or less used for our library purposes, but we were obliged to wait still longer for a paper which we could freely give to all. Still needing text books, in 1867 Ann S. Paschall published “Scripture Lessons for Little Ones,” dedicating it to “Primrose Class,” the name of one of our own classes of little ones, and this little book is still doing good work here and elsewhere It will be seen that we thus early adopted our present method of naming in place of numbering our classes. Ann S. Paschall though soon obliged to give up active work with us, continued the use of her pen for the benefit of the children, and gave us of her good counsel freely till one year ago when she was called to a higher life, and we mourn her loss as one who had been to us a very valuable helper. During 1870 Baltimore Friends published for the use of their school “The Young Friends' Manual” by Benjamin Hallowell, which soon found favor as a text-book, and is now considered a standard. Other books followed, such as Ann A. Townsend's Biblical History, and Lydia C. Stabler's Questions on the Old and New Testament, all useful and serving a good purpose. Now there came a desire for associated action and a call was published for a conference of all First-day School workers signed by prominent Friends of Philadelphia, Baltimore and other places, and on 7th day, Ninth month, 14th, 1867, at 23 o'clock, the first First-day School meeting was held here in our school-room, largely attended by Friends, some from New York, Baltimore, Philadelphia, etc. An organization was that day effected which has spread widely in our Society and by affording opportunity for exchange of views and extending valuable information, much good is accomplished. Two years later the Philadelphia First-day School Association authorized the publication of a monthly paper for the use of First-day Schools, and in Fifth month, 1869, the first number of Scattered Seeds was issued, which has since been regularly published, having now a subscription list of 5,000 copies. So intimately has our own school been associated with all these movements, that a true record of it seemed incomplete without their mention. In 1870 the school, then under the superintendency of John H. Reid, whose early death was felt to be a great loss, not being sufficiently accommodated in the school-room, and our commodious meeting-house having been erected in 1868, it was removed to the present Library room, where for many years it continued to be held. Still continuing its growth with a large Bible class then under the care of Darlington Hoopes, we needed more room, and having gained the confidence of Friends, we moved forward to the occupancy of the Meeting-house, leaving the Library room for the use of the young people. There they yet assemble, and though discouragements have occurred by the removal of beloved teachers, others have come forward and the work goes on. Encouragement is given by the frequent presence and participation of our aged and revered Friends, Sarah Hoopes and Thomas Jenkenson, and Lydia H. Price, too, often

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